Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Facilitates Implementation of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines for Lung Cancer Biomarker Testing and Identifies Patients Who May Benefit From Enrollment in Mechanism-Driven Clinical Trials.
ABSTRACT: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recommend testing for EGFR, BRAF, ERBB2, and MET mutations; ALK, ROS1, and RET rearrangements; and MET amplification. We investigated the feasibility and utility of comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP), a hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) test, in clinical practice.CGP was performed to a mean coverage depth of 576× on 6,832 consecutive cases of NSCLC (2012-2015). Genomic alterations (GAs) (point mutations, small indels, copy number changes, and rearrangements) involving EGFR, ALK, BRAF, ERBB2, MET, ROS1, RET, and KRAS were recorded. We also evaluated lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases without GAs, involving these eight genes.The median age of the patients was 64 years (range: 13-88 years) and 53% were female. Among the patients studied, 4,876 (71%) harbored at least one GA involving EGFR (20%), ALK (4.1%), BRAF (5.7%), ERBB2 (6.0%), MET (5.6%), ROS1 (1.5%), RET (2.4%), or KRAS (32%). In the remaining cohort of lung AD without these known drivers, 273 cancer-related genes were altered in at least 0.1% of cases, including STK11 (21%), NF1 (13%), MYC (9.8%), RICTOR (6.4%), PIK3CA (5.4%), CDK4 (4.3%), CCND1 (4.0%), BRCA2 (2.5%), NRAS (2.3%), BRCA1 (1.7%), MAP2K1 (1.2%), HRAS (0.7%), NTRK1 (0.7%), and NTRK3 (0.2%).CGP is practical and facilitates implementation of the NCCN guidelines for NSCLC by enabling simultaneous detection of GAs involving all seven driver oncogenes and KRAS. Furthermore, without additional tissue use or cost, CGP identifies patients with "pan-negative" lung AD who may benefit from enrollment in mechanism-driven clinical trials.National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recommend testing for several genomic alterations (GAs). The feasibility and utility of comprehensive genomic profiling were studied in NSCLC and in lung adenocarcinoma (AD) without GAs. Of patients with NSCLC, 71% harbored at least one GA to a gene listed in the guidelines or KRAS; 273 cancer-related genes were altered in at least 0.1% of the AD cases. Although logistical and administrative hurdles limit the widespread use of next-generation sequencing, the data confirm the feasibility and potential utility of comprehensive genomic profiling in clinical practice.
Project description:Identification of clinically relevant oncogenic drivers in advanced cancer is critical in selecting appropriate targeted therapy. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based clinical cancer gene assay, we performed comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of advanced cases of lung adenocarcinoma.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors from 51 lung adenocarcinoma patients whose tumors previously tested negative for EGFR/KRAS/ALK by conventional methods were collected, and CGP was performed via hybridization capture of 4,557 exons from 287 cancer-related genes and 47 introns from 19 genes frequently rearranged in cancer.Genomic profiles of all 51 cases were obtained, with a median coverage of 564x and a total of 190 individual genomic alterations (GAs). GAs per specimen was a mean of 3.7 (range 0-10).Cancer genomes are characterized by 50% (80/190) non-synonymous base substitutions, 15% (29/190) insertions or deletion, and 3% (5/190) splice site mutation. TP53 mutation was the most common GAs (15%, n=29/190), followed by CDKN2A homozygous loss (5%, n=10/190), KRAS mutation (4%, n=8/190), EGFR mutation (4%, n=8/190) and MDM2 amplification (2%, n=5/190). As per NCCN guidelines, targetable GAs were identified in 16 patients (31%) (BRAF mutation [n=1], EGFR mutation [n=8], ERBB2 mutation [n=4], MET amplification [n=1], KIF5B-RET rearrangement [n=2], CCDC6-RET rearrangement [n=1], CD74-ROS1 rearrangement [n=1], EZR-ROS1 rearrangement [n=5], and SLC34A2-ROS1 rearrangement [n=1]).Fifty eight percent of patients wild type by standard testing for EGFR/KRAS/ALK have GAs identifiable by CGP that suggest benefit from target therapy. CGP used when standard molecular testing for NSCLC is negative can reveal additional avenues of benefit from targeted therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Molecular testing of lung adenocarcinoma for oncogenic driver mutations has become standard in pathology practice. The aim of the study was to analyze the EGFR, KRAS, ALK, RET, ROS1, BRAF, ERBB2, MET and PIK3CA mutational status in a representative cohort of Swiss patients with lung adenocarcinoma and to correlate the mutational status with clinicopathological patient characteristics. METHODS:All patients who underwent molecular testing of newly diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma during a 4-year period (2014-2018) were included. Molecular analyses were performed with Sanger sequencing (n = 158) and next generation sequencing (n = 311). ALK, ROS1 and RET fusion gene analyses were also performed with fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry/immunocytochemistry. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the medical records. RESULTS:Of 469 patients with informative EGFR mutation analyses, 90 (19.2%) had EGFR mutations. KRAS mutations were present in 33.9% of the patients, while 6.0% of patients showed ALK rearrangement. BRAF, ERBB2, MET and PIK3CA mutations and ROS1 and RET rearrangements were found in 2.6%, 1.9%, 1.9%, 1.5%, 1.7% and 0.8% of the patients, respectively. EGFR mutation was significantly associated with female gender and never smoking status. ALK translocations were more frequent in never smokers, while KRAS mutations were more commonly found in ever smokers. The association between KRAS mutational status and female gender was statistically significant only on multivariate analysis after adjusting for smoking. CONCLUSION:The EGFR mutation rate in the current study is among the higher previously reported mutation rates, while the frequencies of KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2 and PIK3CA mutations and ALK, ROS1 and RET rearrangements are similar to the results of previous reports. EGFR and KRAS mutations were significantly associated with gender and smoking. ALK rearrangements showed a significant association with smoking status alone.
Project description:The discovery of chromosomal rearrangements involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has stimulated renewed interest in oncogenic fusions as potential therapeutic targets. Recently, genetic alterations in ROS1 and RET were identified in patients with NSCLC. Like ALK, genetic alterations in ROS1 and RET involve chromosomal rearrangements that result in the formation of chimeric fusion kinases capable of oncogenic transformation. Notably, ROS1 and RET rearrangements are rarely found with other genetic alterations, such as EGFR, KRAS, or ALK. This finding suggests that both ROS1 and RET are independent oncogenic drivers that may be viable therapeutic targets. In initial screening studies, ROS1 and RET rearrangements were identified at similar frequencies (approximately 1%-2%), using a variety of genotyping techniques. Importantly, patients with either ROS1 or RET rearrangements appear to have unique clinical and pathologic features that may facilitate identification and enrichment strategies. These features may in turn expedite enrollment in clinical trials evaluating genotype-directed therapies in these rare patient populations. In this review, we summarize the molecular biology, clinical features, detection, and targeting of ROS1 and RET rearrangements in NSCLC.
Project description:Rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene (RET) fusions represent a potentially targetable oncogenic driver in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Imaging features and metastatic patterns of advanced RET fusion-positive (RET+) NSCLC are not well established. Our goal was to compare the imaging features and patterns of metastases in RET+, ALK+ and ROS1+ NSCLC. Patients with RET+, ALK+, or ROS1+ NSCLC seen at our institution between January 2014 and December 2018 with available pre-treatment imaging were identified. The clinicopathologic features, imaging characteristics, and the distribution of metastases were reviewed and compared. We identified 215 patients with NSCLC harboring RET, ALK, or ROS1 gene fusion (RET = 32; ALK = 116; ROS1 = 67). Patients with RET+ NSCLC were older at presentation compared to ALK+ and ROS1+ patients (median age: RET = 64 years; ALK = 51 years, p < 0.001; ROS = 54 years, p = 0.042) and had a higher frequency of neuroendocrine histology (RET = 12%; ALK = 2%, p = 0.025; ROS1 = 0%, p = 0.010). Primary tumors in RET+ patients were more likely to be peripheral (RET = 69%; ALK = 47%, p = 0.029; ROS1 = 36%, p = 0.003), whereas lobar location, size, and density were comparable across the three groups. RET+ NSCLC was associated with a higher frequency of brain metastases at diagnosis compared to ROS1+ NSCLC (RET = 32%, ROS1 = 10%; p = 0.039. Metastatic patterns were otherwise similar across the three molecular subgroups, with high incidences of lymphangitic carcinomatosis, pleural metastases, and sclerotic bone metastases. RET+ NSCLC shares several distinct radiologic features and metastatic spread with ALK+ and ROS1+ NSCLC. These features may suggest the presence of RET fusions and help identify patients who may benefit from further molecular genotyping.
Project description:RET rearrangements are targetable, oncogenic lung cancer drivers. While previous series have shown durable clinical benefit with pemetrexed-based therapies in ALK- and ROS1-rearranged lung cancers, the benefits of pemetrexed-based treatments in patients with RET-rearranged lung cancers relative to other genomic subsets have not previously been explored.A retrospective review of patients with pathologically confirmed stage IIIB/IV lung adenocarcinomas and evidence of a RET, ROS1, or ALK rearrangement, or a KRAS mutation was conducted. Patients were eligible if they received treatment with pemetrexed alone or in combination. The primary outcome of progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary outcomes of overall response rate (ORR, RECIST v1.1), time to progression (TTP), and time to treatment discontinuation were compared between RET-rearranged and groups of ROS1-rearranged, ALK-rearranged, and KRAS-mutant lung cancers.We evaluated 104 patients. Patients with RET-rearranged lung cancers (n = 18) had a median PFS of 19 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 12-not reached (NR)] that was comparable with patients with ROS1- (23 months, 95% CI 14-NR, n = 10) and ALK-rearranged (19 months, 95% CI 15-36, n = 36) lung cancers, and significantly improved compared with patients with KRAS-mutant lung cancers (6 months, 95% CI 5-9, P < 0.001, n = 40). ORR (45%), median TTP (20 months, 95% CI 17-NR), and median time to treatment discontinuation (21 months, 95% CI 6-NR) in patients with RET-rearranged lung cancers were not significantly different compared with patients with ALK- and ROS1-rearranged lung cancers, and improved compared with patients with KRAS-mutant lung cancers.Durable benefits with pemetrexed-based therapies in RET-rearranged lung cancers are comparable with ALK- and ROS1-rearranged lung cancers. When selecting therapies for patients with RET-rearranged lung cancers, pemetrexed-containing regimens should be considered.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of known oncogenic driver mutations in female never-smoker Asian patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We analyzed 214 mutations across 26 lung cancer-associated genes and three fusion genes using the MassARRAY LungCarta Panel and the ALK, ROS1, and RET fusion assays in 198 consecutively resected lung adenocarcinomas from never-smoker females at a single institution. EGFR mutation, which was the most frequent driver gene mutation, was detected in 124 (63%) cases. Mutation of ALK, KRAS, PIK3CA, ERBB2, BRAF, ROS1, and RET genesoccurred in 7%, 4%, 2.5%, 1.5%, 1%, 1%, and 1% of cases, respectively. Thus, 79% of lung adenocarcinomas from never-smoker females harbored well-known oncogenic mutations. Mucinous adenocarcinomas tended to have a lower frequency of known driver gene mutations than other histologic subtypes. EGFR mutation was associated with older age and a predominantly acinar pattern, while ALK rearrangement was associated with younger age and a predominantly solid pattern. Lung cancer in never-smoker Asian females is a distinct entity, with the majority of these cancers developing from oncogenic mutations.
Project description:Fusions of the RET and ROS1 protein tyrosine kinase oncogenes with several partner genes were recently identified as new targetable genetic aberrations in cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lacking activating EGFR, KRAS, ALK, BRAF, or HER2 oncogene aberrations. RET and ROS1 fusion-positive tumors are mainly observed in young, female, and/or never smoking patients. Studies based on in vitro and in vivo (i.e., mouse) models and studies of several fusion-positive patients indicate that inhibiting the kinase activity of the RET and ROS1 fusion proteins is a promising therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, there are several ongoing clinical trials aimed at examining the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against RET and ROS1 proteins in patients with fusion-positive lung cancer. Other gene fusions (NTRK1, NRG1, and FGFR1/2/3) that are targetable by existing TKIs have also been identified in NSCLCs. Options for personalized lung cancer therapy will be increased with the help of multiplex diagnosis systems able to detect multiple druggable gene fusions.
Project description:Precision medicine requires accurate multi-gene clinical diagnostics. We describe the implementation of an Illumina TruSight Tumor (TST) clinical NGS diagnostic framework and parallel validation of a NanoString RNA-based ALK, RET, and ROS1 gene fusion assay for combined analysis of treatment predictive alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a regional healthcare region of Sweden (Scandinavia). The TST panel was clinically validated in 81 tumors (99% hotspot mutation concordance), after which 533 consecutive NSCLCs were collected during one-year of routine clinical analysis in the healthcare region (~90% advanced stage patients). The NanoString assay was evaluated in 169 of 533 cases. In the 533-sample cohort 79% had 1-2 variants, 12% >2 variants and 9% no detected variants. Ten gene fusions (five ALK, three RET, two ROS1) were detected in 135 successfully analyzed cases (80% analysis success rate). No ALK or ROS1 FISH fusion positive case was missed by the NanoString assay. Stratification of the 533-sample cohort based on actionable alterations in 11 oncogenes revealed that 66% of adenocarcinomas, 13% of squamous carcinoma (SqCC) and 56% of NSCLC not otherwise specified harbored ?1 alteration. In adenocarcinoma, 10.6% of patients (50.3% if including KRAS) could potentially be eligible for emerging therapeutics, in addition to the 15.3% of patients eligible for standard EGFR or ALK inhibitors. For squamous carcinoma corresponding proportions were 4.4% (11.1% with KRAS) vs 2.2%. In conclusion, multiplexed NGS and gene fusion analyses are feasible in NSCLC for clinical diagnostics, identifying notable proportions of patients potentially eligible for emerging molecular therapeutics.
Project description:Chromosomal rearrangements involving the gene ROS1 define a distinct molecular subset of NSCLCs with sensitivity to ROS1 inhibitors. Recent reports have suggested a significant overlap between ROS1 fusions and other oncogenic driver alterations, including mutations in EGFR and KRAS.We identified patients at our institution with ROS1-rearranged NSCLC who had undergone testing for genetic alterations in additional oncogenes, including EGFR, KRAS, and anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK). Clinicopathologic features and genetic testing results were reviewed. We also examined a separate database of ROS1-rearranged NSCLCs identified through the commercial FoundationOne assay (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA).Among 62 patients with ROS1-rearranged NSCLC evaluated at our institution, none harbored concurrent ALK fusions (0%) or EGFR activating mutations (0%). KRAS mutations were detected in two cases (3.2%), one of which harbored a concurrent noncanonical KRAS I24N mutation of unknown biological significance. In a separate ROS1 fluorescence in situ hybridization-positive case, targeted sequencing failed to confirm a ROS1 fusion but instead identified a KRAS G13D mutation. No concurrent mutations in B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase gene (BRAF), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 gene (ERBB2), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha gene (PIK3CA), AKT/serine threonine kinase 1 gene (AKT1), or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 gene (MAP2K1) were detected. Analysis of an independent data set of 166 ROS1-rearranged NSCLCs identified by FoundationOne demonstrated rare cases with co-occurring driver mutations in EGFR (one of 166) and KRAS (three of 166) and no cases with co-occurring ROS1 and ALK rearrangements.ROS1 rearrangements rarely overlap with alterations in EGFR, KRAS, ALK, or other targetable oncogenes in NSCLC.