Factors Associated with Uptake of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) for Cervical Cancer Screening in Western Kenya.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Cervical cancer screening has been successful in reducing the rates of cervical cancer in developed countries, but this disease remains the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to understand factors associated with limited uptake of screening services in our cervical cancer-screening program in Western Kenya. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS:Using items from a previously validated cancer awareness questionnaire repurposed for use in cervical cancer and culturally adapted for use in Kenya, we interviewed 2,505 women aged 18-55 years receiving care in gynecology clinics or seeking other services in 4 health facilities in Western Kenya between April 2014 and September 2014. We used logistic regression modeling to assess factors associated with uptake (or non-uptake), associated odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS:Only two hundred and seventy-three women out of 2505 (11%) accepted VIA cervical cancer screening. Knowledge of just how women are screened for cervical cancer was significantly associated with reduced uptake of cervical cancer screening (OR: 0.53; CI 0.38-0.73) as was fear that screening would reveal a cancer (OR 0.70; CI 0.63-0.77), and reliance on prayer with the onset of illness (OR 0.43; CI 0.26-0.71). Participants who thought that one should get cervical cancer screening even if there were no symptoms were more than twice as likely to accept cervical cancer screening (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.24-3.93). Older patients, patients living with HIV and women who do not know if bleeding immediately after sex might be a sign of cervical cancer were also more likely to accept screening (OR 1.03, CI 1.02-1.04; OR 1.78, CI 1.01-3.14; OR 2.39, CI 1.31-4.39, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In our population, a high percent of women knew that it is appropriate for all women to get cervical cancer screening, but only a small proportion of women actually got screening. There may be an opportunity to design educational materials for this population that will not only encourage participation in cervical cancer screening but also remediate misconceptions. The discussion illustrates how our findings could be used in such an effort.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Kenyan women aged ? 15 years are at risk of developing cervical cancer. Currently, cervical cytology reduces cervical cancer incidence, since it allows for early diagnosis and treatment. Uptake of cervical screening services is a priority research area in Kenya. Central to the success of any screening programme is its ability to identify, reach out and screen the defined target population. Cervical screening coverage in Kenya is currently at 3.2%. In Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital (JOOTRH) in Nyanza, the number screened for cervical cancer is low (averagely 3/day). Thus the current study sought to identify factors influencing uptake of cervical screening services at the facility. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, knowledge, perceptions and cues for action associated with self-reported cervical screening uptake were explored. The targeted population (n = 424), purposively selected were women of child-bearing age (18-49 years) visiting JOOTRH. Data on socio-demographic status (age, level of education, marital status, job status, income level), knowledge of cervical cancer, perceptions on severity and susceptibility to the disease were collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Statistical significance of differences in proportions were determined by chi-square analyses while logistic regression analyses were used to identify determinants of self-reported uptake of the service. RESULTS: Self-reported screening uptake was 17.5%. There was a strong positive association between age (P < 0.0001), level of education (P < 0.0001) and income levels (P = 0.005) with the uptake of the service. Knowledge level on the signs and symptoms of cervical cancer was an important determinant for being screened for cervical cancer (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, those who said they didn't know about the disease (OR, 26.84, 95% CI, 6.07-118.61, P < 0.0001) or were not aware about susceptibility to it (OR, 2.37, 95% CI, 1.10-5.08, P = 0.02) had a higher likelihood of not being screened. On cues for action, those who attended the child welfare clinic were more likely to be screened (OR, 2.31, 95% CI, 1.17-3.93, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Knowledge, perception of higher susceptibility and attending child welfare clinic are key determinants of self-reported uptake of cervical screening. Increasing knowledge, enhancing health education and providing free services may increase uptake among women population in such settings.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Eastern Africa has the highest incidence and mortality rates from cervical cancer worldwide. It is important to describe the differences among women and their perceived risk of cervical cancer to determine target groups to increase cervical cancer screening. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed women seeking reproductive health services in Kisumu, Kenya to assess their perceived risk of cervical cancer and risk factors influencing cervical cancer screening uptake. ?² statistics and t tests were used to determine significant factors, which were incorporated into a logistic model to determine factors independently associated with cervical cancer risk perception. RESULTS:Whereas 91% of the surveyed women had heard of cancer, only 29% of the 388 surveyed women had previously heard of cervical cancer. Most had received their information from health care workers. Few women (6%) had ever been screened for cervical cancer and cited barriers such as fear, time, and lack of knowledge about cervical cancer. Nearly all previously screened women (22/24 [92%]) believed that cervical cancer was curable if detected early and that screening should be conducted annually (86%). Most women (254/388 [65%]) felt they were at risk for cervical cancer. Women with perceived risk of cervical cancer were older (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.10), reported a history of marriage (OR, 2.08; CI, 1.00-4.30), were less likely to feel adequately informed about cervical cancer by health care providers (OR, 0.76; CI, 0.18-0.83), and more likely to intend to have cervical cancer screening in the future (OR, 10.59; CI, 3.96-28.30). Only 5% of the women reported that they would not be willing to undergo screening regardless of cost. CONCLUSIONS:Cervical cancer is a major health burden for women in sub-Saharan Africa, yet only one third of the women had ever heard of cervical cancer in Kisumu, Kenya. Understanding factors associated with women's perceived risk of cervical cancer could guide future educational and clinical interventions to increase cervical cancer screening.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cervical cancer is the second most common female reproductive cancer after breast cancer with 84% of the cases in developing countries. A high uptake of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and screening, and early diagnosis leads to a reduction of incidence and mortality rates. Yet uptake of screening is low in Sub-Saharan Africa and there is an increasing number of women presenting for treatment with advanced disease. Nine women in their twenties die from cervical cancer in Kenya every day. This paper presents the biopsychosocial risk factors that impact on cervical cancer knowledge among Kenyan women aged 15 to 24 years. The findings will highlight opportunities for early interventions to prevent the worrying prediction of an exponential increase by 50% of cervical cancer incidences in the younger age group by 2034. METHODS:Data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) was analysed using complex sample logistic regression to assess biopsychosocial risk factors of knowledge of cervical cancer among young women aged 15 to 24 years (n = 5398). FINDINGS:Close to one third of the participants were unaware of cervical cancer with no difference between participants aged 15-19 years (n = 2716) and those aged 20-24 years (n = 2691) (OR = 1; CI = 0.69-1.45). Social predisposing factors, such as lack of education; poverty; living further from a health facility; or never having taken a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test, were significantly associated with lack of awareness of cervical cancer (p<0.001). Young women who did not know where to obtain condoms had an OR of 2.12 (CI 1.72-2.61) for being unaware of cervical cancer. Psychological risk factors, such as low self-efficacy about seeking medical help, and an inability to refuse unsafe sex with husband or partner, perpetuated the low level of awareness about cervical cancer (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:A considerable proportion of young women in Kenya are unaware of cervical cancer which is associated with a variety of social and psychological factors. We argue that the high prevalence of cervical cancer and poor screening rates will continue to prevail among older women if issues that affect young women's awareness of cervical cancer are not addressed. Given that the Kenyan youth are exposed to HPV due to early sexual encounters and a high prevalence of HIV, targeted interventions are urgently needed to increase the uptake of HPV vaccination and screening.
Project description:Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Kenya. However, only 3% of women are routinely screened. This study aimed to assess women's knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening in Kenya's Isiolo and Tharaka Nithi counties.A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and March 2017. Using a multistage cluster sampling methodology, 451 women 18 years of age and older participated in the study. Interviewers administered a 35-item questionnaire collecting demographic information, knowledge of risk factors and attitudes towards cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of cervical cancer knowledge and demographic characteristics were conducted.The response rate for the study was 98% (451/460). Two-thirds of the study participants originated from Tharaka Nithi county (n?=?318). Respondents reported a median age of 32; 70.5% were married; and 35.0% had primary education. Eighty percent of the participants were aware of cervical cancer, 25.6% of whom had previously undergone a cervical screening examination, and 44.4% had above-average knowledge of risk factors of cervical cancer. Knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors was significantly associated with employment status (adjusted odds ratio?=?1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6) and county of origin (adjusted odds ratio?=?2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.0). Almost all (89.2%) of those who had heard of cervical cancer categorised it as "scary". There was a marginal significant difference in the overall attitude assessment score towards cervical cancer between participants from Isiolo and Tharaka Nithi counties; the mean (SD) score was 2.13 (0.34) and 2.20 (0.30) respectively. The score was comparatively higher among participants residing in Tharaka Nithi (95% CI: 0.002-0.146; p?=?0.043).Interventions to increase cervical cancer knowledge are needed in Isiolo and Tharaka Nithi counties, Kenya. Additional research is needed to further understand and assess the effectiveness of different strategies to improve attitudes regarding cervical cancer in order to increase the uptake of screening services, particularly among less-educated women and those in hard-to-reach areas.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the effectiveness of community health campaigns (CHCs) as a strategy for human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical cancer screening in rural western Kenya. METHODS:Between January and November 2016, a cluster-randomized trial was carried out in 12 communities in western Kenya to investigate high-risk HPV testing offered via self-collection to women aged 25-65 years in CHCs versus government health facilities. Outcome measures were the total number of women accessing cervical cancer screening and the proportion of HPV-positive women accessing treatment. RESULTS:In total, 4944 women underwent HPV-based cervical cancer screening in CHCs (n=2898) or health facilities (n=2046). Screening uptake as a proportion of total eligible women in the population was greater in communities assigned to CHCs (60.0% vs 37.0%, P<0.001). Rates of treatment acquisition were low in both arms (CHCs 39.2%; health facilities 31.5%; P=0.408). DISCUSSION:Cervical cancer screening using HPV testing of self-collected samples reached a larger proportion of women when offered through periodic CHCs compared with health facilities. The community-based model is a promising strategy for cervical cancer prevention. Lessons learned from this trial can be used to identify ways of maximizing the impact of such strategies through greater community participation and improved linkage to treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT02124252.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To understand knowledge about, and acceptability of, cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccines among medical students; and to explore potential factors that influence their acceptability in China. METHODS: We conducted a survey among medical students at six universities across southwest China using a 58-item questionnaire regarding knowledge and perceptions of HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccines. RESULTS: We surveyed 1878 medical students with a mean age of 20.8 years (standard deviation: 1.3 years). Of these, 48.8% and 80.1% believed cervical cancer can be prevented by HPV vaccines and screening respectively, while 60.2% and 71.2% would like to receive or recommend HPV vaccines and screening. 35.4% thought HPV vaccines ought to be given to adolescents aged 13-18 years. 32% stated that women should start to undergo screening from the age of 25. 49.2% felt that women should receive screening every year. Concern about side effects (38.3% and 39.8%), and inadequate information (42.4% and 35.0%) were the most cited barriers to receiving or recommending HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Females were more likely to accept HPV vaccines (OR, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.47-2.35) or cervical cancer screening (OR, 3.69; 95% CI: 2.88-4.74). Students with a higher level of related knowledge were much more willing to receive or recommend vaccines (P<0.001) or screening (P<0.001). Students who showed negative or uncertain attitudes towards premarital sex were less likely to accept either HPV vaccines (OR, 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.96), or screening (OR, 0.68; 0.47-0.10). Non-clinical students showed lower acceptability of cervical screening compared to students in clinical medicine (OR, 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: The acceptability of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening is relatively low among medical students in southwest China. Measures should be taken to improve knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of HPV vaccines and screening among medical students at university.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite cervical cancer being preventable with effective screening programs, it is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in many countries in Africa. Screening involving pelvic examination may not be feasible or acceptable in limited-resource settings. We sought to evaluate women's perspectives on human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as part of a larger trial on cervical cancer prevention implementation strategies in rural western Kenya. METHODS:We invited 120 women participating in a cluster randomized trial of cervical cancer screening implementation strategies in Migori County, Kenya for in-depth interviews. We explored reasons for testing, experience with and ability to complete HPV self-sampling, importance of clinician involvement during screening, factors and people contributing to screening decision-making, and ways to encourage other women to come for screening. We used validated theoretical frameworks to analyze the qualitative data. RESULTS:Women reported having positive experiences with the HPV self-sampling strategy. The factors facilitating uptake included knowledge and beliefs such as prior awareness of HPV, personal perception of cervical cancer risk, desire for improved health outcomes, and peer and partner encouragement. Logistical and screening facilitators included confidence in the ability to complete HPV self-sampling strategy, proximity to screening sites and feelings of privacy and comfort conducting the HPV self- sampling. The barriers to screening included fear of need for a pelvic exam, fear of disease and death associated with cervical cancer. We classified these findings as capabilities, opportunities and motivations for health behavior using the COM-B framework. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, HPV self-sampling was an acceptable cervical cancer screening strategy that seemed to meet the needs of the women in this community. These findings will further inform aspects of implementation, including outreach messaging, health education, screening sites and emphasis on availability and effectiveness of preventative treatment for women who screen positive.
Project description:Cervical cancer screening uptake may be influenced by inadequate knowledge in resource-limited settings. This randomized trial evaluated a health talk's impact on cervical cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening rates in rural Kenya.419 women attending government clinics were randomized to an intervention (N=207) or control (N=212) group. The intervention was a brief health talk on cervical cancer. Participants completed surveys at enrollment (all), immediately after the talk (intervention arm), and at three-months follow-up (all). The primary outcomes were the change in knowledge scores and the final screening rates at three-months follow-up. Secondary outcomes were changes in awareness about cervical cancer screening, perception of personal cervical cancer risk, cervical cancer and HIV stigma, and screening acceptability.Mean Knowledge Scores increased by 26.4% (8.7 points increased to 11.0 points) in the intervention arm compared to only 17.6% (8.5 points increased to 10.0 points) in the control arm (p<0.01). Screening uptake was moderate in both the intervention (58.9%; N=122) and control (60.9%; N=129) arms, with no difference between the groups (p=0.60).A brief health talk increased cervical cancer knowledge, although it did not increase screening over simply informing women about free screening.Screening programs can increase patient understanding with just a brief educational intervention.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death in women worldwide. Majority of the cases are found in developing countries. The increasing risk of cervical cancer death and the high prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in Human immuno-deficiency virus(HIV) positive women calls for determining the level of premalignant cervical cancer (Ca) screening uptake. So, this study aimed to assess the uptake of cervical cancer screening and its associated factors.<h4>Methods</h4>An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2016, among adult HIV positive women attending care and treatment at Gondar University Referral Hospital. The data were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the presence and the degree of association between dependent and independent variables. In the multivariable logistic analysis, a P-value of <?0.05 and odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval were considered to determine independent predictors for the uptake of cervical cancer(Ca) screening.<h4>Results</h4>The life-time uptake of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive women was 10% (95% Confidence Interval(CI): 7.3-12.8). In multivariable the analysis, women with primary education (Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR)?=?3.92, 95%CI:1.70-8.99), secondary education (AOR?=?3.84, 95%CI: 1.50-9.83), and tertiary level education (AOR?=?4.16, 95%CI: 1.24-13.98), having a child (AOR?=?3.02, 95%CI: 1.23-7.46), diagnosed as HIV positive ten years back or more (AOR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 1.06-6.97), and Cell Differentiation 4(CD4) count of less than or equal to 200cell/mm3 (AOR?=?5.29, 95% CI: 2.58-10.83) were significantly associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this study, the uptake of cervical cancer screening was very low. Educational status, parity, length of time after diagnosis as HIV positive, and CD4 count are important predictors of cervical cancer screening. Health care workers and cervical cancer prevention and control program coordinators and implementers need to provide counseling services for all Anti-retroviral Therapy(ART) care attendants. So as to explore the root causes for the low utilization of precancerous stage of cervical Ca screening service, conducting a study on the supply side with a qualitative component is mandatory.
Project description:Purpose:The existing factors that influence cervical cancer screening uptake worldwide do not necessarily reflect the situation in Jordan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with cervical cancer screening uptake among Jordanian women. Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 500 married Jordanian women aged 21 to 65 years were recruited from eight nongovernmental organisations and community settings in Amman. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive data, a health utilisation data form, and scales on the perceived benefits of screening, perceived barriers to screening, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, and perceptions regarding the severity of cervical cancer. Descriptive statistics, multivariate logistic regressions, and independent t-tests were used in the data analysis. Results:Among the 500 age-eligible women, only 156 (31.2%) had been screened for cervical cancer. Healthcare provider encouragement, years of marriage (odds?ratio?(OR) = 5.24, confidence?interval?(CI) = 95%, p = 0.00), and use of the private healthcare sector (OR = 2.20, CI = 95%, p = 0.012) were significant predictors of cervical cancer screening. Conclusion:Cervical cancer screening uptake among Jordanian women is significantly low; determining factors for the decision to undergo screening include encouragement from the healthcare provider, the number of years of marriage, and use of the private healthcare sector. To improve uptake, structured screening programmes need to be implemented in collaboration with national partners and institutions to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan.