Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor Genotype and Haplotype Investigation of Natural Killer Cells from an Australian Population of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients.
ABSTRACT: Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes encode for activating and inhibitory surface receptors, which are correlated with the regulation of Natural Killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity. Reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity has been consistently reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients, and KIR haplotypes and allelic polymorphism remain to be investigated. The aim of this article was to conduct a pilot study to examine KIR genotypes, haplotypes, and allelic polymorphism in CFS/ME patients and nonfatigued controls (NFCs). Comparison of KIR and allelic polymorphism frequencies revealed no significant differences between 20 CFS/ME patients and 20 NFCs. A lower frequency of the telomeric A/B motif (P < 0.05) was observed in CFS/ME patients compared with NFCs. This pilot study is the first to report the differences in the frequency of KIR on the telomeric A/B motif in CFS/ME patients. Further studies with a larger CFS/ME cohort are required to validate these results.
Project description:The impact of natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcome is still debated due to the complexity of graft parameters, HLA class I environment, the nature of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)/KIR ligand genetic combinations studied, and KIR+ NK cell repertoire size. KIR genes are known to be polymorphic in terms of gene content, copy number variation, and number of alleles. These allelic polymorphisms may impact both the phenotype and function of KIR+ NK cells. We, therefore, speculate that polymorphisms may alter donor KIR+ NK cell phenotype/function thus modulating post-HSCT KIR+ NK cell alloreactivity. To investigate KIR allele polymorphisms of all KIR genes, we developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology on a MiSeq platform. To ensure the reliability and specificity of our method, genomic DNA from well-characterized cell lines were used; high-resolution KIR typing results obtained were then compared to those previously reported. Two different bioinformatic pipelines were used allowing the attribution of sequencing reads to specific KIR genes and the assignment of KIR alleles for each KIR gene. Our results demonstrated successful long-range KIR gene amplifications of all reference samples using intergenic KIR primers. The alignment of reads to the human genome reference (hg19) using BiRD pipeline or visualization of data using Profiler software demonstrated that all KIR genes were completely sequenced with a sufficient read depth (mean 317× for all loci) and a high percentage of mapping (mean 93% for all loci). Comparison of high-resolution KIR typing obtained to those published data using exome capture resulted in a reported concordance rate of 95% for centromeric and telomeric KIR genes. Overall, our results suggest that NGS can be used to investigate the broad KIR allelic polymorphism. Hence, these data improve our knowledge, not only on KIR+ NK cell alloreactivity in HSCT but also on the role of KIR+ NK cell populations in control of viral infections and diseases.
Project description:Natural killer cells (NK cells) play a major role in the immune response to cancer. An important element of NK target recognition is the binding of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common types of inflammation-based cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of KIR genes and HLA class I and II alleles in 1074 CRC patients and 1272 controls. We imputed data from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Illumina OncoArray to identify associations at HLA (HLA-A, B, C, DPB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1) and KIRs (HIBAG and KIR*IMP, respectively). For association analysis, we used PLINK (v1.9), the PyHLA software, and R version 3.4.0. Only three SNP markers showed suggestive associations (p < 10-3; rs16896742, rs28367832, and rs9277952). The frequency of KIR2DS3 was significantly increased in the CRC patients compared to healthy controls (p < 0.005). Our results suggest that the implication of NK cells in CRC may not act through allele combinations in KIR and HLA genes. Much larger studies in ethnically homogeneous populations are needed to rule out the possible role of allelic combinations in KIR and HLA genes in CRC risk.
Project description:Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of cell surface inhibitory or activating receptors expressed on natural killer cells and some subpopulations of T lymphocytes. KIR genes are clustered in the 19q13.4 region and are characterized by both allelic (high numbers of variants) and haplotypic (different numbers of genes for inhibitory and activating receptors on individual chromosomes) polymorphism. This contributes to diverse susceptibility to diseases and other clinical situations. Associations of KIR genes, as well as of genes for their ligands, with selected diseases such as psoriasis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent spontaneous abortion, and non-small cell lung cancer are discussed in the context of NK and T cell functions.
Project description:Previously, we showed that Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR)3DS1 homozygotes (hmz) are more frequent in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) than in recently HIV infected (HIV+) individuals. KIR3DS1 encodes an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKR). The link between KIR genotype and HIV outcomes likely arises from the function that NK cells acquire through expression of particular NKRs. An initial screen of 97 HESN and 123 HIV+ subjects for the frequency of KIR region gene carriage observed between-group differences for several telomeric KIR region loci. In a larger set of up to 106 HESN and 439 HIV+ individuals, more HESN than HIV+ subjects were KIR3DS1 homozygotes, lacked a full length KIR2DS4 gene and carried the telomeric group B KIR haplotype motif, TB01. TB01 is characterized by the presence of KIR3DS1, KIR2DL5A, KIR2DS3/5 and KIR2DS1, in linkage disequilibrium with each other. We assessed which of the TB01 encoded KIR gene products contributed to NK cell responsiveness by stimulating NK cells from 8 HIV seronegative KIR3DS1 and TB01 motif homozygotes with 721.221 HLA null cells and evaluating the frequency of KIR3DS1+/-KIR2DL5+/-, KIR3DS1+/-KIR2DS1+/-, KIR3DS1+/-KIR2DS5+/- NK cells secreting IFN-? and/or expressing CD107a. A higher frequency of NK cells expressing, versus not, KIR3DS1 responded to 721.221 stimulation. KIR2DL5A+, KIR2DS1+ and KIR2DS5+ NK cells did not contribute to 721.221 responses or modulate those by KIR3DS1+ NK cells. Thus, of the TB01 KIR gene products, only KIR3DS1 conferred responsiveness to HLA-null stimulation, demonstrating its ligation can activate ex vivo NK cells.
Project description:Interactions between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands regulate the development and response of human natural killer (NK) cells. Natural selection drove an allele-level group A KIR haplotype and the HLA-C1 ligand to unusually high frequency in the Japanese, who provide a particularly informative population for investigating the mechanisms by which KIR and HLA polymorphism influence NK cell repertoire and function. HLA class I ligands increase the frequencies of NK cells expressing cognate KIR, an effect modified by gene dose, KIR polymorphism, and the presence of other cognate ligand-receptor pairs. The five common Japanese KIR3DLI allotypes have distinguishable inhibitory capacity, frequency of cellular expression, and level of cell surface expression as measured by antibody binding. Although KIR haplotypes encoding 3DL1*001 or 3DL1*005, the strongest inhibitors, have no activating KIR, the dominant haplotype encodes a moderate inhibitor, 3DL1*01502, plus functional forms of the activating receptors 2DL4 and 2DS4. In the population, certain combinations of KIR and HLA class I ligand are overrepresented or underrepresented in women, but not men, and thus influence female fitness and survival. These findings show how KIR-HLA interactions shape the genetic and phenotypic KIR repertoires for both individual humans and the population.
Project description:Background:Natural killer (NK) cells are known to mount a response against foreign target cells, where the absence of the dominant inhibitory killer Ig-like receptor (KIR)-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) interaction immensely lowers the threshold for NK cell activation. NK cells could thus constitute a vital part in the mucosal defense against cell-associated sexually transmitted diseases. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of hitherto unexplored KIR-HLA-incompatible NK cell interactions. Methods and findings:In vitro, healthy NK cells were cocultured with CD4+ T cells derived from human immunodeficiency virus-1 patients, and the KIR-specific NK cell cytotoxicity was measured using flow cytometry. Genotyping of KIR and HLA predicted the KIR-HLA interactions occurring during these 124 allogeneic encounters. KIR2DL1+ NK cells were seen as the strongest intrinsic responders in the absence of their ligand with a 3.2-fold increase in KIR2DL1+ NK cells in the total NK cell response. An association between the size of the alloreactive NK cell population and the amount of CD4+ T cell death (p?=?0.0023) and NK cell degranulation (p?=?0.0036) was only present in NK cell donors with an activating KIR haplotype. Conclusion:We demonstrate differences in the activating effect of KIR-HLA incompatibility according to the KIR involved, with KIR2DL1 as the strongest responder. An activating KIR haplotype optimized the contribution of KIR-HLA-incompatible NK cells in the total NK cell response.
Project description:Interactions between HLA class I molecules and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) control natural killer cell (NK) functions in immunity and reproduction. Encoded by genes on different chromosomes, these polymorphic ligands and receptors correlate highly with disease resistance and susceptibility. Although studied at low-resolution in many populations, high-resolution analysis of combinatorial diversity of HLA class I and KIR is limited to Asian and Amerindian populations with low genetic diversity. At the other end of the spectrum is the West African population investigated here: we studied 235 individuals, including 104 mother-child pairs, from the Ga-Adangbe of Ghana. This population has a rich diversity of 175 KIR variants forming 208 KIR haplotypes, and 81 HLA-A, -B and -C variants forming 190 HLA class I haplotypes. Each individual we studied has a unique compound genotype of HLA class I and KIR, forming 1-14 functional ligand-receptor interactions. Maintaining this exceptionally high polymorphism is balancing selection. The centromeric region of the KIR locus, encoding HLA-C receptors, is highly diverse whereas the telomeric region encoding Bw4-specific KIR3DL1, lacks diversity in Africans. Present in the Ga-Adangbe are high frequencies of Bw4-bearing HLA-B*53:01 and Bw4-lacking HLA-B*35:01, which otherwise are identical. Balancing selection at key residues maintains numerous HLA-B allotypes having and lacking Bw4, and also those of stronger and weaker interaction with LILRB1, a KIR-related receptor. Correspondingly, there is a balance at key residues of KIR3DL1 that modulate its level of cell-surface expression. Thus, capacity to interact with NK cells synergizes with peptide binding diversity to drive HLA-B allele frequency distribution. These features of KIR and HLA are consistent with ongoing co-evolution and selection imposed by a pathogen endemic to West Africa. Because of the prevalence of malaria in the Ga-Adangbe and previous associations of cerebral malaria with HLA-B*53:01 and KIR, Plasmodium falciparum is a candidate pathogen.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity toward self-cells is restrained by the inhibitory HLA class I-binding receptors CD94/NKG2A and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). CD94/NKG2A and KIRs are also essential for NK cell education, which is a dynamic functional maturation process where a constitutive binding of inhibitory receptors to cognate HLA class I molecules is required for NK cells to maintain their full cytotoxic capacity. Previously, we described autoantibodies to CD94/NKG2A in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study we analyzed sera from 191 patients with SLE, 119 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), 48 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and 100 healthy donors (HD) for autoantibodies to eight different KIRs. Anti-KIR autoantibodies were identified in sera from 23.0% of patients with SLE, 10.9% of patients with pSS, 12.5% of patients with SSc, and 3.0% of HD. IgG from anti-KIR-positive SLE patients reduced the degranulation and cytotoxicity of NK cells toward K562 tumor cells. The presence of anti-KIR-autoantibodies reacting with >3 KIRs was associated with an increased disease activity (p < 0.0001), elevated serum levels of IFN-? (p < 0.0001), nephritis (p = 0.001), and the presence of anti-Sm (p = 0.007), and anti-RNP (p = 0.003) autoantibodies in serum. Together these findings suggest that anti-KIR autoantibodies may contribute to the reduced function of NK cells in SLE patients, and that a defective NK cell function may be a risk factor for the development of lupus nephritis.
Project description:Interactions between killer-immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their HLA class I ligands are instrumental in natural killer (NK) cell regulation and protect normal tissue from NK cell attack. Human KIR haplotypes comprise genes encoding mainly inhibitory receptors (KIR A) or activating and inhibitory receptors (KIR B). A substantial fraction of humans lack ligands for inhibitory KIRs (iKIRs), that is, a 'missing ligand' genotype. KIR B/x and missing ligand genotypes may thus give rise to potentially autoreactive, unlicensed NK cells. Little is known regarding the impact of such genotypes in untransplanted acute myeloid leukemia (AML). For this study, NK cell phenotypes and KIR/HLA genotypes were determined in 81 AML patients who received immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride and low-dose IL-2 for relapse prevention (NCT01347996). We observed that presence of unlicensed NK cells impacted favorably on clinical outcome, in particular among patients harboring functional NK cells reflected by high expression of the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) NKp46. Genotype analyses suggested that the clinical benefit of high NCR expression was restricted to patients with a missing ligand genotype and/or a KIR B/x genotype. These data imply that functional NK cells are significant anti-leukemic effector cells in patients with KIR/HLA genotypes that favor NK cell autoreactivity.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) patients who receive killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) ligand-mismatched, T cell-depleted, allogeneic transplantation may have a reduced risk of relapse compared with patients who receive KIR ligand-matched grafts, suggesting the importance of this signaling axis in the natural killer (NK) cell-versus-MM effect. Expanding on this concept, IPH2101 (1-7F9), an anti-inhibitory KIR mAb, enhances NK-cell function against autologous MM cells by blocking the engagement of inhibitory KIR with cognate ligands, promoting immune complex formation and NK-cell cytotoxicity specifically against MM cell targets but not normal cells. IPH2101 prevents negative regulatory signals by inhibitory KIR, whereas lenalidomide augments NK-cell function and also appears to up-regulate ligands for activating NK-cell receptors on MM cells. Lenalidomide and a murine anti-inhibitory NK-cell receptor Ab mediate in vivo rejection of a lenalidomide-resistant tumor. These mechanistic, preclinical data support the use of a combination of IPH2101 and lenalidomide in a phase 2 trial for MM.