Functional Genomic Analysis of the Impact of Camelina (Camelina sativa) Meal on Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Distal Intestine Gene Expression and Physiology.
ABSTRACT: The inclusion of plant meals in diets of farmed Atlantic salmon can elicit inflammatory responses in the distal intestine (DI). For the present work, fish were fed a standard fish meal (FM) diet or a diet with partial replacement of FM with solvent-extracted camelina meal (CM) (8, 16, or 24 % CM inclusion) during a 16-week feeding trial. A significant decrease in growth performance was seen in fish fed all CM inclusion diets (Hixson et al. in Aquacult Nutr 22:615-630, 2016). A 4x44K oligonucleotide microarray experiment was carried out and significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) and rank products (RP) methods were used to identify differentially expressed genes between the DIs of fish fed the 24 % CM diet and those fed the FM diet. Twelve features representing six known transcripts and two unknowns were identified as CM responsive by both SAM and RP. The six known transcripts (including thioredoxin and ependymin), in addition to tgfb, mmp13, and GILT, were studied using qPCR with RNA templates from all four experimental diet groups. All six microarray-identified genes were confirmed to be CM responsive, as was tgfb and mmp13. Histopathological analyses identified signs of inflammation in the DI of salmon fed CM-containing diets, including lamina propria and sub-epithelial mucosa thickening, infiltration of eosinophilic granule cells, increased goblet cells and decreased enterocyte vacuolization. All of these were significantly altered in 24 % CM compared to all other diets, with the latter two also altered in 16 % CM compared with 8 % CM and control diet groups. Significant correlation was seen between histological parameters as well as between five of the qPCR analyzed genes and histological parameters. These molecular biomarkers of inflammation arising from long-term dietary CM exposure will be useful in the development of CM-containing diets that do not have deleterious effects on salmon growth or physiology.
Project description:Fish were fed a standard fish meal (FM) diet or a diet with partial replacement of FM with solvent extracted camelina meal (CM) (8%, 16% or 24% CM inclusion) during a 16-week feeding trial. A significant decrease in growth performance was seen in fish fed the CM inclusion diets. A 44k oligonucleotide array experiment was used to identify any differentially expressed transcripts in the distal intestine of the fish fed the 24% CM diet compared to the control. The expression level of these genes was validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which was also used to measure transcript expression in the fish fed the 8% CM and 16% CM diets. Histopathological analysis was used to quantify any physical signs in inflammation in the distal intestine of the Atlantic salmon fed the CM-containing diets. Overall design: Two condition experiment, 0% CM vs 24% CM, Biological replicates: 9 control replicates, 9 expermiental replicates
Project description:This study was performed to investigate assess the impacts of CO and/or CM containing diets on Atlantic salmon hepatic gene expression in order to identify candidate molecular biomarkers of responses to camelina-containing diets. Atlantic salmon were fed diets with complete or partial replacement of FO and/or FM with camelina oil (CO) and/or camelina meal (CM) in a 16-week trial (Control diet: FO; Test diet: 100% FO replacement with CO, with solvent-extracted FM and inclusion of 10% CM (100COSEFM10CM). A 44K microarray experiment identified liver transcripts that responded to 100COSEFM10CM (associated with reduced growth) compared to FO controls at week 16. Atlantic salmon were fed for 16 weeks with the FO or 100COSEFM10CM diet (three tanks per diet). Liver samples were taken from 7 fish from each tank at week 16. A universal reference design was used for the microarray experiment. For the test samples, RNA was used from individual livers of fish from the 2 treatment groups: FO and 100COSEFM10CM. For each treatment group we used 9 biological replicates (3 fish from each of 3 tanks). All test samples were labeled with Cy5. The common reference was a pool of 18 RNA samples from livers of fish from all individuals invovled in microarray experiment. The common reference was labeled with Cy3. Each individual test sample was hybridized together with the common reference sample on an array, so the experiment consisted of 18 arrays
Project description:Single cell proteins, such as Candida utilis, are known to have immunomodulating effects in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, whereas soybean meal (SBM) can cause soybean meal induce enteritis (SBMIE). Inflammatory or immunomodulatory stimuli at the local level in the intestine may alter the plasma protein profile of Atlantic salmon. These changes can be helpful tools in diagnosis for fish diseases and indicators for fish health. The present work aimed to identify local intestinal tissue responses and changes in plasma protein profiles of Atlantic salmon fed C. utilis yeast, SBM, or combined diets. Fish meal (FM) based diet was used as a control diet and the six experimental diets were: FM diet with 200 g/kg C. utilis (FM200CU) and five diets containing 200 g/kg SBM together with 0 (SBM group), 25, 50, 100 or 200 g/kg C. utilis (SBM25CU, SBM50CU, SBM100CU and SBM200CU groups, respectively). Intestine morphology of fish fed FM200CU where not affected whereas SBM group presented changes characteristic of SBMIE. Low inclusion of C. utilis in SBM diet showed a modulation of immune cell populations, but did not alleviate inflammatory symptom.
Project description:Intestinal inflammation, caused by impaired intestinal homeostasis, is a serious condition in both animals and humans. The use of conventional extracted soybean meal (SBM) in diets for Atlantic salmon and several other fish species is known to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine, a condition often referred to as SBM induced enteropathy (SBMIE). In the present study, we investigated the potential of different microbial ingredients to alleviate SBMIE in Atlantic salmon, as a model of feed-induced inflammation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control based on fish meal (FM), a positive control based on 20% SBM, and four experimental diets combining 20% SBM with either one of the three yeasts Candida utilis (CU), Kluyveromyces marxianus (KM), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) or the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV). Histopathological examination of the distal intestine showed that all fish fed the SC or SBM diets developed characteristic signs of SBMIE, while those fed the FM, CV or CU diets showed a healthy intestine. Fish fed the KM diet showed intermediate signs of SBMIE. Corroborating results were obtained when measuring the relative length of PCNA positive cells in the crypts of the distal intestine. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed decreased expression of amino acid, fat and drug metabolism pathways as well as increased expression of the pathways for NOD-like receptor signalling and chemokine signalling in both the SC and SBM groups while CV and CU were similar to FM and KM was intermediate. Gene expression of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the groups showing SBMIE. The characterisation of microbial communities using PCR-DGGE showed a relative increased abundance of Firmicutes bacteria in fish fed the SC or SBM diets. Overall, our results show that both CU and CV were highly effective to counteract SBMIE, while KM had less effect and SC had no functional effects.
Project description:Vegetable oils (VO) are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but their use is limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15% total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed for 11-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either fish oil (FO), wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic Camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source to evaluate fish performance, nutrient digestibility, tissue n-3 LC-PUFA, and metabolic impact determined by liver transcriptome analysis. The DCO diet did not affect any of the performance or health parameters studied and enhanced apparent digestibility of EPA and DHA compared to the WCO diet. The level of total n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in all the tissues of DCO-fed fish than in WCO-fed fish with levels in liver similar to those in fish fed FO. Endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic activity was observed in fish fed both the Camelina oil diets as indicated by the liver transcriptome and levels of intermediate metabolites such as docosapentaenoic acid, with data suggesting that the dietary combination of EPA and DHA inhibited desaturation and elongation activities. Expression of genes involved in phospholipid and triacylglycerol metabolism followed a similar pattern in fish fed DCO and WCO despite the difference in n-3 LC-PUFA contents.
Project description:New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35%) and fish oil (10%), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 12-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either a blend of fish oil/rapeseed oil (FO), wild-type camelina oil (WCO) or transgenic camelina oil (DCO) as added lipid source. The DCO diet did not affect any of the fish performance or health parameters studied. Analyses of the mid and hindgut transcriptomes showed only mild effects on metabolism. Flesh of fish fed the DCO diet accumulated almost double the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA than fish fed the FO or WCO diets, indicating that these oils from transgenic oilseeds offer the opportunity to increase the n-3 LC-PUFA in farmed fish to levels comparable to those found a decade ago.
Project description:In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI). A 48-day feeding trial was conducted with five diets: A reference diet (FM) in which fish meal (72%) was the only protein source; Diet SBMWG with a mix of soybean meal (30%) and wheat gluten (22%); Diet SPCPM with a mix of soy protein concentrate (30%) and poultry meal (6%); Diet GMWG with guar meal (30%) and wheat gluten (14.5%); Diet PM with 58% poultry meal. Compared to fish fed the FM reference diet, fish fed the soybean meal containing diet (SBMWG) showed signs of enteritis in the DI, increased fecal water content of DI chyme and higher plasma osmolality. Altered DI expression of a battery of genes encoding aquaporins, ion transporters, tight junction and adherens junction proteins suggested reduced transcellular transport of water as well as a tightening of the junction barrier in fish fed the SBMWG diet, which may explain the observed higher fecal water content and plasma osmolality. DI structure was not altered for fish fed the other experimental diets but alterations in target gene expression and fecal water content were observed, indicating that alterations in water transport components may take place without clear effects on intestinal structure.
Project description:With the expansion of the aquaculture industry in the last two decades, there has been a large increase in the use of plant ingredients in aquafeeds, which has created new challenges in fish growth, health and welfare. Fish muscle growth is an important trait that is strongly affected by diet, but our knowledge on the effect of plant protein-based diets on global gene expression in muscle is still scant. The present study evaluated nutrigenomic effects of the inclusion of proteins from pea, soy and wheat into aquafeeds, compared to a control diet with fishmeal as the main protein source using the zebrafish model by RNA-seq; these results were extended to an important aquaculture species by analyzing selected differentially expressed genes identified in the zebrafish model on on-growing Atlantic salmon fed with equivalent plant protein-based diets. Expression of selected Atlantic salmon paralogues of the zebrafish homologs was analyzed using paralogue-specific qPCR assays. Global gene expression changes in muscle of zebrafish fed with plant-based diets were moderate, with the highest changes observed in the soy diet-fed fish, and no change for the pea diet-fed fish compared to the control diet. Among the differentially expressed genes were mylpfb, hsp90aa1.1, col2a1a, and odc1, which are important in regulating muscle growth, maintaining muscle structure and function, and muscle tissue homeostasis. Furthermore, those genes and their paralogues were differentially expressed in Atlantic salmon fed with the equivalent percentage of soy or wheat protein containing diets. Some of these genes were similarly regulated in both species while others showed species-specific regulation. The present study expands our understanding on the molecular effects of plant ingredients in fish muscle. Ultimately, the knowledge gained would be of importance for the improved formulation of sustainable plant-based diets for the aquaculture industry.
Project description:The present study investigated nutritional programming in Atlantic salmon to improve utilisation of a vegetable-based diet. At first exogenous feeding, fry were fed either a marine-based diet (Diet Mstimulus, 80% fishmeal (FM)/4% fish oil (FO)) or a vegetable-based diet (Diet Vstimulus, 10% FM/0% FO) for 3 weeks. Subsequently, all fish were then fed under the same conditions with a commercial, marine-based, diet for 15 weeks and thereafter challenged with a second V diet (Diet Vchallenge, 10% FM/0% FO) for 6 weeks. Diploid and triploid siblings were run in parallel to examine ploidy effects. Growth performance, feed intake, nutrient utilisation and intestinal morphology were monitored. Fish initially given Diet Vstimulus (V-fish) showed 24 % higher growth rate and 23 % better feed efficiency compared with M-fish when later challenged with Diet Vchallenge. There was no difference in feed intake between nutritional histories, but increased nutrient retentions highlighted the improved utilisation of a V diet in V-fish. There were generally few significant effects of nutritional history or ploidy on enteritis scores in the distal intestine after the challenge phase as only V-triploids showed a significant increase (P<0·05) in total score. The data highlighted that the positive effects were most likely a result of nutritional programming and the ability to respond better when challenged later in life may be attributed to physiological and/or metabolic changes induced by the stimulus. This novel study showed the potential of nutritional programming to improve the use of plant raw material ingredients in feeds for Atlantic salmon.
Project description:Current commercially available feeds for salmon are predominantly made of plant ingredients, with consequent changes to the composition and contents of a range of nutrients and other components in the diet. There are concerns that, with these major changes in raw materials, new feeds will affect not only the composition and contents of nutrients, but also the bioavailability and, combined with the limited knowledge of micronutrient requirements for Atlantic salmon, this might impact growth performance and health of the fish. The present study investigated the effects of graded levels of a micronutrient package supplemented to feeds formulated with low levels of marine ingredients and fed to diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon throughout the freshwater phase. Specifically, fish were fed three diets containing low levels of FM and FO and identical in formulation other than being supplemented with 3 levels (L1, 100 %; L2, 200 % and L3, 400 %) of a micronutrient mix formulated as a modification of current nutrient levels reported for salmon. Duplicate groups of diploid and triploid parr were fed the experimental diets from around 30 g to seawater transfer and the effects on growth performance, feed efficiency, biochemical composition, liver histology, hepatic gene expression (transcriptome) and smoltification efficiency determined. Microarray analysis revealed that the hepatic transcriptome profile of diploid fish fed diet L2 was more similar to that observed in triploids fed diet L3 than to those fed L2, suggesting that micronutrient requirements of triploid salmon may differ from levels accepted in diploid salmon. Different levels of micronutrient supplementation affected the expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular sterol biosynthesis pathways (steroid and terpenoid backbone synthesis) were down-regulated in both L2-fed diploids and L3-fed triploids when compared with diet L1-fed diploids and triploids, respectively. Gene sets analysis showed an up-regulation of genes involved in immune processes in triploid salmon fed diet L3. Another biological category affected by diet in triploid salmon was genetic information processing. In fish fed diet L3 down-regulation of RNA degradation, proteasome, RNA polymerase, spliceosome and ribosome was observed, suggesting a decrease in protein turnover in this group, which may indicate a decrease in energy expenditure. In addition, one-carbon metabolism was affected by diet in diploid and triploid salmon.