The Listeria monocytogenes Fur-regulated virulence protein FrvA is an Fe(II) efflux P1B4 -type ATPase.
ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes FrvA (Lmo0641) is critical for virulence in the mouse model and is an ortholog of the Bacillus subtilis Fur- and PerR-regulated Fe(II) efflux P1B4 -type ATPase PfeT. Previously, FrvA was suggested to protect against heme toxicity. Here, we demonstrate that an frvA mutant is sensitive to iron intoxication, but not to other metals. Expression of frvA is induced by high iron and this induction requires Fur. FrvA functions in vitro as a divalent cation specific ATPase most strongly activated by ferrous iron. When expressed in B. subtilis, FrvA increases resistance to iron both in wild-type and in a pfeT null strain. FrvA is a high affinity Fe(II) exporter and its induction imposes severe iron limitation in B. subtilis resulting in derepression of both Fur- and PerR-regulated genes. FrvA also recognizes Co(II) and Zn(II) as substrates and can complement B. subtilis strains defective in the endogenous export systems for these cations. Building on these results, we conclude that FrvA functions in the efflux of Fe(II), and not heme during listerial infection.
Project description:The physiological relevance of bacterial iron efflux has only recently been appreciated. The Bacillus subtilis P1B4-type ATPase PfeT (peroxide-induced ferrous efflux transporter) was one of the first iron efflux pumps to be characterized, and cells lacking pfeT accumulate high levels of intracellular iron. The pfeT promoter region has binding sites for both PerR, a peroxide-sensing Fur-family metalloregulator, and the ferric uptake repressor Fur. Both Fur and PerR bind DNA with Fe(II) as a cofactor. While reaction of PerR-Fe(II) with peroxide can account for the induction of pfeT under oxidative stress, binding of Fur-Fe(II) would be expected to lead to repression, which is inconsistent with the known role of PfeT as an iron efflux protein. Here, we show that expression of pfeT is repressed by PerR, as anticipated, and induced by Fur in response to Fe(II). Activation by Fur is mediated both by antagonism of the PerR repressor and by direct transcriptional activation, as confirmed using in vitro transcription assays. A similar mechanism of regulation can explain the iron induction of the Listeria monocytogenes PfeT ortholog and virulence factor, FrvA. Mutational studies support a model in which Fur activation involves regions both upstream and downstream of the pfeT promoter, and Fur and PerR have overlapping recognition of a shared regulatory element in this complex promoter region. This work demonstrates that B. subtilis Fur can function as an iron-dependent activator of transcription.IMPORTANCE Iron homeostasis plays a key role at the host-pathogen interface during the process of infection. Bacterial growth restriction resulting from host-imposed iron starvation (nutritional immunity) highlights the importance of iron import during pathogenesis. Conversely, bacterial iron efflux pumps function as virulence factors in several systems. The requirement for iron efflux in pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggests that both import and efflux are needed for cells to successfully navigate rapidly changing levels of iron availability in the host. Here, we provide insight into how iron efflux genes are controlled, an aspect of bacterial iron homeostasis relevant to infectious disease processes.
Project description:Iron is an essential element for nearly all cells and limited iron availability often restricts growth. However, excess iron can also be deleterious, particularly when cells expressing high affinity iron uptake systems transition to iron rich environments. Bacillus subtilis expresses numerous iron importers, but iron efflux has not been reported. Here, we describe the B. subtilis?PfeT protein (formerly YkvW/ZosA) as a P1B4 -type ATPase in the PerR regulon that serves as an Fe(II) efflux pump and protects cells against iron intoxication. Iron and manganese homeostasis in B. subtilis are closely intertwined: a pfeT mutant is iron sensitive, and this sensitivity can be suppressed by low levels of Mn(II). Conversely, a pfeT mutant is more resistant to Mn(II) overload. In vitro, the PfeT ATPase is activated by both Fe(II) and Co(II), although only Fe(II) efflux is physiologically relevant in wild-type cells, and null mutants accumulate elevated levels of intracellular iron. Genetic studies indicate that PfeT together with the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) cooperate to prevent iron intoxication, with iron sequestration by the MrgA mini-ferritin playing a secondary role. Protection against iron toxicity may also be a key role for related P1B4 -type ATPases previously implicated in bacterial pathogenesis.
Project description:Bacterial cells modulate transcription in response to changes in iron availability. The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) senses intracellular iron availability and plays a central role in maintaining iron homeostasis in <i>Bacillus subtilis</i> Here we utilized FrvA, a high-affinity Fe<sup>2+</sup> efflux transporter from <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i>, as an inducible genetic tool to deplete intracellular iron. We then characterized the responses of the Fur, FsrA, and PerR regulons as cells transition from iron sufficiency to deficiency. Our results indicate that the Fur regulon is derepressed in three distinct waves. First, uptake systems for elemental iron (<i>efeUOB</i>), ferric citrate (<i>fecCDEF</i>), and petrobactin (<i>fpbNOPQ</i>) are induced to prevent iron deficiency. Second, <i>B. subtilis</i> synthesizes its own siderophore bacillibactin (<i>dhbACEBF</i>) and turns on bacillibactin (<i>feuABC</i>) and hydroxamate siderophore (<i>fhuBCGD</i>) uptake systems to scavenge iron from the environment and flavodoxins (<i>ykuNOP</i>) to replace ferredoxins. Third, as iron levels decline further, an "iron-sparing" response (<i>fsrA</i>, <i>fbpAB</i>, and <i>fbpC</i>) is induced to block the translation of abundant iron-utilizing proteins and thereby permit the most essential iron-dependent enzymes access to the limited iron pools. ChIP experiments demonstrate that in vivo occupancy of Fur correlates with derepression of each operon, and the graded response observed here results, at least in part, from higher-affinity binding of Fur to the "late"-induced genes.
Project description:Bacterial cells often modulate their transcriptional profiles in response to the changes in iron availability. Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), as a global iron biosensor, plays a central role in maintaining iron homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis. Here we utilized a high affinity Fe2+ efflux transporter, Listeria monocytogenes FrvA, as an inducible genetic tool to deplete intracellular iron. We then characterized the responses of the Fur, FsrA, and PerR regulons as cells transition from iron sufficiency to deficiency. Our results indicate that the Fur regulon is derepressed in three distinct waves. First, elemental iron uptake (ywbLMN), ferric citrate uptake (ymfCDEF-yhfQ), and petrobactin uptake (yclNOPQ) systems are induced to prevent iron deficiency. Second, B. subtilis synthesizes its own siderophore bacillibactin (dhbACEBF) and turns on bacillibactin uptake (feuABC-yusV) along with flavodoxin (ykuNOP) and hydroxamate siderophore uptake (fhuBCGD-yxeB) to scavenge iron from the environment. Third, as iron levels decline further, an iron sparing response (fsrA, fbpAB, and fbpC) is induced to block the translation of nonessential iron-using proteins and permit only essential iron-dependent enzymes to utilize the limited iron. ChIP experiments demonstrate that in vivo occupancy of Fur correlates with derepression of each operon, and the graded response observed here results, at least in part, from higher affinity binding of Fur to the late induced genes. These results provide insights into the distinct roles of Fur-regulated target genes as intracellular iron levels decline. Overall design: Experiments were done in the same genetic background WT Pspac-frvA with or without IPTG induction of FrvA at different time points for three hours.
Project description:Fur (ferric uptake regulator) is the master regulator of iron homeostasis in many bacteria, but how it responds specifically to Fe(II) in vivo is not clear. Biochemical analyses of Bacillus subtilis Fur (BsFur) reveal that in addition to Fe(II), both Zn(II) and Mn(II) allosterically activate BsFur-DNA binding. Dimeric BsFur co-purifies with site 1 structural Zn(II) (Fur(2) Zn(2) ) and can bind four additional Zn(II) or Mn(II) ions per dimer. Metal ion binding at previously described site 3 occurs with highest affinity, but the Fur(2) Zn(2) :Me(2) form has only a modest increase in DNA binding affinity (approximately sevenfold). Metallation of site 2 (Fur(2) Zn(2) :Me(4) ) leads to a?~ 150-fold further enhancement in DNA binding affinity. Fe(II) binding studies indicate that BsFur buffers the intracellular Fe(II) concentration at ~ 1??M. Both Mn(II) and Zn(II) are normally buffered at levels insufficient for metallation of BsFur site 2, thereby accounting for the lack of cross-talk observed in vivo. However, in a perR mutant, where the BsFur concentration is elevated, BsFur may now use Mn(II) as a co-repressor and inappropriately repress iron uptake. Since PerR repression of fur is enhanced by Mn(II), and antagonized by Fe(II), PerR may co-regulate Fe(II) homeostasis by modulating BsFur levels in response to the Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio.
Project description:The Bacillus subtilis PerR repressor regulates the adaptive response to peroxide stress. The PerR regulon includes the major vegetative catalase (katA), an iron storage protein (mrgA), an alkylhydroperoxide reductase (ahpCF), a zinc uptake system (zosA), heme biosynthesis enzymes (hemAXCDBL), the iron uptake repressor (fur), and perR itself. A perR null strain is resistant to hydrogen peroxide, accumulates a porphyrin-like compound, and grows very slowly. The poor growth of the perR mutant can be largely accounted for by the elevated expression of two proteins: the KatA catalase and Fur. Genetic studies support a model in which poor growth of the perR null mutant is due to elevated repression of iron uptake by Fur, exacerbated by heme sequestration by the abundant catalase protein. Analysis of the altered-function allele perR991 further supports a link between PerR and iron homeostasis. Strains containing perR991 are peroxide resistant but grow nearly as well as the wild type. Unlike a perR null allele, the perR991 allele (F51S) derepresses KatA, but not Fur, which likely accounts for its comparatively rapid growth.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis PerR is a Fur family repressor that senses hydrogen peroxide by metal-catalyzed oxidation. PerR contains a structural Zn(II) ion (Site 1) and a regulatory metal binding site (Site 2) that, upon association with either Mn(II) or Fe(II), allosterically activates DNA binding. In addition, a third less conserved metal binding site (Site 3) is present near the dimer interface in several crystal structures of homologous Fur family proteins. Here, we show that PerR proteins with substitutions of putative Site 3 residues (Y92A, E114A and H128A) are functional as repressors, but are unexpectedly compromised in their ability to sense H(2)O(2). Consistently, these mutants utilize Mn(II) but not Fe(II) as a co-repressor in vivo. Metal titrations failed to identify a third binding site in PerR, and inspection of the PerR structure suggests that these residues instead constitute a hydrogen binding network that modulates the architecture, and consequently the metal selectivity, of Site 2. PerR H128A binds DNA with high affinity, but has a significantly reduced affinity for Fe(II), and to a lesser extent for Mn(II). The ability of PerR H128A to bind Fe(II) in vivo and to thereby respond efficiently to H(2)O(2) was restored in a fur mutant strain with elevated cytosolic iron concentration.
Project description:Metalloregulatory proteins allow cells to sense metal ions and appropriately adjust the expression of metal uptake, storage, and efflux pathways. Bacillus subtilis provides a model for the coordinate regulation of iron and manganese homeostasis that involves three key regulators: Fur senses iron sufficiency, MntR senses manganese sufficiency, and PerR senses the intracellular Fe/Mn ratio. Here, I review the structural and physiological bases of selective metal perception, the effects of non-cognate metals, and mechanisms that may serve to coordinate iron and manganese homeostasis.
Project description:We examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on Bacillus subtilis physiology and gene expression. In aerobically growing cultures, cell death was most pronounced when NO gas was added incrementally rather than as a single bolus, suggesting that the length of exposure was important in determining cell survival. DNA microarrays, Northern hybridizations, and RNA slot blot analyses were employed to characterize the global transcriptional response of B. subtilis to NO and SNP. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions the gene most highly induced by NO was hmp, a flavohemoglobin known to protect bacteria from NO stress. Anaerobically, NO also induced genes repressed by the Fe(II)-containing metalloregulators, Fur and PerR, consistent with the known ability of NO to nitrosylate the Fe(II) center in Fur. In support of this model, we demonstrate that NO fails to induce PerR-regulated genes under growth conditions that favor the formation of PerR:Mn(II) rather than PerR:Fe(II). Aerobically, NO gas induced hmp, the sigmaB general stress regulon, and, to a lesser extent, the Fur and PerR regulons. Surprisingly, NO gas induced the sigmaB regulon via the energy branch of the sigmaB regulatory cascade while induction by SNP was mediated by the environmental stress branch. This emphasizes that NO and SNP elicit genetically distinct stress responses.
Project description:The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur.