High-Throughput, High-Resolution Mapping of Protein Localization in Mammalian Brain by In Vivo Genome Editing.
ABSTRACT: A scalable and high-throughput method to identify precise subcellular localization of endogenous proteins is essential for integrative understanding of a cell at the molecular level. Here, we developed a simple and generalizable technique to image endogenous proteins with high specificity, resolution, and contrast in single cells in mammalian brain tissue. The technique, single-cell labeling of endogenous proteins by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair (SLENDR), uses in vivo genome editing to insert a sequence encoding an epitope tag or a fluorescent protein to a gene of interest by CRISPR-Cas9-mediated homology-directed repair (HDR). Single-cell, HDR-mediated genome editing was achieved by delivering the editing machinery to dividing neuronal progenitors through in utero electroporation. We demonstrate that SLENDR allows rapid determination of the localization and dynamics of many endogenous proteins in various cell types, regions, and ages in the brain. Thus, SLENDR provides a high-throughput platform to map the subcellular localization of endogenous proteins with the resolution of micro- to nanometers in the brain.
Project description:Precise genome editing via homology-directed repair (HDR) in targeted cells, particularly in vivo, provides an invaluable tool for biomedical research. However, HDR has been considered to be largely restricted to dividing cells, making it challenging to apply the technique in postmitotic neurons. Here we show that precise genome editing via HDR is possible in mature postmitotic neurons as well as mitotic cells in mice brain by combining CRISPR-Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage and the efficient delivery of donor template with adeno-associated virus (AAV). Using this strategy, we achieved efficient tagging of endogenous proteins in primary and organotypic cultures in vitro and developing, adult, aged, and pathological brains in vivo. Thus, AAV- and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated HDR will be broadly useful for precise genome editing in basic and translational neuroscience.
Project description:Genome editing using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) predominantly induces non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which generates random insertions or deletions, whereas homology-directed repair (HDR), which generates precise recombination products, is useful for wider applications. However, the factors that determine the ratio of HDR to NHEJ products after CRISPR/Cas9 editing remain unclear, and methods by which the proportion of HDR products can be increased have not yet been fully established. We systematically analyzed the HDR and NHEJ products after genome editing using various modified guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 variants with an enhanced conformational checkpoint to improve the fidelity at endogenous gene loci in HEK293T cells and HeLa cells. We found that these modified gRNAs and Cas9 variants were able to enhance HDR in both single-nucleotide substitutions and a multi-kb DNA fragment insertion. Our results suggest that the original CRISPR/Cas9 system from the bacterial immune system is not necessarily the best option for the induction of HDR in genome editing and indicate that the modulation of the kinetics of conformational checkpoints of Cas9 can optimize the HDR/NHEJ ratio.
Project description:We present a CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing strategy to systematically tag endogenous proteins with fluorescent tags in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). To date, we have generated multiple hiPSC lines with monoallelic green fluorescent protein tags labeling 10 proteins representing major cellular structures. The tagged proteins include alpha tubulin, beta actin, desmoplakin, fibrillarin, nuclear lamin B1, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIB, paxillin, Sec61 beta, tight junction protein ZO1, and Tom20. Our genome-editing methodology using Cas9/crRNA ribonuclear protein and donor plasmid coelectroporation, followed by fluorescence-based enrichment of edited cells, typically resulted in <0.1-4% homology-directed repair (HDR). Twenty-five percent of clones generated from each edited population were precisely edited. Furthermore, 92% (36/39) of expanded clonal lines displayed robust morphology, genomic stability, expression and localization of the tagged protein to the appropriate subcellular structure, pluripotency-marker expression, and multilineage differentiation. It is our conclusion that, if cell lines are confirmed to harbor an appropriate gene edit, pluripotency, differentiation potential, and genomic stability are typically maintained during the clonal line-generation process. The data described here reveal general trends that emerged from this systematic gene-tagging approach. Final clonal lines corresponding to each of the 10 cellular structures are now available to the research community.
Project description:CRISPR/Cas9 efficiently induces targeted mutations via non-homologous-end-joining but for genome editing, precise, homology-directed repair (HDR) of endogenous DNA stretches is a prerequisite. To favor HDR, many approaches interfere with the repair machinery or manipulate Cas9 itself. Using Medaka we show that the modification of 5' ends of long dsDNA donors strongly enhances HDR, favors efficient single-copy integration by retaining a monomeric donor conformation thus facilitating successful gene replacement or tagging.
Project description:Precise genome editing/correction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by CRISPR-Cas9 by homology-dependent repair (HDR) is limited by the competing error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway. Here, we define a safer and efficient system that promotes HDR-based precise genome editing, while reducing NHEJ locally, only at CRISPR-Cas9-induced DSBs. We fused a dominant-negative mutant of 53BP1, DN1S, to Cas9 nucleases, and the resulting Cas9-DN1S fusion proteins significantly block NHEJ events specifically at Cas9 cut sites and improve HDR frequency; HDR frequency reached 86% in K562 cells. Cas9-DN1S protein maintains this effect in different human cell types, including leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) patient-derived immortalized B lymphocytes, where nearly 70% of alleles were repaired by HDR and 7% by NHEJ. Our CRISPR-Cas9-DN1S system is clinically relevant to improve the efficiencies of precise gene correction/insertion, significantly reducing error-prone NHEJ events at the nuclease cleavage site, while avoiding the unwanted effects of global NHEJ inhibition.
Project description:Precise genome-editing relies on the repair of sequence-specific nuclease-induced DNA nicking or double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homology-directed repair (HDR). However, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), an error-prone repair, acts concurrently, reducing the rate of high-fidelity edits. The identification of genome-editing conditions that favor HDR over NHEJ has been hindered by the lack of a simple method to measure HDR and NHEJ directly and simultaneously at endogenous loci. To overcome this challenge, we developed a novel, rapid, digital PCR-based assay that can simultaneously detect one HDR or NHEJ event out of 1,000 copies of the genome. Using this assay, we systematically monitored genome-editing outcomes of CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), Cas9 nickases, catalytically dead Cas9 fused to FokI, and transcription activator-like effector nuclease at three disease-associated endogenous gene loci in HEK293T cells, HeLa cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cells. Although it is widely thought that NHEJ generally occurs more often than HDR, we found that more HDR than NHEJ was induced under multiple conditions. Surprisingly, the HDR/NHEJ ratios were highly dependent on gene locus, nuclease platform, and cell type. The new assay system, and our findings based on it, will enable mechanistic studies of genome-editing and help improve genome-editing technology.
Project description:The field of genome editing was founded on the establishment of methods, such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) system, used to target DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, the efficiency of genome editing also largely depends on the endogenous cellular repair machinery. Here, we report that the specific modulation of targeting vectors to provide 3' overhangs at both ends increased the efficiency of homology-directed repair (HDR) in embryonic stem cells. We applied the modulated targeting vectors to produce homologous recombinant mice directly by pronuclear injection, but the frequency of HDR was low. Furthermore, we combined our method with the CRISPR/Cas9 system, resulting in a significant increase in HDR frequency. Thus, our HDR-based method, enhanced homologous recombination for genome targeting (eHOT), is a new and powerful method for genome engineering.
Project description:The CRISPR-Cas9 system is used for genome editing in mammalian cells by introducing double-strand breaks (DSBs) which are predominantly repaired via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or to lesser extent by homology-directed repair (HDR). To enhance HDR for improving the introduction of precise genetic modifications, we tested fusion proteins of Cas9 nuclease with HDR effectors to enforce their localization at DSBs. Using a traffic-light DSB repair reporter (TLR) system for the quantitative detection of HDR and NHEJ events in human HEK cells we found that Cas9 fusions with CtIP, Rad52, and Mre11, but not Rad51C promote HDR up to twofold in human cells and significantly reduce NHEJ events. We further compared, as an alternative to the direct fusion with Cas9, two components configurations that associate CtIP fusion proteins with a Cas9-SunTag fusion or with guide RNA that includes MS2 binding loops. We found that the Cas9-CtIP fusion and the MS2-CtIP system, but not the SunTag approach increase the ratio of HDR/NHEJ 4.5-6-fold. Optimal results are obtained by the combined use of Cas9-CtIP and MS2-CtIP, shifting the HDR/NHEJ ratio by a factor of 14.9. Thus, our findings provide a simple and effective tool to promote precise gene modifications in mammalian cells.
Project description:Development of genome editing methods created new opportunities for the development of etiology-based therapies of hereditary diseases. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 can correct p.F508del mutation in the CFTR gene in the CFTE29o- cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We used several combinations of Cas9, sgRNA and ssODN and measured editing efficiency in the endogenous CFTR gene and in the co-transfected plasmid containing the CFTR locus with the p.F508del mutation. The non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) frequency in the CFTR gene in the CFTE29o- cells varied from 1.25% to 2.54% of alleles. The best homology-directed repair (HDR) frequency in the endogenous CFTR locus was 1.42% of alleles. In iPSCs, the NHEJ frequency in the CFTR gene varied from 5.5% to 12.13% of alleles. The best HDR efficacy was 2.38% of alleles. Our results show that p.F508del mutation editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in CF patient-derived iPSCs is a relatively rare event and subsequent cell selection and cultivation should be carried out.