Combination therapy with polymyxin B and netropsin against clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
ABSTRACT: Polymyxins are last-resort antibiotics for treating infections of Gram-negative bacteria. The recent emergence of polymyxin-resistant bacteria, however, urgently demands clinical optimisation of polymyxin use to minimise further evolution of resistance. In this study we developed a novel combination therapy using minimal concentrations of polymyxin B. After large-scale screening of Streptomyces secondary metabolites, we identified a reliable polymixin synergist and confirmed as netropsin using high-pressure liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry followed by in vitro assays using various Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. To evaluate the effectiveness of combining polymixin B and netropsin in vivo, we performed survival analysis on greater wax moth Galleria mellonella infected with colistin-resistant clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates as well as Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Salmonella typhimuruim, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The survival of infected G. mellonella was significantly higher when treated with polymyxin B and netropsin in combination than when treated with polymyxin B or netropsin alone. We propose a netropsin combination therapy that minimises the use of polymyxin B when treating infections with multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) plays an important role in sepsis incurred as a result of infection with Gram-negative bacteria that elaborate endotoxin. The HMGA1 (high-mobility group A1) architectural transcription factor facilitates NOS2 induction by binding a specific AT-rich Oct (octamer) sequence in the core NOS2 promoter via AT-hook motifs. The small-molecule MGB (minor-groove binder) netropsin selectively targets AT-rich DNA sequences and can interfere with transcription factor binding. We therefore hypothesized that netropsin would improve survival from murine endotoxaemia by attenuating NOS2 induction through interference with HMGA1 DNA binding to the core NOS2 promoter. Netropsin improved survival from endotoxaemia in wild-type mice, yet not in NOS2-deficient mice, supporting an important role for NOS2 in the beneficial effects of MGB administration. Netropsin significantly attenuated NOS2 promoter activity in macrophage transient transfection studies and the AT-rich HMGA1 DNA-binding site was critical for this effect. EMSAs (electrophoretic mobility-shift assays) demonstrated that netropsin interferes with HMGA1 NOS2 promoter binding and NMR spectroscopy was undertaken to characterize this disruption. Chemical shift perturbation analysis identified that netropsin effectively competes both HMGA1 DNA-binding AT-hooks from the AT-rich NOS2 promoter sequence. Furthermore, NOESY data identified direct molecular interactions between netropsin and A/T base pairs within the NOS2 promoter HMGA1-binding site. Finally, we determined a structure of the netropsin/NOS2 promoter Oct site complex from molecular modelling and dynamics calculations. These findings represent important steps toward refined structure-based ligand design of novel compounds for therapeutic benefit that can selectively target key regulatory regions within genes that are important for the development of critical illness.
Project description:The antimicrobial lipopeptides polymyxin B and E (colistin) are being used as a 'last-line' therapy for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Polymyxin resistance implies a total lack of antibiotics for the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by the Gram-negative 'superbugs'. This report details the structure-activity relationships (SAR) based design, in toto synthesis, and preclinical evaluation of a series of novel polymyxin lipopeptides with better antibacterial activity against polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:Hospital-acquired infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a significant challenge to patient safety. Numerous clinical isolates resistant to almost all commercially available antibiotics have emerged. Thus, novel antimicrobial agents, specifically those for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, are urgently needed. In the current study, we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and preliminary biological characterization of a new cationic lipopeptide antibiotic, battacin or octapeptin B5, produced from a Paenibacillus tianmuensis soil isolate. Battacin kills bacteria in vitro and has potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant clinical isolates. Hospital strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the pathogens most sensitive to battacin, with MICs of 2 to 4 ?g/ml. The ability of battacin to disrupt the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is comparable to that of polymyxin B, the last-line therapy for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, the capacity of battacin to permeate bacterial plasma membranes is less extensive than that of polymyxin B. The bactericidal kinetics of battacin correlate with the depolarization of the cell membrane, suggesting that battacin kills bacteria by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane. Other studies indicate that battacin is less acutely toxic than polymyxin B and has potent in vivo biological activity against E. coli. Based on the findings of the current study, battacin may be considered a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:Octapeptins are cyclic lipopeptides with a broader spectrum of activity against fungi and polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of octapeptin A3 with asymmetric outer membrane models of Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa using neutron reflectometry, together with fluorimetric and calorimetry methods. For the first time, our neutron reflectometry results reveal that the interaction of octapeptin A3 with the Gram-negative outer membrane involves an initial transient polar interaction with the phospholipid and lipid A headgroups, followed by the penetration of the entire octapeptin molecule into the fatty acyl core of the outer membrane. This mechanism contrasts with that of polymyxin B, which specifically targets lipid A, whereas octapeptins appear to target both lipid A and phospholipids. Furthermore, the mechanism of octapeptins does not appear to be highly dependent on an initial complementary electrostatic interaction with lipid A, which accounts for their ability to bind to lipid A of polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria that is modified with cationic moieties that act to electrostatically repel the cationic polymyxin molecule. The presented findings shed new light on the mechanism whereby octapeptins penetrate the outer membrane of polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens and highlight their potential as candidates for development as new antibiotics against problematic multi-drug-resistant pathogens.
Project description:Resistance to polymyxins when treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial infections limit therapeutic options. Here, we report the synthesis of a nickel (Ni) doped Zinc oxide (NZO) combined with black phosphorus (BP) (NZB) nanocomposite and its synergistic action with polymyxin B (PolB) against polymyxin-resistant <i>Escherichia coli</i> harboring mobilized colistin resistance (<i>mcr-1</i>) gene. NZB and PolB combination therapy expressed a specific and strong synergy against Mcr-1 expressing <i>E. coli</i> cells. The underlying mechanism of the synergy is the charge neutralization of the <i>E. coli</i> cell surface by NZB, resulting in a more feasible incorporation of PolB to <i>E. coli</i>. The synergistic concentration of NZB with PolB was proved biocompatible. Thus, the NZB is the first biocompatible nano-adjuvant to polymyxins against polymyxin-resistant <i>E. coli</i> cells, recognizing the physical status of bacteria instead of known adjuvants targeting cellular gene products. Therefore, NZB has the potential to revive polymyxins as leading last-resort antibiotics to combat polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.
Project description:The first synthesis of octapeptin C4 was achieved using a combination of solid phase synthesis and off-resin cyclisation. Octapeptin C4 displayed antibiotic activity against multi-drug resistant, NDM-1 and polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, with moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The linear analogue of octapeptin C4 was also prepared, which showed reduced activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial infections are a serious threat to human health due to the lack of effective treatments. In this study, we selected 50 Gram-negative bacterial strains, including 26 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 24 strains of Escherichia coli, to explore whether resveratrol and polymyxin B have a synergistic killing effect. RESULTS:MIC values against polymyxin B were???4??g/mL for 44 of the strains and were 2??g/mL for the other 6 strains. MICs against polymyxin B in the isolates tested were significantly reduced by the addition of resveratrol. The degree of decline depended on the bacteria, ranging from 1/2 MIC to 1/512 MIC, and the higher the concentration of resveratrol, the greater the decrease. Checkerboard analysis indicated a synergistic effect between resveratrol and polymyxin B; the optimal drug concentration for different bacteria was different, that of resveratrol ranging from 32??g/mL to 128??g/mL. Subsequent time-kill experiments showed that a combination of polymyxin B and resveratrol was more effective in killing bacteria. CONCLUSIONS:Our in vitro studies have shown that resveratrol can increase the sensitivity of MDR bacterial strains to polymyxin B, suggesting a potential new approach to the treatment of MDR infections.
Project description:The dlt operon encodes proteins that alanylate teichoic acids, the major components of cell walls of gram-positive bacteria. This generates a net positive charge on bacterial cell walls, repulsing positively charged molecules and conferring resistance to animal and human cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. AMPs damage the bacterial membrane and are the most effective components of the humoral immune response against bacteria. We investigated the role of the dlt operon in insect virulence by inactivating this operon in Bacillus cereus, which is both an opportunistic human pathogen and an insect pathogen. The Delta dlt(Bc) mutant displayed several morphological alterations but grew at a rate similar to that for the wild-type strain. This mutant was less resistant to protamine and several bacterial cationic AMPs, such as nisin, polymyxin B, and colistin, in vitro. It was also less resistant to molecules from the insect humoral immune system, lysozyme, and cationic AMP cecropin B from Spodoptera frugiperda. Delta dlt(Bc) was as pathogenic as the wild-type strain in oral infections of Galleria mellonella but much less virulent when injected into the hemocoels of G. mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis. We detected the dlt operon in three gram-negative genera: Erwinia (Erwinia carotovora), Bordetella (Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica), and Photorhabdus (the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens TT01, the dlt operon of which did not restore cationic AMP resistance in Delta dlt(Bc)). We suggest that the dlt operon protects B. cereus against insect humoral immune mediators, including hemolymph cationic AMPs, and may be critical for the establishment of lethal septicemia in insects and in nosocomial infections in humans.
Project description:The polymyxin lipodecapeptides colistin and polymyxin B have become last resort therapies for infections caused by highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, their utility is compromised by significant nephrotoxicity and polymyxin-resistant bacterial strains. We have conducted a systematic activity-toxicity investigation by varying eight of the nine polymyxin amino acid free side chains, preparing over 30 analogues using a novel solid-phase synthetic route. Compounds were tested against a panel of Gram-negative bacteria and counter-screened for in vitro cell toxicity. Promising compounds underwent additional testing against primary kidney cells isolated from human kidneys to better predict their nephrotoxic potential. Many of the new compounds possessed equal or better antimicrobial potency compared to polymyxin B, and some were less toxic than polymyxin B and colistin against mammalian HepG2 cells and human primary kidney cells. These initial structure-activity and structure-toxicity studies set the stage for further improvements to the polymyxin class of antibiotics.
Project description:Polymyxins are polycationic antimicrobial peptides that are currently the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. The reintroduction of polymyxins for antimicrobial therapy has been followed by an increase in reports of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Some bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii, develop resistance to polymyxins in a process referred to as acquired resistance, whereas other bacteria, such as Proteus spp., Serratia spp., and Burkholderia spp., are naturally resistant to these drugs. Reports of polymyxin resistance in clinical isolates have recently increased, including acquired and intrinsically resistant pathogens. This increase is considered a serious issue, prompting concern due to the low number of currently available effective antibiotics. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the different strategies bacteria employ to resist the activities of polymyxins. Gram-negative bacteria employ several strategies to protect themselves from polymyxin antibiotics (polymyxin B and colistin), including a variety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modifications, such as modifications of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine and 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, in addition to the use of efflux pumps, the formation of capsules and overexpression of the outer membrane protein OprH, which are all effectively regulated at the molecular level. The increased understanding of these mechanisms is extremely vital and timely to facilitate studies of antimicrobial peptides and find new potential drugs targeting clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria.