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Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 in macrophages is essential for protective immunity during Gram-negative pneumonia.
ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most common Gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia. Gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that is essential for the trafficking and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and integrins. To determine the role of gp96 in myeloid cells in host defence during Klebsiella pneumonia, mice homozygous for the conditional Hsp90b1 allele encoding gp96 were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under control of the LysM promoter to generate LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice. LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice showed absence of gp96 protein in macrophages and partial depletion in monocytes and granulocytes. This was accompanied by almost complete absence of TLR2 and TLR4 on macrophages. Likewise, integrin subunits CD11b and CD18 were not detectable on macrophages, while being only slightly reduced on monocytes and granulocytes. Gp96-deficient macrophages did not release pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Klebsiella and displayed reduced phagocytic capacity independent of CD18. LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice were highly vulnerable to lower airway infection induced by K. pneumoniae, as reflected by enhanced bacterial growth and a higher mortality rate. The early inflammatory response in Hsp90b1-flox mice was characterized by strongly impaired recruitment of granulocytes into the lungs, accompanied by attenuated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while the inflammatory response during late-stage pneumonia was not dependent on the presence of gp96. Blocking CD18 did not reproduce the impaired host defence of LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice during Klebsiella pneumonia. These data indicate that macrophage gp96 is essential for protective immunity during Gram-negative pneumonia by regulating TLR expression.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Secondary bacterial pneumonia is common following influenza infection. However, it remains unclear about the underlying molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We established a mouse model of post-influenza S aureus pneumonia using conditional Shp2 knockout mice (LysMCre/+ :Shp2flox/flox ). The survival, bacterial clearance, pulmonary histology, phenotype of macrophages, and expression of type I interferons and chemokines were assessed between SHP2 deletion and control mice (Shp2flox/flox ). We infused additional KC and MIP-2 to examine the reconstitution of antibacterial immune response in LysMCre/+ :Shp2flox/flox mice. The effect of SHP2 on signal molecules including MAPKs (JNK, p38 and Erk1/2), NF-?B p65 and IRF3 was further detected. RESULTS:LysMCre/+ :Shp2flox/flox mice displayed impaired antibacterial immunity and high mortality compared with control mice in post-influenza S aureus pneumonia. The attenuated antibacterial ability was associated with the induction of type I interferon and suppression of chemo-attractants KC and MIP-2, which reduced the infiltration of neutrophils into the lung upon secondary bacterial invasion. In additional, Shp2 knockout mice displayed enhanced polarization to alternatively activated macrophages (M2 phenotype). Further in vitro analyses consistently demonstrated that SHP2-deficient macrophages were skewed towards an M2 phenotype and had a decreased antibacterial capacity. Moreover, SHP2 modulated the inflammatory response to secondary bacterial infection via interfering with NF-?B and IRF3 signalling in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings reveal that the SHP2 expression enhances the host immune response and prompts bacterial clearance in post-influenza S aureus pneumonia.
Project description:Macrophage-specific expression of Arginase-1 is commonly believed to promote inflammation, fibrosis, and wound healing by enhancing L-proline, polyamine, and Th2 cytokine production. Here, however, we show that macrophage-specific Arg1 functions as an inhibitor of inflammation and fibrosis following infection with the Th2-inducing pathogen Schistosoma mansoni. Although susceptibility to infection was not affected by the conditional deletion of Arg1 in macrophages, Arg1(-/flox);LysMcre mice died at an accelerated rate. The mortality was not due to acute Th1/NOS2-mediated hepatotoxicity or endotoxemia. Instead, granulomatous inflammation, liver fibrosis, and portal hypertension increased in infected Arg1(-/flox);LysMcre mice. Similar findings were obtained with Arg1(flox/flox);Tie2cre mice, which delete Arg1 in all macrophage populations. Production of Th2 cytokines increased in the infected Arg1(-/flox);LysMcre mice, and unlike alternatively activated wild-type macrophages, Arg1(-/flox);LysMcre macrophages failed to inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro, providing an underlying mechanism for the exacerbated Th2 pathology. The suppressive activity of Arg1-expressing macrophages was independent of IL-10 and TGF-beta1. However, when exogenous L-arginine was provided, T cell proliferation was restored, suggesting that Arg1-expressing macrophages deplete arginine, which is required to sustain CD4(+) T cell responses. These data identify Arg1 as the essential suppressive mediator of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) and demonstrate that Arg1-expressing macrophages function as suppressors rather than inducers of Th2-dependent inflammation and fibrosis.
Project description:Macrophage apoptosis plays important roles in atherosclerosis. Bcl-2 is a key cell survival molecule, but its role in macrophage apoptosis in atherosclerosis is not known. The goal herein was to determine the effect of macrophage-targeted deletion of Bcl-2 on macrophage apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions of Apoe(-/-) mice.Bcl2(flox)-LysMCre mice were created as a model of macrophage Bcl-2 deficiency. Macrophages from these mice were more susceptible to apoptosis than those from control Bcl2(WT)-LysMCre mice. The mice were bred onto the Apoe(-/-) background and fed a Western-type diet for 4 or 10 weeks. Apoptotic cells were equally very rare in the lesions of both groups of the 4-week-diet mice, and there was no difference in lesion area. However, Bcl2(flox)-LysMCre;Apoe(-/-) plaques from the 10-week-diet protocol had a 40% to 45% increase in apoptotic cells and, in female mice, a approximately 25% increase in plaque necrosis (P<0.05) compared with Bcl2(WT)-LysMCre lesions.Macrophage Bcl-2 plays a protective role against macrophage apoptosis specifically in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of Apoe(-/-) mice.
Project description:STAT3 regulates the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) during inflammation, infection and cancer. Hyperactivation of STAT3 in gp130(757F/F) mice is associated with protection from experimental colitis. This study determined mechanisms for this protection and compared this to mice with myeloid-specific STAT3-deficiency (LysMcre/STAT3(flox); gp130(757F/F) LysMcre/STAT3(flox)). Acute and chronic colitis was induced and colons were removed for histological, mRNA and protein analysis. Cell populations from spleen, mesenteric lymph node and colon were analyzed for different myeloid cell populations using flow cytometry. Functions of MDSCs and LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were further characterized by in vitro and in vivo assays. Here we show that the resistance to experimental colitis in gp130(757F/F) mice is via myeloid-cell specific STAT3 activation, MDSC expansion and increased production of suppressive and protective cytokines.
Project description:Gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone for multiple protein substrates. Its lack in intestinal macrophages of Crohn's disease (CD) patients is correlated with loss of tolerance against the host gut flora. Gp96 has been stablished to be an essential chaperone for Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We studied the impact of gp96-knockdown on TLR-function in macrophages. TLR2 and TLR4 expression was only decreased but not abolished when gp96 was knocked-down in cell lines, whereas in a monocyte/macrophage specific knock-out mouse model (LysMCre) TLR4 was abolished, while TLR2 was still present. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-?B activation was still observed in the absence of gp96, and gp96-deficient macrophages were able to up-regulate surface TLR4 upon LPS treatment, suggesting that there is another chaperone involved in the folding of TLR4 upon stress responses. Moreover, LPS-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines were still expressed, although to a lesser extent in the absence of gp96, which reinforces the fact that gp96 is involved in regulating signaling cascades downstream of TLR4 are impaired upon loss of gp96. In addition, we have also found a reduced phosphorylation of ERK and p38 kinases and an impaired response upon CSF1R activation in gp96 deficient macrophages. Our findings indicate that the loss of gp96 not only impairs TLR4 signaling, but is also associated with a diminished phosphorylation of ERK and mitogen-activated stress kinases resulting in an impaired signalling through several receptors, including CSF1R.
Project description:Up to 10% of cytosolic proteins are dependent on the mammalian heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) for folding. However, the interactors of its endoplasmic reticulum (ER) paralogue (gp96, Grp94 and HSP90b1) has not been systematically identified. By combining genetic and biochemical approaches, we have comprehensively mapped the interactome of gp96 in macrophages and B cells. A total of 511 proteins were reduced in gp96 knockdown cells, compared to levels observed in wild type cells. By immunoprecipitation, we found that 201 proteins associated with gp96. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that these proteins are involved in metabolism, transport, translation, protein folding, development, localization, response to stress and cellular component biogenesis. While known gp96 clients such as integrins, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Wnt co-receptor LRP6, were confirmed, cell surface HSP receptor CD91, TLR4 pathway protein CD180, WDR1, GANAB and CAPZB were identified as potentially novel substrates of gp96. Taken together, our study establishes gp96 as a critical chaperone to integrate innate immunity, Wnt signaling and organ development.
Project description:gp96, or grp94, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized heat shock protein 90 paralog that acts as a protein chaperone and plays an important role for example in ER homeostasis, ER stress, Wnt and integrin signaling, and calcium homeostasis, which are vital processes in oncogenesis. However, the cancer-intrinsic function of gp96 remains controversial.We studied the roles of gp96 in liver biology in mice via an Albumin promoter-driven Cre recombinase-mediated disruption of gp96 gene, hsp90b1. The impact of gp96 status on hepatic carcinogenesis in response to diethyl-nitrosoamine (DENA) was probed. The roles of gp96 on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) were also examined pharmacologically with a targeted gp96 inhibitor.We demonstrated that gp96 maintains liver development and hepatocyte function in vivo, and its loss genetically promotes adaptive accumulation of long chain ceramides, accompanied by steatotic regeneration of residual gp96+ hepatocytes. The need for compensatory expansion of gp96+ cells in the gp96- background predisposes mice to develop carcinogen-induced hepatic hyperplasia and cancer from gp96+ but not gp96- hepatocytes. We also found that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of gp96 in human HCCs perturbed multiple growth signals, and attenuated proliferation and expansion.gp96 is a pro-oncogenic chaperone and an attractive therapeutic target for HCC.
Project description:Cytosolic HSP90 requires multiple cochaperones in folding client proteins. However, the function of gp96 (HSP90b1, grp94), an HSP90 paralogue in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is believed to be independent of cochaperones. Here, we demonstrate that gp96 chaperones multiple Toll-like receptors (TLRs), but not TLR3, in a manner that is dependent on another ER luminal protein, CNPY3. gp96 directly interacts with CNPY3, and the complex dissociates in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Genetic disruption of gp96-CNPY3 interaction completely abolishes their TLR chaperone function. Moreover, we demonstrate that TLR9 forms a multimolecular complex with gp96 and CNPY3, and the binding of TLR9 to either molecule requires the presence of the other. We suggest that CNPY3 interacts with the ATP-sensitive conformation of gp96 to promote substrate loading. Our study has thus established CNPY3 as a TLR-specific cochaperone for gp96.
Project description:Cholestatic liver injury induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is provoked by injury to intrahepatic bile ducts and the progression of hepatic necrosis requires the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF) and extrahepatic cells including neutrophils. Recent studies have shown that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil activation. We tested the hypothesis that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil activation in ANIT-treated mice. TF activity in liver homogenates increased significantly in TF(flox/flox) mice treated with ANIT, but not in TF(flox/flox)/LysMCre mice (TF(?Myeloid) mice), which have reduced TF expression in monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. Myeloid cell-specific TF deficiency did not alter expression of the chemokines KC or MIP-2 but reduced hepatic neutrophil accumulation in ANIT-treated mice at 48 h as indicated by tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Myeloid cell TF deficiency significantly reduced CD11b expression by blood neutrophils in ANIT-treated mice, and this was associated with reduced plasma MPO protein levels, an index of neutrophil degranulation. However, myeloid cell-specific TF deficiency had no effect on ANIT-induced coagulation cascade activation. The increase in serum ALT and ALP activities in ANIT-treated mice was reduced by myeloid cell TF deficiency (p<0.05), but the myeloid cell TF deficiency did not reduce hepatic necrosis at 48 h, as determined by histopathology and morphometry. The results suggest that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil CD11b expression during cholestasis by a coagulation-independent pathway. However, the resultant reduction in neutrophil accumulation/activation is insufficient to substantially reduce ANIT hepatotoxicity, suggesting that myeloid cell TF is only one of many factors modulating hepatic necrosis during cholestasis.
Project description:The innate immune components that modulate allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses are poorly defined. Using human skin from contact dermatitis patients and a mouse model of CHS, we find that hapten allergens disrupt the Arginase1 (Arg1) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) dynamic in monocytes/macrophages (mono/M?), which renders those cells ineffectual in suppressing skin inflammation. Mice lacking Arg1 in M? develop increased CHS characterized by elevated ear thickening, mono/M?-dominated dermal inflammation, and increased iNOS and IL-6 expression compared with control mice. Treatment of Arg1flox/flox; LysMCre+/- mice with a selective NOS inhibitor or knockout of Nos2, encoding iNOS, significantly ameliorates CHS. Our findings suggest a critical role for Arg1 in mono/M? in suppressing CHS through dampening Nos2 expression. These results support that increasing Arg1 may be a potential therapeutic avenue in treating allergic contact dermatitis.