NMDA Receptor-Dependent LTD Requires Transient Synaptic Incorporation of Ca²?-Permeable AMPARs Mediated by AKAP150-Anchored PKA and Calcineurin.
ABSTRACT: Information processing in the brain requires multiple forms of synaptic plasticity that converge on regulation of NMDA and AMPA-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR, AMPAR), including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) and homeostatic scaling. In some cases, LTP and homeostatic plasticity regulate synaptic AMPAR subunit composition to increase the contribution of Ca(2+)-permeable receptors (CP-AMPARs) containing GluA1 but lacking GluA2 subunits. Here, we show that PKA anchored to the scaffold protein AKAP150 regulates GluA1 phosphorylation and plays a novel role controlling CP-AMPAR synaptic incorporation during NMDAR-dependent LTD. Using knockin mice that are deficient in AKAP-anchoring of either PKA or the opposing phosphatase calcineurin, we found that CP-AMPARs are recruited to hippocampal synapses by anchored PKA during LTD induction but are then rapidly removed by anchored calcineurin. Importantly, blocking CP-AMPAR recruitment, removal, or activity interferes with LTD. Thus, CP-AMPAR synaptic recruitment is required to transiently augment NMDAR Ca(2+) signaling during LTD induction.
Project description:Bidirectional synaptic plasticity occurs locally at individual synapses during long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD), or globally during homeostatic scaling. LTP, LTD, and homeostatic scaling alter synaptic strength through changes in postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), suggesting the existence of overlapping molecular mechanisms. Phosphorylation controls AMPAR trafficking during LTP/LTD. We addressed the role of AMPAR phosphorylation during homeostatic scaling. We observed bidirectional changes of the levels of phosphorylated GluA1 S845 during scaling, resulting from a loss of protein kinase A (PKA) from synapses during scaling down and enhanced activity of PKA in synapses during scaling up. Increased phosphorylation of S845 drove scaling up, while a knockin mutation of S845, or knockdown of the scaffold AKAP5, blocked scaling up. Finally, we show that AMPARs scale differentially based on their phosphorylation status at S845. These results show that rearrangement in PKA signaling controls AMPAR phosphorylation and surface targeting during homeostatic plasticity.
Project description:Ca2+-permeable AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs) containing GluA1 but lacking GluA2 subunits contribute to multiple forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP), but mechanisms regulating CP-AMPARs are poorly understood. A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 150 scaffolds kinases and phosphatases to regulate GluA1 phosphorylation and trafficking, and trafficking of AKAP150 itself is modulated by palmitoylation on two Cys residues. Here, we developed a palmitoylation-deficient knockin mouse to show that AKAP150 palmitoylation regulates CP-AMPAR incorporation at hippocampal synapses. Using biochemical, super-resolution imaging, and electrophysiological approaches, we found that palmitoylation promotes AKAP150 localization to recycling endosomes and the postsynaptic density (PSD) to limit CP-AMPAR basal synaptic incorporation. In addition, we found that AKAP150 palmitoylation is required for LTP induced by weaker stimulation that recruits CP-AMPARs to synapses but not stronger stimulation that recruits GluA2-containing AMPARs. Thus, AKAP150 palmitoylation controls its subcellular localization to maintain proper basal and activity-dependent regulation of synaptic AMPAR subunit composition.
Project description:Calcium (Ca2+)-mediated4 signaling pathways are critical to synaptic plasticity. In adults, the NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) represents a major route for activity-dependent synaptic Ca2+ entry. However, during neonatal development, when synaptic plasticity is particularly high, many AMPA glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are also permeable to Ca2+ (CP-AMPAR) due to low GluA2 subunit expression, providing an additional route for activity- and glutamate-dependent Ca2+ influx and subsequent signaling. Therefore, altered hippocampal Ca2+ signaling may represent an age-specific pathogenic mechanism. We thus aimed to assess Ca2+ responses 48h after hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures (HS) in postnatal day (P)10 rats, a post-seizure time point at which we previously reported LTP attenuation. We found that Ca2+ responses were higher in brain slices from post-HS rats than in controls and that this increase was CP-AMPAR-dependent. To determine whether synaptic CP-AMPAR expression was also altered post-HS, we assessed the expression of GluA2 at hippocampal synapses and the expression of long-term depression (LTD), which has been linked to the presence of synaptic GluA2. Here we report a decrease 48h after HS in synaptic GluA2 expression at synapses and LTD in hippocampal CA1. Given the potentially critical role of AMPAR trafficking in disease progression, we aimed to establish whether post-seizure in vivo AMPAR antagonist treatment prevented the enhanced Ca2+ responses, changes in GluA2 synaptic expression, and diminished LTD. We found that NBQX treatment prevents all three of these post-seizure consequences, further supporting a critical role for AMPARs as an age-specific therapeutic target.
Project description:The structural and functional plasticity of synapses is critical for learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) induction promotes spine growth and AMPAR accumulation at excitatory synapses, leading to increased synaptic strength. Glutamate initiates these processes, but the contribution from extracellular modulators is not fully established. Wnts are required for spine formation; however, their impact on activity-mediated spine plasticity and AMPAR localization is unknown. We found that LTP induction rapidly increased synaptic Wnt7a/b protein levels. Acute blockade of endogenous Wnts or loss of postsynaptic Frizzled-7 (Fz7) receptors impaired LTP-mediated synaptic strength, spine growth, and AMPAR localization at synapses. Live imaging of SEP-GluA1 and single-particle tracking revealed that Wnt7a rapidly promoted synaptic AMPAR recruitment and trapping. Wnt7a, through Fz7, induced CaMKII-dependent loss of SynGAP from spines and increased extrasynaptic AMPARs by PKA phosphorylation. We identify a critical role for Wnt-Fz7 signaling in LTP-mediated synaptic accumulation of AMPARs and spine plasticity.
Project description:It is well established that long-term potentiation (LTP), a paradigm for learning and memory, results in a stable enlargement of potentiated spines associated with recruitment of additional GluA1-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs). Although regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is involved, the detailed signaling mechanisms responsible for this spine expansion are unclear. Here, we used cultured mature hippocampal neurons stimulated with a glycine-induced, synapse-specific form of chemical LTP (GI-LTP). We report that the stable structural plasticity (i.e., spine head enlargement and spine length shortening) that accompanies GI-LTP was blocked by inhibitors of NMDA receptors (NMDARs; APV) or CaM-kinase kinase (STO-609), the upstream activator of CaM-kinase I (CaMKI), as well as by transfection with dominant-negative (dn) CaMKI but not dnCaMKIV. Recruitment of GluA1 to the spine surface occurred after GI-LTP and was mimicked by transfection with constitutively active CaMKI. Spine enlargement induced by transfection of GluA1 was associated with synaptic recruitment of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) as assessed by an increase in the rectification index of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) and their sensitivity to IEM-1460, a selective antagonist of CP-AMPARs. Furthermore, the increase in spine size and mEPSC amplitude resulting from GI-LTP itself was blocked by IEM-1460, demonstrating involvement of CP-AMPARs. Downstream signaling effectors of CP-AMPARs, identified by suppression of their activation by IEM-1460, included the Rac/PAK/LIM-kinase pathway that regulates spine actin dynamics. Together, our results suggest that synaptic recruitment of CP-AMPARs via CaMKI may provide a mechanistic link between NMDAR activation in LTP and regulation of a signaling pathway that drives spine enlargement via actin polymerization.
Project description:Plasticity at excitatory synapses can be induced either by synaptic release of glutamate or the release of gliotransmitters such as ATP. Recently, we showed that postsynaptic P2X2 receptors activated by ATP released from astrocytes downregulate synaptic AMPAR, providing a novel mechanism by which glial cells modulate synaptic activity. ATP- and lNMDA-induced depression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus are additive, suggesting distinct molecular pathways. AMPARs are homo-or hetero-tetramers composed of GluA1-A4. Here, we first show that P2X2-mediated AMPAR inhibition is dependent on the subunit composition of AMPAR. GluA3 homomers are insensitive and their presence in heteromers alters P2X-mediated inhibition. Using a mutational approach, we demonstrate that the two CaMKII phosphorylation sites S567 and S831 located in the cytoplasmic Loop1 and C-terminal tail of GluA1 subunits, respectively, are critical for P2X2-mediated AMPAR inhibition recorded from co-expressing Xenopus oocytes and removal of surface AMPAR at synapses of hippocampal neurons imaged by the super-resolution dSTORM technique. Finally, using phosphorylation site-specific antibodies, we show that P2X-induced depression in hippocampal slices produces a dephosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit at S567, contrary to NMDAR-mediated LTD. These findings indicate that GluA1 phosphorylation of S567 and S831 is critical for P2X2-mediated AMPAR internalization and ATP-driven synaptic depression.
Project description:Neurotransmitter receptor trafficking during synaptic plasticity requires the concerted action of multiple signaling pathways and the protein transport machinery. However, little is known about the contribution of lipid metabolism during these processes. In this paper, we addressed the question of the role of cholesterol in synaptic changes during long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) activation during LTP induction leads to a rapid and sustained loss or redistribution of intracellular cholesterol in the neuron. A reduction in cholesterol, in turn, leads to the activation of Cdc42 and the mobilization of GluA1-containing ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) from Rab11-recycling endosomes into the synaptic membrane, leading to synaptic potentiation. This process is accompanied by an increase of NMDAR function and an enhancement of LTP. These results imply that cholesterol acts as a sensor of NMDAR activation and as a trigger of downstream signaling to engage small GTPase (guanosine triphosphatase) activation and AMPAR synaptic delivery during LTP.
Project description:Long-term depression (LTD) is a long-lasting activity-dependent decrease in synaptic strength. NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTD, an extensively studied form of LTD, involves the endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) via protein dephosphorylation, but the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. We show here that a regulated interaction of the endocytic adaptor RalBP1 with two synaptic proteins, the small GTPase RalA and the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95, controls NMDAR-dependent AMPAR endocytosis during LTD. NMDAR activation stimulates RalA, which binds and translocates widespread RalBP1 to synapses. In addition, NMDAR activation dephosphorylates RalBP1, promoting the interaction of RalBP1 with PSD-95. These two regulated interactions are required for NMDAR-dependent AMPAR endocytosis and LTD and are sufficient to induce AMPAR endocytosis in the absence of NMDAR activation. RalA in the basal state, however, maintains surface AMPARs. We propose that NMDAR activation brings RalBP1 close to PSD-95 to promote the interaction of RalBP1-associated endocytic proteins with PSD-95-associated AMPARs. This suggests that scaffolding proteins at specialized cellular junctions can switch their function from maintenance to endocytosis of interacting membrane proteins in a regulated manner.
Project description:Ca(2+) influx via GluR2-lacking Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs) can trigger changes in synaptic efficacy in both interneurons and principle neurons, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We took advantage of genetically altered mice with no or reduced GluR2, thus allowing the expression of synaptic CP-AMPARs, to investigate the molecular signaling process during CP-AMPAR-induced synaptic plasticity at CA1 synapses in the hippocampus. Utilizing electrophysiological techniques, we demonstrated that these receptors were capable of inducing numerous forms of long-term potentiation (referred to as CP-AMPAR dependent LTP) through a number of different induction protocols, including high-frequency stimulation (HFS) and theta-burst stimulation (TBS). This included a previously undemonstrated form of protein-synthesis dependent late-LTP (L-LTP) at CA1 synapses that is NMDA-receptor independent. This form of plasticity was completely blocked by the selective CP-AMPAR inhibitor IEM-1460, and found to be dependent on postsynaptic Ca(2+) ions through calcium chelator (BAPTA) studies. Surprisingly, Ca/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), the key protein kinase that is indispensable for NMDA-receptor dependent LTP at CA1 synapses appeared to be not required for the induction of CP-AMPAR dependent LTP due to the lack of effect of two separate pharmacological inhibitors (KN-62 and staurosporine) on this form of potentiation. Both KN-62 and staurosporine strongly inhibited NMDA-receptor dependent LTP in control studies. In contrast, inhibitors for PI3-kinase (LY294002 and wortmannin) or the MAPK cascade (PD98059 and U0126) significantly attenuated this CP-AMPAR-dependent LTP. Similarly, postsynaptic infusion of tetanus toxin (TeTx) light chain, an inhibitor of exocytosis, also had a significant inhibitory effect on this form of LTP. These results suggest that distinct synaptic signaling underlies GluR2-lacking CP-AMPAR-dependent LTP, and reinforces the recent notions that CP-AMPARs are important facilitators of synaptic plasticity in the brain.
Project description:Abnormally increased neuronal activity in the lateral habenula (LHb) is closely associated with depressive-like behavior. Despite the emphasis on the pathological importance of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) and the involvement of calcium permeable AMPA receptor (CP-AMPAR) as major Ca2+ source, the functions of NMDAR and CP-AMPAR on LTD modulation in the LHb still have not been fully investigated. Here, we found that NMDAR-dependent LTD by low frequency stimulation was induced in both synaptic and extrasynaptic regions in the LHb. In addition, CP-AMPAR was necessary for the activation of NMDAR in the induction phase of NMDAR-dependent LTD. The acute stress, which induced depressive behavior, had a blocked effect on synaptic NMDAR-dependent LTD but left extrasynaptic NMDAR-dependent LTD intact. These findings show that NMDAR-dependent LTD in LHb plays an important role in regulating neuronal activity, which is probable to be excessively increased by repeated stress, via maintaining homeostasis in both synaptic and extrasynaptic regions of the LHb. Moreover, NMDAR and CP-AMPAR may serve as a depression-related modulator and be regarded as a promising therapeutic target for treatment of psychopathology such as depression.