Dynamic recruitment and activation of ALS-associated TBK1 with its target optineurin are required for efficient mitophagy.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondria play an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. The removal of damaged or depolarized mitochondria occurs via mitophagy, in which damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation via ubiquitination induced by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin. Mitophagy receptors, including optineurin (OPTN), nuclear dot 52 kDa protein (NDP52), and Tax1-binding protein 1 (TAX1BP1), are recruited to mitochondria via ubiquitin binding and mediate autophagic engulfment through their association with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). Here, we use live-cell imaging to demonstrate that OPTN, NDP52, and TAX1BP1 are recruited to mitochondria with similar kinetics following either mitochondrial depolarization or localized generation of reactive oxygen species, leading to sequestration by the autophagosome within ?45 min after insult. Despite this corecruitment, we find that depletion of OPTN, but not NDP52, significantly slows the efficiency of sequestration. OPTN is phosphorylated by the kinase TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) at serine 177; we find that TBK1 is corecruited with OPTN to depolarized mitochondria. Inhibition or depletion of TBK1, or expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated OPTN or TBK1 mutant blocks efficient autophagosome formation. Together, these results indicate that although there is some functional redundancy among mitophagy receptors, efficient sequestration of damaged mitochondria in response to mitochondrial stress requires both TBK1 and OPTN. Notably, ALS-linked mutations in OPTN and TBK1 can interfere with mitophagy, suggesting that inefficient turnover of damaged mitochondria may represent a key pathophysiological mechanism contributing to neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are turned over through a process of selective autophagy termed mitophagy. In mitophagy, unhealthy mitochondria are recognized and ubiquitinated by Parkinson disease-linked proteins PINK1 and PARK2. The subsequent recruitment of ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptors leads in turn to the sequestration of the damaged organelles into LC3-positive phagophores, precursors to autophagosomes. The precise identity of these receptors and how they are regulated has been the focus of considerable attention. Our recent work uses live-cell imaging to explore the dynamics and regulation of autophagy receptor recruitment. Utilizing multiple paradigms to induce mitochondrial damage, we identified the rapid, 2-step recruitment of autophagy receptors OPTN, CALCOCO2/NDP52, and TAX1BP1. All 3 receptors are recruited to damaged mitochondria with similar kinetics; however, only OPTN is necessary for efficient formation of a phagophore sequestering damaged mitochondria from the cytosol. OPTN is co-recruited to damaged mitochondria along with its upstream kinase TBK1. Depletion of OPTN or TBK1, or expression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutations in either protein, interfere with efficient autophagic engulfment of depolarized mitochondria. These observations suggest that insufficient autophagy of damaged mitochondria may contribute to neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Damaged mitochondria are detrimental to cellular homeostasis. One mechanism for removal of damaged mitochondria involves the PINK1-PARKIN pathway, which poly-ubiquitylates damaged mitochondria to promote mitophagy. We report that assembly of ubiquitin chains on mitochondria triggers autophagy adaptor recruitment concomitantly with activation of the TBK1 kinase, which physically associates with OPTN, NDP52, and SQSTM1. TBK1 activation in HeLa cells requires OPTN and NDP52 and OPTN ubiquitin chain binding. In addition to the known role of S177 phosphorylation in OPTN on ATG8 recruitment, TBK1-dependent phosphorylation on S473 and S513 promotes ubiquitin chain binding in vitro as well as TBK1 activation, OPTN mitochondrial retention, and efficient mitophagy in vivo. These data reveal a self-reinforcing positive feedback mechanism that coordinates TBK1-dependent autophagy adaptor phosphorylation with the assembly of ubiquitin chains on mitochondria to facilitate efficient mitophagy, and mechanistically links genes mutated in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a common selective autophagy pathway.
Project description:Current models of selective autophagy dictate that autophagy receptors, including Optineurin and NDP52, link cargo to autophagosomal membranes. This is thought to occur via autophagy receptor binding to Atg8 homologs (LC3/GABARAPs) through an LC3 interacting region (LIR). The LIR motif within autophagy receptors is therefore widely recognised as being essential for selective sequestration of cargo. Here we show that the LIR motif within OPTN and NDP52 is dispensable for Atg8 recruitment and selectivity during PINK1/Parkin mitophagy. Instead, Atg8s play a critical role in mediating ubiquitin-independent recruitment of OPTN and NDP52 to growing phagophore membranes via the LIR motif. The additional recruitment of OPTN and NDP52 amplifies mitophagy through an Atg8-dependent positive feedback loop. Rather than functioning in selectivity, our discovery of a role for the LIR motif in mitophagy amplification points toward a general mechanism by which Atg8s can recruit autophagy factors to drive autophagosome growth and amplify selective autophagy.
Project description:Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, incurable disorder with increasing prevalence in the western world. In rare cases PD is caused by mutations in the genes for PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1) or PRKN (parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase), which impair the selective autophagic elimination of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy). Mutations in the gene encoding LRRK2 (leucine rich repeat kinase 2) are the most common monogenic cause of PD. Here, we report that the LRRK2 kinase substrate RAB10 accumulates on depolarized mitochondria in a PINK1- and PRKN-dependent manner. RAB10 binds the autophagy receptor OPTN (optineurin), promotes OPTN accumulation on depolarized mitochondria and facilitates mitophagy. In PD patients with the two most common LRRK2 mutations (G2019S and R1441C), RAB10 phosphorylation at threonine 73 is enhanced, while RAB10 interaction with OPTN, accumulation of RAB10 and OPTN on depolarized mitochondria, depolarization-induced mitophagy and mitochondrial function are all impaired. These defects in LRRK2 mutant patient cells are rescued by LRRK2 knockdown and LRRK2 kinase inhibition. A phosphomimetic RAB10 mutant showed less OPTN interaction and less translocation to depolarized mitochondria than wild-type RAB10, and failed to rescue mitophagy in LRRK2 mutant cells. These data connect LRRK2 with PINK1- and PRKN-mediated mitophagy via its substrate RAB10, and indicate that the pathogenic effects of mutations in LRRK2, PINK1 and PRKN may converge on a common pathway.Abbreviations : ACTB: actin beta; ATP5F1B: ATP synthase F1 subunit beta; CALCOCO2: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; EBSS: Earle's balanced salt solution; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HSPD1: heat shock protein family D (Hsp60) member 1; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LRRK2: leucine rich repeat kinase 2; IF: immunofluorescence; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MFN2: mitofusin 2; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; OPTN: optineurin; PD: Parkinson disease; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RHOT1: ras homolog family member T1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; WB: western blot.
Project description:Selective autophagy recycles damaged organelles?and clears intracellular pathogens to prevent their aberrant accumulation. How ULK1 kinase is targeted and activated during selective autophagic events remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used chemically inducible dimerization?(CID) assays in tandem with CRISPR KO lines to systematically analyze the molecular basis of selective autophagosome biogenesis. We demonstrate that ectopic placement of NDP52 on mitochondria or peroxisomes is sufficient to initiate selective autophagy by focally localizing and activating the ULK1 complex. The capability of NDP52 to induce mitophagy is dependent on its interaction with the FIP200/ULK1 complex, which is facilitated by TBK1. Ectopically tethering ULK1 to cargo bypasses the requirement for autophagy receptors and TBK1. Focal activation of ULK1 occurs independently of AMPK and mTOR. Our findings provide a parsimonious model of selective autophagy, which highlights the coordination of ULK1 complex localization by autophagy receptors and TBK1 as principal drivers of targeted autophagosome biogenesis.
Project description:Increased reactive oxygen species levels in the mitochondrial matrix can induce Parkin-dependent mitophagy, which selectively degrades dysfunctional mitochondria via the autolysosome pathway. Phosphorylated mitofusin-2 (MFN2), a receptor of parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (Parkin), interacts with Parkin to promote the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins; meanwhile, the mitophagy receptors Optineurin (OPTN) and nuclear dot protein 52 (NDP52) are recruited to damaged mitochondria to promote mitophagy. However, previous studies have not investigated changes in the levels of OPTN, MFN2, and NDP52 during Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we show that mild and sustained hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) stimulation induces Parkin-dependent mitophagy accompanied by downregulation of the mitophagy-associated proteins OPTN, NDP52, and MFN2. We further demonstrate that H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> promotes the expression of the miR-106b-93-25 cluster and that miR-106b and miR-93 synergistically inhibit the translation of OPTN, NDP52, and MFN2 by targeting their 3' untranslated regions. We further reveal that compromised phosphorylation of MYC proto-oncogene protein (c-Myc) at threonine 58 (T58) (producing an unstable form of c-Myc) caused by reduced nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3?) levels contributes to the promotion of miR-106b-93-25 cluster expression upon H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> induction. Furthermore, miR-106b-mediated and miR-93-mediated inhibition of mitophagy-associated proteins (OPTN, MFN2, and NDP52) restrains cell death by controlling excessive mitophagy. Our data suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting mitophagy-associated proteins maintain cell survival, which is a novel mechanism of mitophagy control. Thus, our findings provide mechanistic insight into how miRNA-mediated regulation alters the biological process of mitophagy.
Project description:The PINK1 protein kinase activates the PARK2 ubiquitin ligase to promote mitochondrial ubiquitylation and recruitment of ubiquitin-binding mitophagy receptors typified by OPTN and TAX1BP1. Here, we combine proximity biotinylation of OPTN and TAX1BP1 with CRISPR-Cas9-based screens for mitophagic flux to develop a spatial proteogenetic map of PARK2-dependent mitophagy. Proximity labeling of OPTN allowed visualization of a "mitochondrial-autophagosome synapse" upon mitochondrial depolarization. Proximity proteomics of OPTN and TAX1BP1 revealed numerous proteins at the synapse, including both PARK2 substrates and autophagy components. Parallel mitophagic flux screens identified proteins with roles in autophagy, vesicle formation and fusion, as well as PARK2 targets, many of which were also identified via proximity proteomics. One protein identified in both approaches, HK2, promotes assembly of a high-molecular weight complex of PINK1 and phosphorylation of ubiquitin in response to mitochondrial damage. This work provides a resource for understanding the spatial and molecular landscape of PARK2-dependent mitophagy.
Project description:Autophagy targets intracellular molecules, damaged organelles, and invading pathogens for degradation in lysosomes. Recent studies have identified autophagy receptors that facilitate this process by binding to ubiquitinated targets, including NDP52. Here, we demonstrate that the small guanosine triphosphatase Rab35 directs NDP52 to the corresponding targets of multiple forms of autophagy. The active GTP-bound form of Rab35 accumulates on bacteria-containing endosomes, and Rab35 directly binds and recruits NDP52 to internalized bacteria. Additionally, Rab35 promotes interaction of NDP52 with ubiquitin. This process is inhibited by TBC1D10A, a GAP that inactivates Rab35, but stimulated by autophagic activation via TBK1 kinase, which associates with NDP52. Rab35, TBC1D10A, and TBK1 regulate NDP52 recruitment to damaged mitochondria and to autophagosomes to promote mitophagy and maturation of autophagosomes, respectively. We propose that Rab35-GTP is a critical regulator of autophagy through recruiting autophagy receptor NDP52.
Project description:Mitophagy, the selective removal of damaged mitochondria, is thought to be critical to maintain neuronal homeostasis. Mutations of proteins in the pathway cause neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting defective mitochondrial turnover contributes to neurodegeneration. In primary rat hippocampal neurons, we developed a mitophagy induction paradigm where mild oxidative stress induced low levels of mitochondrial damage. Mitophagy-associated proteins were sequentially recruited to depolarized mitochondria followed by sequestration into autophagosomes. The localization of these mitophagy events had a robust somal bias. In basal and induced conditions, engulfed mitochondria remained in non-acidified organelles for hours to days, illustrating efficient autophagosome sequestration but delayed lysosomal fusion or acidification. Furthermore, expression of an ALS-linked mutation in the pathway disrupted mitochondrial network integrity and this effect was exacerbated by oxidative stress. Thus, age-related decline in neuronal health or expression of disease-associated mutations in the pathway may exacerbate the slow kinetics of neuronal mitophagy, leading to neurodegeneration.
Project description:NDP52 and TAX1BP1, two SKIP carboxyl homology (SKICH) domain-containing autophagy receptors, play crucial roles in selective autophagy. The autophagic functions of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 are regulated by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which may associate with them through the adaptor NAP1. However, the molecular mechanism governing the interactions of NAP1 with NDP52 and TAX1BP1, as well as the effects induced by TBK1-mediated phosphorylation of NDP52 and TAX1BP1, remains elusive. Here, we report the atomic structures of the SKICH regions of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 in complex with NAP1, which not only uncover the mechanistic bases underpinning the specific interactions of NAP1 with the SKICH domains of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 but also reveal the binding mode of a SKICH domain. Moreover, we uncovered that the SKICH domains of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 share a general binding mode to interact with NAP1. Finally, we also evaluated the currently known TBK1-mediated phosphorylation sites in the SKICH domains of NDP52 and TAX1BP1 on the basis of their interactions with NAP1. In all, our findings provide mechanistic insights into the interactions of NAP1 with NDP52 and TAX1BP1, and are valuable for further understanding the functions of these proteins in selective autophagy.