Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium.
ABSTRACT: Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary.
Project description:A Gram-negative strain (TJ) capable of growing aerobically on mixed phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the Haihe estuary, Tianjin, China. It was identified as belonging to the Sphingobium genus on the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA and gyrb gene sequencing. The batch tests for biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by the Sphingobium sp. TJ showed that the optimum conditions were 30 °C, pH 7.0, and the absence of NaCl. Stain TJ could tolerate up to 4% NaCl in minimal salt medium supplemented with DBP, although the DBP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased. In addition, substrate tests showed that strain TJ could utilize shorter side-chained PAEs, such as dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate, but could not metabolize long-chained PAEs, such as di-n-octyl phthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biodegradation characteristics of DBP by a member of the Sphingobium genus.
Project description:A newly isolated bacterial strain SHJ was found to be capable of degrading diethyl phthalate (DEP) very efficiently. Its growth characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence were analyzed. Its whole genome was also sequenced. Strain SHJ was identified as Sphingobium yanoikuyae SHJ.
Project description:A bacterium capable of utilizing dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-<i>n</i>-butyl phthalate (DBP), and diisobuthyl phthalate (DIBP) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from shallow aquifer sediments. The strain was identified as <i>Sphingobium yanoikuyae</i> SHJ based on morphological characteristics, 16S rDNA gene phylogeny, and whole genome average nucleotide identity (ANI). The degradation half-life of DBP with substrate concentration of 8.5 and 50.0 mg/L by strain SHJ was 99.7 and 101.4 hours, respectively. The optimum degradation rate of DBP by SHJ was observed at 30°C and weak alkaline (pH 7.5). Genome sequence of the strain SHJ showed a circular chromosome and additional two circular plasmids with whole genome size of 5,669,383 bp and GC content of 64.23%. Functional annotation of SHJ revealed a total of 5,402 genes, with 5,183 protein-encoding genes, 143 pseudogenes, and 76 noncoding RNA genes. Based on genome annotation, 44 genes were identified to be involved in PAEs hydrolysis potentially. Besides, a region with size of about 6.9 kb comprised of seven ORFs, which is located on the smaller plasmid pSES189, was presumed to be responsible for the biodegradation of phthalate. These results provide insights into the genetic basis of DBP biodegradation in this strain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Microbial oxidative degradation is a potential way of removing pollutants such as heterocycles from the environment. During this process, reactive oxygen species or other oxidants are inevitably produced, and may cause damage to DNA, proteins, and membranes, thereby decreasing the degradation rate. Carotenoids can serve as membrane-integrated antioxidants, protecting cells from oxidative stress. FINDINGS: Several genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were cloned and characterized from a carbazole-degrading bacterium Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5. In addition, a yellow-pigmented carotenoid synthesized by strain XLDN2-5 was identified as zeaxanthin that was synthesized from ?-carotene through ?-cryptoxanthin. The amounts of zeaxanthin and hydrogen peroxide produced were significantly and simultaneously enhanced during the biodegradation of heterocycles (carbazole < carbazole + benzothiophene < carbazole + dibenzothiophene). These higher production levels were consistent with the transcriptional increase of the gene encoding phytoene desaturase, one of the key enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5 can enhance the synthesis of zeaxanthin, one of the carotenoids, which may modulate membrane fluidity and defense against intracellular oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the positive role of carotenoids in the biodegradation of heterocycles, while elucidating the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the Sphingobium genus.
Project description:Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5 is an efficient carbazole-degrading strain. Carbazole-degrading genes are accompanied on both sides by two copies of IS6100 elements. Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of strain XLDN2-5, which may provide important clues as to how it recruited exogenous genes to establish pathways to degrade the xenobiotics.
Project description:Background: Green micro-alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a Chlorophyte), can be cultured in the laboratory heterotrophically or photo-heterotrophically in Tris- Phosphate- Acetate (TAP) medium, which contains acetate as the carbon source. Chlamydomonas can convert acetate in the TAP medium to glucose via the glyoxylate cycle, a pathway present in many microbes and higher plants. A novel bacterial strain, CC4533, was isolated from a contaminated TAP agar medium culture plate of a Chlamydomonas wild type strain. In this article, we present our research on the isolation, and biochemical and molecular characterizations of CC4533. Methods: We conducted several microbiological tests and spectrophotometric analyses to biochemically characterize CC4533. The 16S rRNA gene of CC4533 was partially sequenced for taxonomic identification. We monitored the growth of CC4533 on Tris-Phosphate (TP) agar medium (lacks a carbon source) containing different sugars, aromatic compounds and saturated hydrocarbons, to see if CC4533 can use these chemicals as the sole source of carbon. Results: CC4533 is a Gram-negative, non-enteric yellow pigmented, aerobic, mesophilic bacillus. It is alpha-hemolytic and oxidase-positive. CC4533 can ferment glucose, sucrose and lactose, is starch hydrolysis-negative, resistant to penicillin, polymyxin B and chloramphenicol. CC4533 is sensitive to neomycin. Preliminary spectrophotometric analyses indicate that CC4533 produces b-carotenes. NCBI-BLAST analyses of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence of CC4533 show 99.55% DNA sequence identity to that of Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain PR86 and S. yanoikuyae strain NRB095. CC4533 can use cyclo-chloroalkanes, saturated hydrocarbons present in car motor oil, polyhydroxyalkanoate, and mono- and poly-cyclic aromatic compounds, as sole carbon sources for growth. Conclusions: Taxonomically, CC4533 is very closely related to the alpha-proteobacterium S. yanoikuyae, whose genome has been sequenced. Future research is needed to probe the potential of CC4533 for environmental bioremediation. Whole genome sequencing of CC4533 will confirm if it is a novel strain of S. yanoikuyae or a new Sphingobium species.