Dynamic recruitment and activation of ALS-associated TBK1 with its target optineurin are required for efficient mitophagy.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondria play an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. The removal of damaged or depolarized mitochondria occurs via mitophagy, in which damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation via ubiquitination induced by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin. Mitophagy receptors, including optineurin (OPTN), nuclear dot 52 kDa protein (NDP52), and Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1), are recruited to mitochondria via ubiquitin binding and mediate autophagic engulfment through their association with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). Here, we use live-cell imaging to demonstrate that OPTN, NDP52, and TAX1BP1 are recruited to mitochondria with similar kinetics following either mitochondrial depolarization or localized generation of reactive oxygen species, leading to sequestration by the autophagosome within ?45 min after insult. Despite this corecruitment, we find that depletion of OPTN, but not NDP52, significantly slows the efficiency of sequestration. OPTN is phosphorylated by the kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) at serine 177; we find that TBK1 is corecruited with OPTN to depolarized mitochondria. Inhibition or depletion of TBK1, or expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated OPTN or TBK1 mutant blocks efficient autophagosome formation. Together, these results indicate that although there is some functional redundancy among mitophagy receptors, efficient sequestration of damaged mitochondria in response to mitochondrial stress requires both TBK1 and OPTN. Notably, ALS-linked mutations in OPTN and TBK1 can interfere with mitophagy, suggesting that inefficient turnover of damaged mitochondria may represent a key pathophysiological mechanism contributing to neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are turned over through a process of selective autophagy termed mitophagy. In mitophagy, unhealthy mitochondria are recognized and ubiquitinated by Parkinson disease-linked proteins PINK1 and PARK2. The subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptors leads in turn to the sequestration of the damaged organelles into LC3-positive phagophores, precursors to autophagosomes. The precise identity of these receptors and how they are regulated has been the focus of considerable attention. Our recent work uses live-cell imaging to explore the dynamics and regulation of autophagy receptor recruitment. Utilizing multiple paradigms to induce mitochondrial damage, we identified the rapid, 2-step recruitment of autophagy receptors OPTN, CALCOCO2/NDP52, and TAX1BP1. All 3 receptors are recruited to damaged mitochondria with similar kinetics; however, only OPTN is necessary for efficient formation of a phagophore sequestering damaged mitochondria from the cytosol. OPTN is co-recruited to damaged mitochondria along with its upstream kinase TBK1. Depletion of OPTN or TBK1, or expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutations in either protein, interfere with efficient autophagic engulfment of depolarized mitochondria. These observations suggest that insufficient autophagy of damaged mitochondria may contribute to neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are detrimental to cellular homeostasis. One mechanism for removal of damaged mitochondria involves the PINK1-PARKIN pathway, which poly-ubiquitylates damaged mitochondria to promote mitophagy. We report that assembly of ubiquitin chains on mitochondria triggers autophagy adaptor recruitment concomitantly with activation of the TBK1 kinase, which physically associates with OPTN, NDP52, and SQSTM1. TBK1 activation in HeLa cells requires OPTN and NDP52 and OPTN ubiquitin chain binding. In addition to the known role of S177 phosphorylation in OPTN on ATG8 recruitment, TBK1-dependent phosphorylation on S473 and S513 promotes ubiquitin chain binding in vitro as well as TBK1 activation, OPTN mitochondrial retention, and efficient mitophagy in vivo. These data reveal a self-reinforcing positive feedback mechanism that coordinates TBK1-dependent autophagy adaptor phosphorylation with the assembly of ubiquitin chains on mitochondria to facilitate efficient mitophagy, and mechanistically links genes mutated in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a common selective autophagy pathway.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Dysfunction of autophagy results in accumulation of depolarized mitochondria and breakdown of self-renewal and pluripotency in ESCs. However, the regulators that control how mitochondria are degraded by autophagy for pluripotency regulation remains largely unknown. This study aims to dissect the molecular mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial homeostasis for pluripotency regulation in mouse ESCs.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Parkin<sup>+/+</sup> and parkin<sup>-/-</sup> ESCs were established from E3.5 blastocysts of parkin<sup>+/-</sup> x parkin<sup>+/-</sup> mating mice. The pink1<sup>-/-</sup> , optn<sup>-/-</sup> and ndp52<sup>-/-</sup> ESCs were generated by CRISPR-Cas9. shRNAs were used for function loss assay of target genes. Mito-Keima, ROS and ATP detection were used to investigate the mitophagy and mitochondrial function. Western blot, Q-PCR, AP staining and teratoma formation assay were performed to evaluate the PSC stemness.<h4>Results</h4>PINK1 or OPTN depletion impairs the degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria during reprogramming, and reduces the reprogramming efficiency and quality. In ESCs, PINK1 or OPTN deficiency leads to accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and compromised pluripotency. The defective mitochondrial homeostasis and pluripotency in pink1<sup>-/-</sup> ESCs can be compensated by gain expression of phosphomimetic Ubiquitin (Ub-S65D) together with WT or a constitutively active phosphomimetic OPTN mutant (S187D, S476D, S517D), rather than constitutively inactive OPTN (S187A, S476A, S517A) or a Ub-binding dead OPTN mutant (D477N).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The mitophagy receptor OPTN guards ESC mitochondrial homeostasis and pluripotency by scavenging damaged mitochondria through TBK1-activated OPTN binding of PINK1-phosphorylated Ubiquitin.
Project description:Current models of selective autophagy dictate that autophagy receptors, including Optineurin and NDP52, link cargo to autophagosomal membranes. This is thought to occur via autophagy receptor binding to Atg8 homologs (LC3/GABARAPs) through an LC3 interacting region (LIR). The LIR motif within autophagy receptors is therefore widely recognised as being essential for selective sequestration of cargo. Here we show that the LIR motif within OPTN and NDP52 is dispensable for Atg8 recruitment and selectivity during PINK1/Parkin mitophagy. Instead, Atg8s play a critical role in mediating ubiquitin-independent recruitment of OPTN and NDP52 to growing phagophore membranes via the LIR motif. The additional recruitment of OPTN and NDP52 amplifies mitophagy through an Atg8-dependent positive feedback loop. Rather than functioning in selectivity, our discovery of a role for the LIR motif in mitophagy amplification points toward a general mechanism by which Atg8s can recruit autophagy factors to drive autophagosome growth and amplify selective autophagy.
Project description:Selective autophagy recycles damaged organelles?and clears intracellular pathogens to prevent their aberrant accumulation. How ULK1 kinase is targeted and activated during selective autophagic events remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used chemically inducible dimerization?(CID) assays in tandem with CRISPR KO lines to systematically analyze the molecular basis of selective autophagosome biogenesis. We demonstrate that ectopic placement of NDP52 on mitochondria or peroxisomes is sufficient to initiate selective autophagy by focally localizing and activating the ULK1 complex. The capability of NDP52 to induce mitophagy is dependent on its interaction with the FIP200/ULK1 complex, which is facilitated by TBK1. Ectopically tethering ULK1 to cargo bypasses the requirement for autophagy receptors and TBK1. Focal activation of ULK1 occurs independently of AMPK and mTOR. Our findings provide a parsimonious model of selective autophagy, which highlights the coordination of ULK1 complex localization by autophagy receptors and TBK1 as principal drivers of targeted autophagosome biogenesis.
Project description:Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, incurable disorder with increasing prevalence in the western world. In rare cases PD is caused by mutations in the genes for PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1) or PRKN (parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase), which impair the selective autophagic elimination of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy). Mutations in the gene encoding LRRK2 (leucine rich repeat kinase 2) are the most common monogenic cause of PD. Here, we report that the LRRK2 kinase substrate RAB10 accumulates on depolarized mitochondria in a PINK1- and PRKN-dependent manner. RAB10 binds the autophagy receptor OPTN (optineurin), promotes OPTN accumulation on depolarized mitochondria and facilitates mitophagy. In PD patients with the two most common <i>LRRK2</i> mutations (G2019S and R1441C), RAB10 phosphorylation at threonine 73 is enhanced, while RAB10 interaction with OPTN, accumulation of RAB10 and OPTN on depolarized mitochondria, depolarization-induced mitophagy and mitochondrial function are all impaired. These defects in <i>LRRK2</i> mutant patient cells are rescued by <i>LRRK2</i> knockdown and LRRK2 kinase inhibition. A phosphomimetic RAB10 mutant showed less OPTN interaction and less translocation to depolarized mitochondria than wild-type RAB10, and failed to rescue mitophagy in <i>LRRK2</i> mutant cells. These data connect LRRK2 with PINK1- and PRKN-mediated mitophagy via its substrate RAB10, and indicate that the pathogenic effects of mutations in <i>LRRK2, PINK1</i> and <i>PRKN</i> may converge on a common pathway.<b>Abbreviations</b> : ACTB: actin beta; ATP5F1B: ATP synthase F1 subunit beta; CALCOCO2: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide <i>m</i>-chlorophenylhydrazone; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; EBSS: Earle's balanced salt solution; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HSPD1: heat shock protein family D (Hsp60) member 1; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LRRK2: leucine rich repeat kinase 2; IF: immunofluorescence; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MFN2: mitofusin 2; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; OPTN: optineurin; PD: Parkinson disease; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RHOT1: ras homolog family member T1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; WB: western blot.
Project description:Increased reactive oxygen species levels in the mitochondrial matrix can induce Parkin-dependent mitophagy, which selectively degrades dysfunctional mitochondria via the autolysosome pathway. Phosphorylated mitofusin-2 (MFN2), a receptor of parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (Parkin), interacts with Parkin to promote the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins; meanwhile, the mitophagy receptors Optineurin (OPTN) and nuclear dot protein 52 (NDP52) are recruited to damaged mitochondria to promote mitophagy. However, previous studies have not investigated changes in the levels of OPTN, MFN2, and NDP52 during Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we show that mild and sustained hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) stimulation induces Parkin-dependent mitophagy accompanied by downregulation of the mitophagy-associated proteins OPTN, NDP52, and MFN2. We further demonstrate that H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> promotes the expression of the miR-106b-93-25 cluster and that miR-106b and miR-93 synergistically inhibit the translation of OPTN, NDP52, and MFN2 by targeting their 3' untranslated regions. We further reveal that compromised phosphorylation of MYC proto-oncogene protein (c-Myc) at threonine 58 (T58) (producing an unstable form of c-Myc) caused by reduced nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3?) levels contributes to the promotion of miR-106b-93-25 cluster expression upon H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> induction. Furthermore, miR-106b-mediated and miR-93-mediated inhibition of mitophagy-associated proteins (OPTN, MFN2, and NDP52) restrains cell death by controlling excessive mitophagy. Our data suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting mitophagy-associated proteins maintain cell survival, which is a novel mechanism of mitophagy control. Thus, our findings provide mechanistic insight into how miRNA-mediated regulation alters the biological process of mitophagy.
Project description:TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is a multifunctional kinase with an essential role in mitophagy, the selective clearance of damaged mitochondria. More than 90 distinct mutations in TBK1 are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal dementia, including missense mutations that disrupt the abilities of TBK1 to dimerize, associate with the mitophagy receptor optineurin (OPTN), autoactivate, or catalyze phosphorylation. We investigated how ALS-associated mutations in TBK1 affect Parkin-dependent mitophagy using imaging to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in clearing damaged mitochondria. Some mutations cause severe dysregulation of the pathway, while others induce limited disruption. Mutations that abolish either TBK1 dimerization or kinase activity were insufficient to fully inhibit mitophagy, while mutations that reduced both dimerization and kinase activity were more disruptive. Ultimately, both TBK1 recruitment and OPTN phosphorylation at S177 are necessary for engulfment of damaged mitochondra by autophagosomal membranes. Surprisingly, we find that ULK1 activity contributes to the phosphorylation of OPTN in the presence of either wild-type or kinase-inactive TBK1. In primary neurons, TBK1 mutants induce mitochondrial stress under basal conditions; network stress is exacerbated with further mitochondrial insult. Our study further refines the model for TBK1 function in mitophagy, demonstrating that some ALS-linked mutations likely contribute to disease pathogenesis by inducing mitochondrial stress or inhibiting mitophagic flux. Other TBK1 mutations exhibited much less impact on mitophagy in our assays, suggesting that cell-type-specific effects, cumulative damage, or alternative TBK1-dependent pathways such as innate immunity and inflammation also factor into the development of ALS in affected individuals.
Project description:Enteroviruses (EVs) usurp the host autophagy pathway for pro-viral functions; however, the consequence of EV-induced diversion of autophagy on organelle quality control is poorly defined. Using coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) as a model EV, we explored the interplay between EV infection and selective autophagy receptors, i.e., Tax1-binding protein 1/TRAF6-binding protein (T6BP), optineurin (OPTN), and nuclear dot 10 protein 52 (NDP52), known to be involved in regulating the clearance of damaged mitochondria, a process termed as mitophagy. Following CVB3 infection, we showed significant perturbations of the mitochondrial network coincident with degradation of the autophagy receptor protein T6BP, similar phenomenon to what we previously observed on NDP52. Notably, protein levels of OPTN are not altered during early infection and slightly reduced upon late infection. Cell culture studies revealed that T6BP degradation occurs independent of the function of host caspases and viral proteinase 3C, but requires the proteolytic activity of viral proteinase 2A. Further investigation identified the cleavage site on T6BP after the amino acid 621 that separates the C-terminal ubiquitin-binding domain from the other functional domains at the N-terminus. Genetic silencing of T6BP and OPTN results in the attenuation of CVB3 replication, suggesting a pro-viral activity for these two proteins. Finally, functional assessment of cleaved fragments from NDP52 and T6BP revealed abnormal binding affinity and impaired capacity to be recruited to depolarized mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that CVB3 targets autophagy receptors to impair selective autophagy.
Project description:Autophagy targets intracellular molecules, damaged organelles, and invading pathogens for degradation in lysosomes. Recent studies have identified autophagy receptors that facilitate this process by binding to ubiquitinated targets, including NDP52. Here, we demonstrate that the small guanosine triphosphatase Rab35 directs NDP52 to the corresponding targets of multiple forms of autophagy. The active GTP-bound form of Rab35 accumulates on bacteria-containing endosomes, and Rab35 directly binds and recruits NDP52 to internalized bacteria. Additionally, Rab35 promotes interaction of NDP52 with ubiquitin. This process is inhibited by TBC1D10A, a GAP that inactivates Rab35, but stimulated by autophagic activation via TBK1 kinase, which associates with NDP52. Rab35, TBC1D10A, and TBK1 regulate NDP52 recruitment to damaged mitochondria and to autophagosomes to promote mitophagy and maturation of autophagosomes, respectively. We propose that Rab35-GTP is a critical regulator of autophagy through recruiting autophagy receptor NDP52.