Global Identification and Differential Distribution Analysis of Glycans in Subcellular Fractions of Bladder Cells.
ABSTRACT: Compartmentalization of cellular components and their associated biological processes is crucial for cellular function. Protein glycosylation provides a basis for diversity of protein functions. Diversity of glycan composition in animal cells remains poorly understood. We used differential centrifugation techniques to isolate four subcellular protein fractions from homogenate of metastatic bladder YTS1 cells, low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer KK47 cells and normal bladder epithelia HCV29 cells: microsomal (Mic), mitochondrial (Mito), nuclear (Nuc), and cytosolic (Cyto). An integrated strategy combining lectin microarray and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was then applied to evaluate protein glycosylation of the four fractions. Lectin microarray analysis revealed significant differences among the four fractions in terms of glycan binding to the lectins LCA, AAL, MPL, WGA and PWM in YTS1 cell, STL, Jacalin, VVA, LCA and WGA in KK47, and ConA, GNA, VVA and ACA in HCV29 cell. Among a total of 40, 32 and 15 N-glycans in four fractions of three cells detected by MS analysis, high-mannose and fucosylated structures were predominant, 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 5 N-glycans in KK47 and 7 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in all four fractions; and 10 N-glycans in YTS1, 16 N-glycans in KK47, and 3 N-glycans in HCV29 were present in only one fraction. Glycans in the latter category are considered potential markers for the corresponding organelles. The integrated strategy described here allows detailed examination of glycomes subcellular fraction with high resolution and sensitivity, and will be useful for elucidation of the functional roles of glycans and corresponding glycosylated proteins in distinct organelles.
Project description:The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL), mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA), galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL), complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L), and fucose (UEA-I). Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA) belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of the present study was to determine whether stage of invasiveness of bladder cancer cell lines contributes to alterations in glycan pattern of their cadherins. RESULTS:Human non-malignant epithelial cell of ureter HCV29, v-raf transfected HCV29 line (BC3726) and transitional cell cancers of urine bladder Hu456 and T24 were grown in cell culture. Equal amounts of protein from each cell extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and were blotted on an Immobilon P membrane. Cadherins were immunodetected using anti-pan cadherin mAb and lectin blotting assays were performed, in parallel. N-oligosaccharides were analysed by specific reaction with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA), Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA), Aleuria aurantia agglutinin (AAA), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA-L) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The cadherin from HCV29 cell line possessed bi- and/or 2,4-branched triantennary complex type glycans, some of which were alpha2,6-sialylated. The cadherin from BC3726 cell line exhibited exclusively high mannose type glycans. Cadherins from Hu456 and T24 cell lines expressed high mannose type glycans as well as beta1,6-branched oligosaccharides with poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures and alpha2,3-linked sialic acid residues. Additionally, the presence of fucose and alpha2,6-sialic acid residues on the cadherin from T24 cell line was detected. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that N-glycosylation pattern of cadherin from bladder cancer cell line undergoes modification during carcinogenesis.
Project description:The carbohydrate-binding properties of wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) have been studied by using glycopeptides isolated from the cell surfaces of a cultured murine myeloid cell line (416B). The glycopeptides were passed through affinity columns of lentil lectin (LCA), concanavalin A (Con A) and WGA arranged in series so that material reaching the WGA column had failed to bind to LCA or Con A. WGA-binding glycopeptides were step-eluted with 0.01 M, 0.1 M and 0.5 M-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), to yield weak (WGA-W), intermediate (WGA-I) and strong (WGA-S) affinity fractions. WGA-W and WGA-I contained 'N'- and 'O'-linked oligosaccharides bound to separate polypeptides. WGA-S consisted almost entirely of N-linked components. Our analytical work was concentrated mainly on the N-linked fractions. In these carbohydrates WGA affinity was directly proportional to molecular size but inversely related to N-acetylneuraminic acid content. The binding of the weak-affinity fraction was dependent on N-acetylneuraminic acid, but the intermediate- and strong-binding species interacted with the lectin by N-acetylneuraminic acid-independent mechanisms. N-linked glycopeptides in each WGA-binding class were almost totally degraded to monosaccharides by the concerted action of the exoglycosidases neuraminidase, beta-galactosidase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Treatment with endo-beta-galactosidase caused partial depolymerization, yielding some disaccharides but also a heterogeneous population of partially degraded components. These findings suggest that WGA binds with high affinity to internal GlcNAc residues in large oligosaccharides containing repeat sequences of Gal beta(1----4)GlcNAc beta(1----3) (i.e. polylactosamine-type glycans). N-Acetylneuraminic acid is involved only in low-affinity interactions with WGA. WGA therefore displays an intricate pattern of saccharide specificities that can be profitably utilized for structural analysis of complex carbohydrates.
Project description:The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia), KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC), and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer) have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC) progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO) term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer.
Project description:Background: Chronic infection with HBV (CHB) or HCV (CHC) is the most common chronic viral hepatitis that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans, their infections have distinct pathogenic processes, however, little is known about the difference of glycoprotein glycopatterns in serum between hepatitis B virus (HBV)- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Methods: A method combining the lectin microarrays, letin-mediated affinity capture glycoproteins, and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was employed to analyze serum protein glycopatterns and identify the glycan structures from patients with CHB (n = 54) or CHC(n = 47), and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35). Lectin blotting was further utilized to validate and assess the expression levels of their serum glycopatterns. Finally, the differences of the glycoprotein glycopatterns were systematically compared between CHB and CHC patients. Conclusions: As a result, there were 11 lectins (e.g., HHL, GSL-II, and EEL) exhibited significantly increased expression levels, and three lectins (LCA, VVA, and ACA) exhibited significantly decreased expression levels of serum protein glycopatterns only in the CHB patients. However, DBA exhibited significantly decreased expression levels, and two lectins (WGA and SNA) exhibited significantly increased expression levels of serum glycopatterns only in the CHC patients. Furthermore, LEL and MAL-I showed a coincidentally increasing trend in both CHC and CHB patients compared with the HV. The individual analysis demonstrated that eight lectins (MPL, GSL-I, PTL-II, UEA-I, WGA, LEL, VVA, and MAL-I) exhibited a high degree of consistency with the pooled serum samples of HV, CHB, and CHC patients. Besides, a complex-type N-glycans binder PHA-E+L exhibited significantly decreased NFIs in the CHB compared with HV and CHC subjects (p < 0.01). The MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS results of N-linked glycans from the serum glycoproteins isolated by PHA-E+L-magnetic particle conjugates showed that there was an overlap of 23 N-glycan peaks (e.g., m/z 1419.743, 1663.734, and 1743.581) between CHB, and CHC patients, 5 glycan peaks (e.g., m/z 1850.878, 1866.661, and 2037.750) were presented in virus-infected hepatitis patients compared with HV, 3 glycan peaks (1460.659, 2069.740, and 2174.772) were observed only in CHC patients. Our data provide useful information to find new biomarkers for distinguishing CHB and CHC patients based on the precision alteration of their serum glycopatterns.
Project description:The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential step in the proliferation and metastasis of solid tumor cells, and glycosylation plays a crucial role in the EMT process. Certain aberrant glycans have been reported as biomarkers during bladder cancer progression, but global variation of N-glycans in this type of cancer has not been previously studied. We examined the profiles of N-glycan and glycogene expression in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?)-induced EMT using non-malignant bladder transitional epithelium HCV29 cells. These expression profiles were analyzed by mass spectrometry, lectin microarray analysis, and GlycoV4 oligonucleotide microarray analysis, and confirmed by lectin histochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The expression of 5 N-glycan-related genes were notably altered in TGF?-induced EMT. In particular, reduced expression of glycogene man2a1, which encodes ?-mannosidase 2, contributed to the decreased proportions of bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary complex N-glycans, and increased expression of hybrid-type N-glycans. Decreased expression of fuca1 gene, which encodes Type 1 ?-L-fucosidase, contributed to increased expression of fucosylated N-glycans in TGF?-induced EMT. Taken together, these findings clearly demonstrate the involvement of aberrant N-glycan synthesis in EMT in these cells. Integrated glycomic techniques as described here will facilitate discovery of glycan markers and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder cancer.
Project description:Esophageal cancer (EC) is a unique and heterogeneous disease diagnosed mostly at advanced stages. Altered glycans presented on cell surfaces are involved in the occurrence and development of malignancy. However, the effects of glycans on EC progression are largely unexplored. Here, a lectin array was utilized to detect the glycan profiling of the normal esophageal mucosal epithelial cell line and two EC cell lines. The binding of Lens culinaris lectin (LCA) to EC cells was found to be stronger than that of the normal cells. Lectin immunohistochemical staining revealed that LCA-binding glycans were markedly elevated in EC tissues compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues. LCA staining was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, depth of invasion, TNM stage and poor overall survival of EC patients. Added LCA to block LCA recognized glycans could inhibit the migration and invasion of EC cells. Further analysis revealed that blocking the biosynthesis of LCA-binding glycans by tunicamycin attenuated cellular migratory and invasive abilities. Additionally, a membrane glycoprotein CD147 was recognized as a binder of LCA. There was a positive correlation between LCA-binding glycans and CD147 expression in clinical samples. Interestingly, CD147 inhibition also reduced cell migration and invasion. These findings indicated that LCA-binding glycans may function as a novel indicator to predict metastasis for patients with EC.
Project description:We have carried out a comparative study of mature murine granulocytes with two immature haemopoietic cell lines (multipotential cells, FDCP-Mix, and granulocyte progenitor cells, FDCP-2) with respect to the structure and composition of their surface membrane glycopeptides. The glycopeptides were labelled biosynthetically by incubation of the cells for 1-3 days with [3H]glucosamine. Cell-associated glycopeptides were released by treatment with trypsin and the trypsin extract was exhaustively digested with Pronase to remove most residual peptide. Radiolabelled materials were fractionated by chromatography on lectin affinity columns connected in the series: lentil lectin (LCA), concanavalin A (Con A) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). Lectin-binding glycopeptides were eluted with appropriate competing sugars and further analysed by gel filtration, base/borohydride elimination and susceptibility to degradation by glycosidases including endo-beta-galactosidase. Abundant quantities of N-linked polylactosamine-type glycopeptides, which bound only to the WGA columns, were identified on mature granulocytes but the molecules were highly-branched (i.e. resistant to endo-beta-galactosidase). In contrast, there seemed to be very little branching in the polylactosamine chains from FDCP-2 cells, whilst corresponding carbohydrates from multipotential FDCP-Mix cells gave evidence for both linear and branched domains in the same, large complex glycans. O-Linked tetrasaccharides of general structure: NeuAc-Gal-(NeuAc)-GalNAc were found in clusters on WGA-binding glycopeptides from all cell types, these components being especially prominent on mature granulocytes. FDCP-2 cells were distinguished by the presence of monosialylated and non-sialylated counterparts of the foregoing tetrasaccharides. The relative amount of LCA-binding glycopeptides was low on FDCP-Mix cells by comparison with FDCP-2 cells and mature granulocytes. Our findings therefore demonstrate that notable differences in gross composition and molecular fine structure of surface membrane glycopeptides are detectable in haemopoietic cells at different stages of development. The relationship of these differences to the biological properties of cell surfaces remains to be established.
Project description:Pathological glomerular hyposialylation has been implicated in certain unexplained glomerulopathies, including minimal change nephrosis, membranous glomerulonephritis, and IgA nephropathy. We studied our previously established mouse model carrying a homozygous mutation in the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis, N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase. Mutant mice died before postnatal day 3 (P3) from severe glomerulopathy with podocyte effacement and segmental glomerular basement membrane splitting due to hyposialylation. Administration of the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) led to improved sialylation and survival of mutant pups beyond P3. We determined the onset of the glomerulopathy in the embryonic stage. A lectin panel, distinguishing normally sialylated from hyposialylated glycans, used WGA, SNA, PNA, Jacalin, HPA, and VVA, indicating glomerular hyposialylation of predominantly O-linked glycoproteins in mutant mice. The glomerular glycoproteins nephrin and podocalyxin were hyposialylated in this unique murine model. ManNAc treatment appeared to ameliorate the hyposialylation status of mutant mice, indicated by a lectin histochemistry pattern similar to that of wild-type mice, with improved sialylation of both nephrin and podocalyxin, as well as reduced albuminuria compared with untreated mutant mice. These findings suggest application of our lectin panel for categorizing human kidney specimens based on glomerular sialylation status. Moreover, the partial restoration of glomerular architecture in ManNAc-treated mice highlights ManNAc as a potential treatment for humans affected with disorders of glomerular hyposialylation.
Project description:Cancer progression is usually associated with alterations of glycan expression patterns. Little is known regarding global glycomics in gastric cancer, the most common type of epithelial cancer. We integrated lectin microarray and mass spectrometry (MS) methods to profile glycan expression in three gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, HGC-27, and MGC-803) and one normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). Significantly altered glycans were confirmed by lectin staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The three cancer cell lines showed increased levels of core-fucosylated N-glycans, GalNAc?-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen), and Sia2-6Gal?1-4GlcNAc N-glycans, but reduced levels of biantennary N-glycans, Gal?1-3GalNAc?-Ser/Thr (T antigen), and (GlcNAc)n N-glycans. Lectin histochemistry was used to validate aberrant expression of four representative glycans (core-fucosylation, Sia2-6Gal?1-4GlcNAc, biantennary N-glycans, T antigen, recognized respectively by lectins LCA, SNA, PHA-E+L, and ACA) in clinical gastric cancer samples. Lower binding capacity for ACA was correlated with significantly poorer patient prognosis. Our findings indicate for the first time that glycans recognized by LCA, ACA, and PHA-E+L are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer, and suggest that ACA is a potential prognostic factor for gastric cancer.