Association of a Chromosomal Rearrangement Event with Mouse Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy and Alterations in Csrp2bp, Dzank1, and Ovol2 Gene Expression.
ABSTRACT: We have previously described a mouse model of human posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) and localized the causative mutation to a 6.2 Mbp region of chromosome 2, termed Ppcd1. We now show that the gene rearrangement linked to mouse Ppcd1 is a 3.9 Mbp chromosomal inversion flanked by 81 Kbp and 542 bp deletions. This recombination event leads to deletion of Csrp2bp Exons 8 through 11, Dzank1 Exons 20 and 21, and the pseudogene Znf133. In addition, we identified translocation of novel downstream sequences to positions adjacent to Csrp2bp Exon 7 and Dzank1 Exon 20. Twelve novel fusion transcripts involving Csrp2bp or Dzank1 linked to downstream sequences have been identified. Eight are expressed at detectable levels in PPCD1 but not wildtype eyes. Upregulation of two Csrp2bp fusion transcripts, as well as upregulation of the adjacent gene, Ovol2, was observed. Absence of the PPCD1 phenotype in animals haploinsufficient for Csrp2bp or both Csrp2bp and Dzank1 rules out haploinsufficiency of these genes as a cause of mouse PPCD1. Complementation experiments confirm that PPCD1 embryonic lethality is due to disruption of Csrp2bp expression. The ocular expression pattern of Csrp2bp is consistent with a role for this protein in corneal development and pathogenesis of PPCD1.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To identify the genetic basis of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) in families mapped to the PPCD1 locus and in affected individuals without ZEB1 coding region mutations.<h4>Methods</h4>The promoter, 5' UTR, and coding regions of OVOL2 was screened in the PPCD family in which linkage analysis established the PPCD1 locus and in 26 PPCD probands who did not harbor a ZEB1 mutation. Copy number variation (CNV) analysis in the PPCD1 and PPCD3 intervals was performed on DNA samples from eight probands using aCGH. Luciferase reporter assays were performed in human corneal endothelial cells to determine the impact of the identified potentially pathogenic variants on OVOL2 promoter activity.<h4>Results</h4>OVOL2 mutation analysis in the first PPCD1-linked family demonstrated segregation of the c.-307T>C variant with the affected phenotype. In the other 26 probands screened, one heterozygous coding region variant and five promoter region heterozygous variants were identified, though none are likely pathogenic based on allele frequency. Array CGH in the PPCD1 and PPCD3 loci excluded the presence of CNV involving either OVOL2 or ZEB1, respectively. The c.-307T>C variant demonstrated increased promoter activity in corneal endothelial cells when compared to the wild-type sequence as has been demonstrated previously in another cell type.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Previously identified as the cause of PPCD1, the OVOL2 promoter variant c.-307T>C was herein identified in the original family that established the PPCD1 locus. However, the failure to identify presumed pathogenic coding or non-coding OVOL2 or ZEB1 variants, or CNV involving the PPCD1 and PPCD3 loci in 26 other PPCD probands suggests that other genetic loci may be involved in the pathogenesis of PPCD.
Project description:Purpose: To identify the genetic basis of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) in families mapped to the PPCD1 locus and in affected individuals without ZEB1 coding region mutations. Methods: The promoter and/or coding regions of OVOL2 were screened in the PPCD family in which linkage analysis established the PPCD1 locus and in 26 PPCD probands who did not harbor a ZEB1 mutation. Copy number variation (CNV) analysis in the PPCD1 and PPCD3 intervals was performed on DNA samples from eight probands using aCGH. Luciferase reporter assays were performed in human corneal endothelial cells to determine the impact of the identified potentially pathogenic variants on OVOL2 promoter activity. Results: OVOL2 screening in the first PPCD1-linked family demonstrated segregation of the c.-307T>C variant with the affected phenotype. In the other 26 probands screened, one heterozygous coding region variant and five promoter region heterozygous variants were identified, though none are likely pathogenic based on allele frequency. Array CGH in the PPCD1 and PPCD3 loci excluded the presence of CNV involving either OVOL2 or ZEB1, respectively. The c.-307T>C variant demonstrated increased promoter activity when compared to the wild-type sequence. Conclusions: The previously identified and presumed pathogenic OVOL2 promoter variant c.-307T>C was identified in the PPCD family that established the PPCD1 locus. However, the failure to identify presumed pathogenic coding or non-coding OVOL2 or ZEB1 variants, or CNV involving the PPCD1 and PPCD3 loci in 26 other PPCD probands suggests that other genetic loci may be involved in the pathogenesis of PPCD. Overall design: Eight PPCD probands without a ZEB1 protein-coding region pathogenic variant were analyzed for copy number variation within the PPCD1 (chromosome 20) and the PPCD3 (chromosome 10) loci.
Project description:PURPOSE: Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant condition which maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 20. Mutations in the VSX1 transcription factor have been reported in patients affected with PPCD, keratoconus, or a combination of both phenotypes. However, no mutation was identified in the coding region of VSX1 in the family used for the original mapping. To clarify the genetic basis of PPCD1, a thorough analysis was performed on the original PPCD1 family and two other PPCD1-linked families. As part of the analysis, the expression profile, transcript variants, and evolutionary conserved regions of VSX1, a key candidate gene within the linkage interval, were characterized. METHODS: Haplotype analysis was performed using highly informative markers on the pericentromeric region of chromosome 20. VSX1 transcript variants were identified using RT-PCR and characterized by 3'RACE assay. Temporal expression profile of VSX1 was evaluated using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR on human tissues. Evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) were identified in the vicinity of VSX1 using publicly available sequence alignments (UCSC and rVista) and sequenced for mutation analysis. RESULTS: Recombination events were identified that narrow the PPCD1-disease interval from 20 to 16.44 cM. This smaller interval includes the CHED1 locus and a recently described PPCD locus in Czech families. The three strongest candidate genes of the PPCD1-CHED1 overlap region (RBBP9, ZNF133, SLC24A3) did not show any mutations in our PPCD1-linked families. Semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR detected VSX1 expression in neonatal human cornea. Six transcript variants of VSX1 were characterized. Four of the transcript variants spliced to two novel exons downstream of the gene. Mutation analysis of the PPCD1-linked families did not reveal any mutations in the full genomic sequence of VSX1 (considering all splice variants) or in the six cis- regulatory modules predicted in the vicinity of VSX1 (100 kb). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first documentation of VSX1 expression in human neonatal cornea. We provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity of chromosome 20-related PPCD and refinement of the original PPCD1 interval. The full genomic sequence of VSX1 and coding exons of three other candidate genes were excluded from being pathogenic in the original PPCD1 family.
Project description:Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy 1 (CHED1) and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 1 (PPCD1) are autosomal-dominant corneal endothelial dystrophies that have been genetically mapped to overlapping loci on the short arm of chromosome 20. We combined genetic and genomic approaches to identify the cause of disease in extensive pedigrees comprising over 100 affected individuals. After exclusion of pathogenic coding, splice-site, and copy-number variations, a parallel approach using targeted and whole-genome sequencing facilitated the identification of pathogenic variants in a conserved region of the OVOL2 proximal promoter sequence in the index families (c.-339_361dup for CHED1 and c.-370T>C for PPCD1). Direct sequencing of the OVOL2 promoter in other unrelated affected individuals identified two additional mutations within the conserved proximal promoter sequence (c.-274T>G and c.-307T>C). OVOL2 encodes ovo-like zinc finger 2, a C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor that regulates mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and acts as a direct transcriptional repressor of the established PPCD-associated gene ZEB1. Interestingly, we did not detect OVOL2 expression in the normal corneal endothelium. Our in vitro data demonstrate that all four mutated OVOL2 promoters exhibited more transcriptional activity than the corresponding wild-type promoter, and we postulate that the mutations identified create cryptic cis-acting regulatory sequence binding sites that drive aberrant OVOL2 expression during endothelial cell development. Our data establish CHED1 and PPCD1 as allelic conditions and show that CHED1 represents the extreme of what can be considered a disease spectrum. They also implicate transcriptional dysregulation of OVOL2 as a common cause of dominantly inherited corneal endothelial dystrophies.
Project description:Name of the disease (synonyms) CUGC for posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD).OMIM# of the disease 122000; 609141; 618031.Name of the analysed genes or DNA/chromosome segments OVOL2 (PPCD1); ZEB1 (PPCD3); GRHL2 (PPCD4).OMIM# of the gene(s) 616441; 189909; 608576. Review of the analytical and clinical validity as well as of the clinical utility of DNA-based testing for variants in theOVOL2, ZEB1andGRHL2gene(s) in a diagnostic setting, predictive and parental settings and for risk assesment in relatives.
Project description:Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is an autosomal-dominant disorder of the corneal endothelium associated with visually significant corneal edema and glaucoma. Statistical genetic analysis of 4 families with PPCD has demonstrated linkage to a 2.4 cM common support interval on chromosome 20 bordered by the markers D20S182 and D20S139. We sought to identify the genetic basis of PPCD linked to chromosome 20 (PPCD1) by screening the 26 positional candidate genes between these markers in a family previously mapped to the PPCD1 region.The coding regions of the 26 positional candidate genes mapped to the common PPCD1 support interval were amplified and sequenced in affected and unaffected individuals from a family previously linked to the PPCD1 locus. Nine other genes positioned just outside of the common PPCD1 support interval but within the autosomal-dominant congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy interval were also screened.Four DNA sequence variants in 3 of the positional candidate genes demonstrated complete segregation with the affected phenotype: p.Thr109Thr (rs6111803) in OVOL2, p.Arg56Gln (novel variant-RPSnovel) in RPS19P1, and p.Thr85Thr (rs1053834) and p.Pro99Ser (rs1053839) in C20orf79. Each of these 4 sequence variants demonstrated significant linkage with the affected phenotype in this family (P = 2.5 x 10 for RPSnovel, rs1053834 and rs1053839; P = 8.6 x 10 for rs6111803). However, we also identified each of these 4 sequence variants in > or = affected control individuals. The haplotype on which the disease-causing mutation is segregating was found to have a population frequency of 4.2% in the CEPH HapMap trios. Although a number of other previously described and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the 35 positional candidate genes located within the PPCD1 and congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy intervals, none segregated with the affected phenotype.We report the absence of a presumed pathogenic coding region mutation in the common PPCD1 support interval. Although minor alleles of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified that segregated with the affected phenotype, the relatively high frequency of each minor allele in the general population indicates that none is a candidate for the causal variant for PPCD. Instead, the causal variant is most likely a coding region deletion or a variant in a noncoding region of the PPCD1 common support interval.
Project description:Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a rare autosomal dominant genetically heterogeneous disorder. Nineteen Czech PPCD pedigrees with 113 affected family members were identified, and 17 of these kindreds were genotyped for markers on chromosome 20p12.1- 20q12. Comparison of haplotypes in 81 affected members, 20 unaffected first degree relatives and 13 spouses, as well as 55 unrelated controls, supported the hypothesis of a shared ancestor in 12 families originating from one geographic location. In 38 affected individuals from nine of these pedigrees, a common haplotype was observed between D20S48 and D20S107 spanning approximately 23 Mb, demonstrating segregation of disease with the PPCD1 locus. This haplotype was not detected in 110 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Within the common founder haplotype, a core mini-haplotype was detected for D20S605, D20S182 and M189K2 in all 67 affected members from families 1-12, however alleles representing the core mini-haplotype were also detected in population matched controls. The most likely location of the responsible gene within the disease interval, and estimated mutational age, were inferred by linkage disequilibrium mapping (DMLE+2.3). The appearance of a disease-causing mutation was dated between 64-133 generations. The inferred ancestral locus carrying a PPCD1 disease-causing variant within the disease interval spans 60 Kb on 20p11.23, which contains a single known protein coding gene, ZNF133. However, direct sequence analysis of coding and untranslated exons did not reveal a potential pathogenic mutation. Microdeletion or duplication was also excluded by comparative genomic hybridization using a dense chromosome 20 specific array. Geographical origin, haplotype and statistical analysis suggest that in 14 unrelated families an as yet undiscovered mutation on 20p11.23 was inherited from a common ancestor. Prevalence of PPCD in the Czech Republic appears to be the highest worldwide and our data suggests that at least one other novel locus for PPCD also exists.
Project description:To investigate the molecular basis of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) by examining the PPCD transcriptome and the effect of decreased ZEB1 expression on corneal endothelial cell (CEnC) gene expression.Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of corneal endothelium from two PPCD-affected individuals (one with PPCD3 and one of unknown genetic cause) compared with two age-matched controls, and primary human CEnC (pHCEnC) transfected with siRNA-mediated ZEB1 knockdown. The expression of selected differentially expressed genes was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and/or assessed by in situ hybridization in the corneal endothelium of four independent cases of PPCD (one with PPCD3 and three of unknown genetic cause).Expression of 16% and 46% of the 104 protein-coding genes specific to ex vivo corneal endothelium was lost in the endothelium of two individuals with PPCD. Thirty-two genes associated with ZEB1 and 3 genes (BMP4, CCND1, ZEB1) associated with OVOL2 were differentially expressed in the same direction in both individuals with PPCD. Immunohistochemistry staining and RNA-seq analyses demonstrated variable expression of type IV collagens in PPCD corneas. Decreasing ZEB1 expression in pHCEnC altered expression of 711 protein-coding genes, many of which are associated with canonical pathways regulating various cellular processes.Identification of the altered transcriptome in PPCD and in a cell-based model of PPCD provided insight into the molecular alterations characterizing PPCD. Further study of the differentially expressed genes associated with ZEB1 and OVOL2 is expected to identify candidate genes for individuals with PPCD and without a ZEB1 or OVOL2 mutation.
Project description:The PPCD1 mouse, a spontaneous mutant that arose in our mouse colony, is characterized by an enlarged anterior chamber resulting from metaplasia of the corneal endothelium and blockage of the iridocorneal angle by epithelialized corneal endothelial cells. The presence of stratified multilayered corneal endothelial cells with abnormal patterns of cytokeratin expression are remarkably similar to those observed in human posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) and the sporadic condition, iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Affected eyes exhibit epithelialized corneal endothelial cells, with inappropriate cytokeratin expression and proliferation over the iridocorneal angle and posterior cornea. We have termed this the "mouse PPCD1" phenotype and mapped the mouse locus for this phenotype, designated "Ppcd1", to a 6.1 Mbp interval on Chromosome 2, which is syntenic to the human Chromosome 20 PPCD1 interval. Inheritance of the mouse PPCD1 phenotype is autosomal dominant, with complete penetrance on the sensitive DBA/2J background and decreased penetrance on the C57BL/6J background. Comparative genome hybridization has identified a hemizygous 78 Kbp duplication in the mapped interval. The endpoints of the duplication are located in positions that disrupt the genes Csrp2bp and 6330439K17Rik and lead to duplication of the pseudogene LOC100043552. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR indicates that expression levels of Csrp2bp and 6330439K17Rik are decreased in eyes of PPCD1 mice. Based on the observations of decreased gene expression levels, association with ZEB1-related pathways, and the report of corneal opacities in Csrp2bp(tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi) heterozygotes and embryonic lethality in nulls, we postulate that duplication of the 78 Kbp segment leading to haploinsufficiency of Csrp2bp is responsible for the mouse PPCD1 phenotype. Similarly, CSRP2BP haploinsufficiency may lead to human PPCD.
Project description:In a large family of Czech origin, we mapped a locus for an autosomal-dominant corneal endothelial dystrophy, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 4 (PPCD4), to 8q22.3-q24.12. Whole-genome sequencing identified a unique variant (c.20+544G>T) in this locus, within an intronic regulatory region of GRHL2. Targeted sequencing identified the same variant in three additional previously unsolved PPCD-affected families, including a de novo occurrence that suggests this is a recurrent mutation. Two further unique variants were identified in intron 1 of GRHL2 (c.20+257delT and c.20+133delA) in unrelated PPCD-affected families. GRHL2 is a transcription factor that suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is a direct transcriptional repressor of ZEB1. ZEB1 mutations leading to haploinsufficiency cause PPCD3. We previously identified promoter mutations in OVOL2, a gene not normally expressed in the corneal endothelium, as the cause of PPCD1. OVOL2 drives mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) by directly inhibiting EMT-inducing transcription factors, such as ZEB1. Here, we demonstrate that the GRHL2 regulatory variants identified in PPCD4-affected individuals induce increased transcriptional activity in vitro. Furthermore, although GRHL2 is not expressed in corneal endothelial cells in control tissue, we detected GRHL2 in the corneal "endothelium" in PPCD4 tissue. These cells were also positive for epithelial markers E-Cadherin and Cytokeratin 7, indicating they have transitioned to an epithelial-like cell type. We suggest that mutations inducing MET within the corneal endothelium are a convergent pathogenic mechanism leading to dysfunction of the endothelial barrier and disease.