Cortisol response to an induction of negative affect among adolescents with and without loss of control eating.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Adults with binge eating disorder may have an exaggerated or blunted cortisol response to stress. Yet, limited data exist among youth who report loss of control (LOC) eating, a developmental precursor to binge eating disorder. METHODS:We studied cortisol reactivity among 178 healthy adolescents with and without LOC eating. Following a buffet lunch meal adolescents were randomly assigned to watch a neutral or sad film clip. After, they were offered snacks from a multi-item array to assess eating in the absence of hunger. Salivary cortisol was collected at -80, 0, 30 and 50 min relative to film administration, and state mood ratings were reported before and after the film. RESULTS:Adolescents with LOC had greater increases in negative affect during the experimental paradigm in both conditions (ps > 0.05). Depressive symptoms, but not LOC, related to a greater cortisol response in the sad film condition (ps > 0.05). Depressive symptoms and state LOC were related to different aspects of eating behaviour, independent of film condition or cortisol response (ps > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A film clip that induced depressed state affect increased salivary cortisol only in adolescents with more elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents with and without LOC were differentiated by greater increases in state depressed affect during laboratory test meals but had no difference in cortisol reactivity. Future studies are required to determine if adolescents with LOC manifest alterations in stress reactivity to alternative stress-inducing situations.
Project description:Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17?y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p?<?.001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p?=?.26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p?<?.001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Loss-of-control (LOC) eating is common in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and is associated with poorer weight outcomes. Its long-term course in adolescent bariatric surgery patients and associations with weight outcomes are unclear. METHODS:Adolescents (n = 234; age range = 13-19 years) undergoing bariatric surgery across 5 US sites were assessed for postsurgery follow-up at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, and 4 years. Descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models were used to describe the prevalence of LOC eating episodes involving objectively large amounts of food and continuous eating, respectively. Generalized linear mixed models investigated the association of any LOC eating with short- and long-term BMI changes. RESULTS:At baseline, objectively large LOC eating was reported by 15.4% of adolescents, and continuous LOC eating by 27.8% of adolescents. Both forms of LOC eating were significantly lower at all postsurgical time points relative to presurgery (range = 0.5%-14.5%; Ps < .05). However, both behaviors gradually increased from 6-month to 4-year follow-up (Ps < .05). Presurgical LOC eating was not related to percent BMI change over follow-up (P = .79). However, LOC eating at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up was associated with lower percent BMI change from baseline at the next consecutive assessment (Ps < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Although presurgical LOC eating was not related to relative weight loss after surgery, postoperative LOC eating may adversely affect long-term weight outcomes. Rates of LOC eating decreased from presurgery to 6-months postsurgery but increased thereafter. Therefore, this behavior may warrant additional empirical and clinical attention.
Project description:Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth is associated with excess body weight and adiposity. After adjusting for fat mass, youth with LOC eating have higher blood pressure and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to youth without LOC eating. Increased inflammation may account for this relationship, although few data have examined this hypothesis. Therefore, this study explored the association between LOC eating and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation.We investigated hsCRP concentrations in relation to LOC eating in a convenience sample of 194 youth (age 14.3?±?2.1 years; 63.9% female; BMI-z 1.64?±?1.06). The presence of LOC eating in the past month was assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Serum hsCRP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiposity was measured by air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We compared hsCRP in those with and without LOC eating in analyses accounting for sex, adiposity, height, depressive symptoms, and eating psychopathology.Youth with LOC eating had significantly greater hsCRP than youth without LOC eating (p?=?0.02), after accounting for all covariates. The number of LOC eating episodes in the past month was positively associated with hsCRP (p?=?0.01). The relationship between LOC eating and hsCRP was not mediated by depressive symptoms or eating psychopathology (ps?>?0.05).Youth with disinhibited eating may manifest increased chronic inflammation. Those with LOC eating may be an important subgroup at risk for adverse health outcomes associated with both chronic inflammation and obesity. Future research should examine whether hsCRP concentrations mediate the relationship between LOC eating and its association with cardiometabolic risk.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Loss of control (LOC) eating and a weight control attempt (WCA) history during adolescence are important behavioral risk factors for eating disorders and obesity. The current study investigated the significance of the presence of a WCA history among adolescent girls with LOC eating. METHOD:Participants were 114 obesity-prevention-seeking 12-17-year-old (M = 14.5, SD = 1.7 years) girls who were between the 75th and 97th body mass index (BMI) percentile (BMI-z: M = 1.5, SD = 0.3) and reported LOC eating episodes during the previous month (M = 4.0, SD = 4.9 episodes; Median = 2.0). Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination to assess LOC eating, eating pathology, and WCA history, and self-report questionnaires for symptoms of general psychopathology. Eating behavior was observed during a laboratory meal designed to capture a LOC eating episode. RESULTS:67.5% reported a WCA history. As compared to girls without a WCA history (no-WCA), those with a WCA history (WCA) had greater disordered eating attitudes and depressive symptoms (ps < .04). There were no significant group differences in BMI-z or LOC eating frequency (ps > .10). During the laboratory meal, WCA consumed less energy from snack-type foods than no-WCA (M = 245.0, SD = 156.1 vs. M = 341.6, SD = 192.3 kcal; p = .01). CONCLUSIONS:Reported WCAs are highly prevalent and are associated with greater psychopathology symptoms among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Prospective data are needed to determine whether these overlapping risk behaviors confer differential vulnerability for developing eating disorders and obesity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The subjective experience of loss of control (LOC) during eating, independent of overeating, may be a salient marker of disordered eating and risk for overweight in youth. However, few studies have directly tested this notion in an adequately powered sample. METHOD:Three-hundred-sixty-seven youth (M ± SD age = 12.7 ± 2.8 y) were categorized as reporting objective binge eating (OBE; 12.5%), subjective binge eating (SBE; 11.4%), objective overeating without LOC (OO; 18.5%), or no episodes (NE; 57.5%). Disordered eating attitudes, general psychopathology, and adiposity were assessed. RESULTS:Children with OBE and SBE generally did not differ in their disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, depressive and anxiety symptoms, or adiposity. However, both OBE and SBE youth had significantly greater disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and adiposity compared to those with OO or NE (ps < .05). DISCUSSION:For non-treatment-seeking youth, LOC during eating episodes, rather than episode size, appears to be the most salient marker of eating and weight problems.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We investigated the manifestations of pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating at different stages of pubertal development. METHOD:Participants were a nonclinical sample of 468 youth (8-17 years). Physical examination determined pubertal stage. LOC eating and disordered eating attitudes were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. In a randomized crossover design, a subset (n?=?244) ate ad libitum from two test meals designed to capture normal and LOC eating. RESULTS:There were no differences in the prevalence rates or frequency of reported LOC eating episodes across pubertal stages (ps???0.50). There were, however, puberty by LOC eating interactions in disordered eating attitudes and palatable food consumption (ps???.05), even after adjusting for age and body composition. LOC eating was associated with elevated global disordered eating attitudes, weight concern, and shape concern in post-pubertal youth (ps ? .001), but not pre-pubertal youth (ps???.49). In late-puberty, youth with LOC eating consumed less energy from protein (p?<?.001) and more from carbohydrate (p?=?.003) and snack-type foods (p?=?.02) than those without LOC eating, whereas endorsement of LOC eating in pre- or early-to-mid-puberty was not associated with differences in eating behavior (ps???0.20). CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that puberty may be a critical risk period, when LOC eating behaviors in boys and girls may become accompanied by greater weight and shape concerns and more obesogenic food consumption patterns. Interventions for LOC eating during pre-puberty should be evaluated to determine if they are particularly beneficial for the prevention of exacerbated eating disorder psychopathology and adverse weight outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Alexithymia, or the difficulty identifying or describing one's own emotions, may be a risk factor for dysregulated eating and excess weight gain. However, the relationships between alexithymia and eating behaviors in community samples of non-clinical youth have not been well-characterized. We hypothesized that alexithymia would be positively associated with disordered and disinhibited eating in a community-based sample of boys and girls without an eating disorder. METHOD:Two hundred children (8-17 years old) across the weight spectrum completed an interview to assess loss of control (LOC) eating and eating-related psychopathology, a laboratory test meal designed to induce disinhibited eating, and questionnaires to assess alexithymia, eating in the absence of hunger, and emotional eating. Linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between alexithymia and eating variables, with age, sex, race, and fat mass as covariates. Test meal analyses also adjusted for lean mass. Given the overlap between alexithymia and depression, all models were repeated with depressive symptoms as an additional covariate. RESULTS:Alexithymia was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting LOC eating (p?<?.05). Moreover, alexithymia was positively associated with disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, and eating in the absence of hunger (ps?<?.05). Greater alexithymia was associated with more carbohydrate and less fat intake at the test meal (ps?<?.05). After adjusting for depressive symptoms, alexithymia remained associated with eating in the absence of hunger and carbohydrate and fat intake (ps?<?.05). DISCUSSION:In healthy children, alexithymia is associated with some facets of eating behavior and food intake. If supported prospectively, these preliminary findings suggest alexithymia may be a modifiable risk factor to reduce disordered eating and excess weight gain in youth.
Project description:Objective:Pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating is associated with, and predictive of, gains in adiposity and adverse metabolic outcomes. In addition, some preliminary data suggest that anxiety may exacerbate the relationship of LOC eating with weight and metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related measures. We therefore examined whether anxiety moderated the relationship between LOC eating and body mass index z (BMIz), adiposity, and MetS-related measures in youth. Methods:A convenience sample of non-treatment-seeking boys and girls of varying weight strata were interviewed to determine the presence of LOC eating and completed a questionnaire assessing trait anxiety. BMIz and MetS-related measures (blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin) were measured after an overnight fast. Adiposity was assessed by air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, height, fat mass, and depressive symptoms, as appropriate. Results:In all, 379 youths (13.0 ± 2.8 years; 53% female; BMIz?=?0.8 ± 1.1; 22% with LOC eating) were studied. Anxiety was not significantly related to BMIz, adiposity, or MetS-related measures. However, anxiety and LOC eating interacted such that only among youth with LOC eating, anxiety was positively associated with fasting insulin (p = .02) and insulin resistance (p = .01). The interaction of anxiety and LOC eating was not significantly related to BMIz, adiposity, or any other MetS-related measure (ps = ns). Conclusions:Only among non-treatment-seeking youth with LOC eating, anxiety may be associated with increased insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings and explore mechanisms for these relationships.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that interpersonal problems lead to negative affect, which in turn contributes to the onset and/or persistence of LOC eating. Despite preliminary support, there are no data examining the construct validity of the interpersonal model of LOC eating using temporally sensitive reports of social stress, distinct negative affective states, and laboratory energy intake. METHOD:117 healthy adolescent girls (BMI: 75th-97th %ile) were recruited for a prevention trial targeting excess weight gain in adolescent girls who reported LOC eating. Prior to the intervention, participants completed questionnaires of recent social stress and consumed lunch from a multi-item laboratory test meal. Immediately before the test meal, participants completed a questionnaire of five negative affective states (anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, anxiety). Bootstrapping mediation models were conducted to evaluate pre-meal negative affect states as explanatory mediators of the association between recent social stress and palatable (desserts and snack-type) food intake. All analyses adjusted for age, race, pubertal stage, height, fat mass percentage, and lean mass. RESULTS:Pre-meal state anxiety was a significant mediator for recent social stress and palatable food intake (ps<.05). By contrast, pre-meal state anger, confusion, depression, and fatigue did not mediate the relationship between social stress and palatable food intake (ps>.05). DISCUSSION:Pre-meal anxiety appears to be the salient mood state for the interpersonal model among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Interventions that focus on improving both social functioning and anxiety may prove most effective at preventing and/or ameliorating disordered eating and obesity in these adolescents.