Oxidized dNTPs and the OGG1 and MUTYH DNA glycosylases combine to induce CAG/CTG repeat instability.
ABSTRACT: DNA trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion underlies several neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's disease (HD). Accumulation of oxidized DNA bases and their inefficient processing by base excision repair (BER) are among the factors suggested to contribute to TNR expansion. In this study, we have examined whether oxidation of the purine dNTPs in the dNTP pool provides a source of DNA damage that promotes TNR expansion. We demonstrate that during BER of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxodG) in TNR sequences, DNA polymerase ? (POL ?) can incorporate 8-oxodGMP with the formation of 8-oxodG:C and 8-oxodG:A mispairs. Their processing by the OGG1 and MUTYH DNA glycosylases generates closely spaced incisions on opposite DNA strands that are permissive for TNR expansion. Evidence in HD model R6/2 mice indicates that these DNA glycosylases are present in brain areas affected by neurodegeneration. Consistent with prevailing oxidative stress, the same brain areas contained increased DNA 8-oxodG levels and expression of the p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase. Our in vitro and in vivo data support a model where an oxidized dNTPs pool together with aberrant BER processing contribute to TNR expansion in non-replicating cells.
Project description:Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion is responsible for numerous human neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that DNA base excision repair (BER) can mediate TNR expansion and deletion by removing base lesions in different locations of a TNR tract, indicating that BER can promote or prevent TNR expansion in a damage location-dependent manner. In this study, we provide the first evidence that the repair of a DNA base lesion located in the loop region of a CAG repeat hairpin can remove the hairpin, attenuating repeat expansion. We found that an 8-oxoguanine located in the loop region of CAG hairpins of varying sizes was removed by OGG1 leaving an abasic site that was subsequently 5'-incised by AP endonuclease 1, introducing a single-strand breakage in the hairpin loop. This converted the hairpin into a double-flap intermediate with a 5'- and 3'-flap that was cleaved by flap endonuclease 1 and a 3'-5' endonuclease Mus81/Eme1, resulting in complete or partial removal of the CAG hairpin. This further resulted in prevention and attenuation of repeat expansion. Our results demonstrate that TNR expansion can be prevented via BER in hairpin loops that is coupled with the removal of TNR hairpins.
Project description:The repair protein 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine glycosylase (OGG1) initiates base excision repair (BER) in mammalian cells by removing the oxidized base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) from DNA. Interestingly, OGG1 has been implicated in somatic expansion of the trinucleotide repeat (TNR) sequence CAG/CTG. Furthermore, a 'toxic oxidation cycle' has been proposed for age-dependent expansion in somatic cells. In this cycle, duplex TNR DNA is (1) oxidized by endogenous species; (2) BER is initiated by OGG1 and the DNA is further processed by AP endonuclease 1 (APE1); (3) a stem-loop hairpin forms during strand-displacement synthesis by polymerase ? (pol ?); (4) the hairpin is ligated and (5) incorporated into duplex DNA to generate an expanded CAG/CTG region. This expanded region is again subject to oxidation and the cycle continues. We reported previously that the hairpin adopted by TNR repeats contains a hot spot for oxidation. This finding prompted us to examine the possibility that the generation of a hairpin during a BER event exacerbates the toxic oxidation cycle due to accumulation of damage. Therefore, in this work we used mixed-sequence and TNR substrates containing a site-specific 8-oxoG lesion to define the kinetic parameters of human OGG1 (hOGG1) activity on duplex and hairpin substrates. We report that hOGG1 activity on TNR duplexes is indistinguishable from a mixed-sequence control. Thus, BER is initiated on TNR sequences as readily as non-repetitive DNA in order to start the toxic oxidation cycle. However, we find that for hairpin substrates hOGG1 has reduced affinity and excises 8-oxoG at a significantly slower rate as compared to duplexes. Therefore, 8-oxoG is expected to accumulate in the hairpin intermediate. This damage-containing hairpin can then be incorporated into duplex, resulting in an expanded TNR tract that now contains an oxidative lesion. Thus, the cycle restarts and the DNA can incrementally expand.
Project description:Studies in knockout mice provide evidence that MSH2-MSH3 and the BER machinery promote trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion, yet how these two different repair pathways cause the mutation is unknown. Here we report the first molecular crosstalk mechanism, in which MSH2-MSH3 is used as a component of the BER machinery to cause expansion. On its own, pol ? fails to copy TNRs during DNA synthesis, and bypasses them on the template strand to cause deletion. Remarkably, MSH2-MSH3 not only stimulates pol ? to copy through the repeats but also enhances formation of the flap precursor for expansion. Our results provide direct evidence that MMR and BER, operating together, form a novel hybrid pathway that changes the outcome of TNR instability from deletion to expansion during the removal of oxidized bases. We propose that cells implement crosstalk strategies and share machinery when a canonical pathway is ineffective in removing a difficult lesion.
Project description:Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansions and deletions are associated with human neurodegeneration and cancer. However, their underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that CAG repeat expansions can be initiated by oxidative DNA base damage and fulfilled by base excision repair (BER), suggesting active roles for oxidative DNA damage and BER in TNR instability. Here, we provide the first evidence that oxidative DNA damage can induce CTG repeat deletions along with limited expansions in human cells. Biochemical characterization of BER in the context of (CTG)20 repeats further revealed that repeat instability correlated with the position of a base lesion in the repeat tract. A lesion located at the 5'-end of CTG repeats resulted in expansion, whereas a lesion located either in the middle or the 3'-end of the repeats led to deletions only. The positioning effects appeared to be determined by the formation of hairpins at various locations on the template and the damaged strands that were bypassed by DNA polymerase ? and processed by flap endonuclease 1 with different efficiency. Our study indicates that the position of a DNA base lesion governs whether TNR is expanded or deleted through BER.
Project description:Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) instability is associated with human neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Recent studies have pointed out that DNA base excision repair (BER) mediated by DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) plays a crucial role in governing somatic TNR instability in a damage-location dependent manner. It has been shown that the activities and function of BER enzymes and cofactors can be modulated by their polymorphic variations. This could alter the function of BER in regulating TNR instability. However, the roles of BER polymorphism in modulating TNR instability remain to be elucidated. A previous study has shown that a pol ? polymorphic variant, pol?R137Q is associated with cancer due to its impaired polymerase activity and its deficiency in interacting with a BER cofactor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In this study, we have studied the effect of the pol ?R137Q variant on TNR instability. We showed that pol ?R137Q exhibited weak DNA synthesis activity to cause TNR deletion during BER. We demonstrated that similar to wild-type pol ?, the weak DNA synthesis activity of pol ?R137Q allowed it to skip over a small loop formed on the template strand, thereby facilitating TNR deletion during BER. Our results further suggest that carriers with pol ?R137Q polymorphic variant may not exhibit an elevated risk of developing human diseases that are associated with TNR instability.
Project description:The expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat (TNR) sequence has been linked to several neurological disorders, for example, Huntington's disease (HD). In HD, healthy individuals have 5-35 CAG repeats. Those with 36-39 repeats have the premutation allele, which is known to be prone to expansion. In the disease state, greater than 40 repeats are present. Interestingly, the formation of non-B DNA conformations by the TNR sequence is proposed to contribute to the expansion. Here we provide the first structural and thermodynamic analysis of a premutation length TNR sequence. Using chemical probes of nucleobase accessibility, we found that similar to (CAG)(10), the premutation length sequence (CAG)(36) forms a stem-loop hairpin and contains a hot spot for DNA damage. Additionally, calorimetric analysis of a series of (CAG)(n) sequences, that includes repeat tracts in both the healthy and premutation ranges, reveal that thermodynamic stability increases linearly with the number of repeats. Based on these data, we propose that while non-B conformations can be formed by TNR tracts found in both the healthy and premutation allele, only sequences containing at least 36 repeats have sufficient thermodynamic stability to contribute to expansion.
Project description:Oxidative DNA damage and base excision repair (BER) play important roles in modulating trinucleotide repeat (TNR) instability that is associated with human neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We have reported that BER of base lesions can lead to TNR instability. However, it is unknown if modifications of the sugar in an abasic lesion modulate TNR instability. In this study, we characterized the effects of the oxidized sugar, 5'-(2-phosphoryl-1,4-dioxobutane)(DOB) in CAG repeat tracts on the activities of key BER enzymes, as well as on repeat instability. We found that DOB crosslinked with DNA polymerase ? and inhibited its synthesis activity in CAG repeat tracts. Surprisingly, we found that DOB also formed crosslinks with DNA ligase I and inhibited its ligation activity, thereby reducing the efficiency of BER. This subsequently resulted in the accumulation of DNA strand breaks in a CAG repeat tract. Our study provides important new insights into the adverse effects of an oxidized abasic lesion on BER and suggests a potential alternate repair pathway through which an oxidized abasic lesion may modulate TNR instability.
Project description:Base excision repair (BER) of an oxidized base within a trinucleotide repeat (TNR) tract can lead to TNR expansions that are associated with over 40 human neurodegenerative diseases. This occurs as a result of DNA secondary structures such as hairpins formed during repair. We have previously shown that BER in a TNR hairpin loop can lead to removal of the hairpin, attenuating or preventing TNR expansions. Here, we further provide the first evidence that AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) prevented TNR expansions via its 3'-5' exonuclease activity and stimulatory effect on DNA ligation during BER in a hairpin loop. Coordinating with flap endonuclease 1, the APE1 3'-5' exonuclease activity cleaves the annealed upstream 3'-flap of a double-flap intermediate resulting from 5'-incision of an abasic site in the hairpin loop. Furthermore, APE1 stimulated DNA ligase I to resolve a long double-flap intermediate, thereby promoting hairpin removal and preventing TNR expansions.
Project description:Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) instability is associated with over 42 neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, for which the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We have shown that the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway and its central component, DNA polymerase ? (pol ?), in particular, its polymerase activity plays an active role in regulating somatic TNR instability. Herein, we revealed a unique role of the pol ? dRP lyase in preventing somatic TNR instability. We found that deficiency of pol ? deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) lyase activity locked the pol ? dRP lyase domain to a dRP group, and this 'tethered' pol ? to its template forcing the polymerase to perform a processive DNA synthesis. This subsequently promoted DNA strand slippage allowing pol ? to skip over a template loop and causing TNR deletion. We showed that the effects were eliminated by complementation of the dRP lyase deficiency with wild-type pol ? protein. The results indicate that pol ? dRP lyase activity restrained the pol ?-dRP interaction to suppress a pol ? processive DNA synthesis, thereby preventing TNR deletion. This further implicates a potential of pol ? dRP lyase inhibition as a novel treatment of TNR-expansion diseases.
Project description:DNA base lesions and base excision repair (BER) within trinucleotide repeat (TNR) tracts modulate repeat instability through the coordination among the key BER enzymes DNA polymerase ?, flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and DNA ligase I (LIG I). However, it remains unknown whether BER cofactors can also alter TNR stability. In this study, we discovered that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cofactor of BER, promoted CAG repeat deletion and removal of a CAG repeat hairpin during BER in a duplex CAG repeat tract and CAG hairpin loop, respectively. We showed that PCNA stimulated LIG I activity on a nick across a small template loop during BER in a duplex (CAG)20 repeat tract promoting small repeat deletions. Surprisingly, we found that during BER in a hairpin loop, PCNA promoted reannealing of the upstream flap of a double-flap intermediate, thereby facilitating the formation of a downstream flap and stimulating FEN1 cleavage activity and hairpin removal. Our results indicate that PCNA plays a critical role in preventing CAG repeat expansions by modulating the structures of dynamic DNA via cooperation with BER enzymes. We provide the first evidence that PCNA prevents CAG repeat expansions during BER by promoting CAG repeat deletion and removal of a TNR hairpin.