Clinical correlates of longitudinal brain atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy.
ABSTRACT: There are no effective treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Volumetric MRI (vMRI) may be a useful surrogate outcome measure in PSP clinical trials. The goal of the study was to evaluate the potential of vMRI to correlate with clinical outcomes from an international clinical trial population.PSP patients (n = 198) from the AL-108-231 trial who had high quality vMRI and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Rating Scale (PSPRS), Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SEADL), Color Trails Test, Geriatric Depression Screen (GDS) and one year Clinician Global Impression of Change (CGIC) data from the baseline and 52 week visits were included. Linear regression was used to relate baseline values and annual clinical rating scale changes to annual regional vMRI changes (whole brain, ventricular, midbrain and superior cerebellar peduncle volumes).Effect sizes (Cohen's d) measuring disease progression over one year were largest for vMRI (midbrain [1.27] and ventricular volume [1.31]) but similar to PSPRS (1.26). After multiple comparison adjustment, annual changes in PSPRS, RBANS, SEADL, Color Trails Test, GDS and one year CGIC were modestly correlated with annual vMRI changes (p < 0.05). Baseline neuropsychological status on RBANS (p = 0.019) and Color Trails (p < 0.01) predicted annual midbrain atrophy rates.Standard vMRI measurements are sensitive to disease progression in large, multicenter PSP clinical trials, but are not well correlated with clinical changes. vMRI changes may be useful as supportive endpoints in PSP trials.
Project description:Clinical and MRI measurements can track disease progression in PSP, but many have not been extensively evaluated in multicenter clinical trials. We identified optimal measures to capture clinical decline and predict disease progression in multicenter PSP trials.Longitudinal clinical rating scales, neuropsychological test scores, and volumetric MRI data from an international, phase 2/3 clinical trial of davunetide for PSP (intent to treat population, n = 303) were used to identify measurements with largest effect size, strongest correlation with clinical change, and best ability to predict dropout or clinical decline over one year as measured by PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS).Baseline cognition as measured by Repeatable Battery for Assessing Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) was associated with attrition, but had only a small effect. PSPRS and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) had the largest effect size for measuring change. Annual change in CGI, RBANS, color trails, and MRI midbrain and ventricular volumes were most strongly correlated with annual PSPRS and had the largest effect sizes for detecting annual change. At baseline, shorter disease duration, more severe depression, and lower performance on RBANS and executive function tests were associated with faster worsening of the PSPRS in completers. With dropouts included, SEADL, RBANS, and executive function tests had significant effect on PSPRS trajectory of change.Baseline cognitive status and mood influence the rate of disease progression in PSP. Multiple clinical, neuropsychological, and volumetric MRI measurements are sensitive to change over one year in PSP and appropriate for use in multicenter clinical trials.
Project description:Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by deposition of fibrillar aggregates of 4R tau-protein in neurons and glial cells of the brain. These deposits are a key neuropathological finding, allowing a diagnosis of "definite PSP," which is usually established post mortem. To date criteria for clinical diagnosis of PSP in vivo do not include biomarkers of tau pathology. For intervention trials, it is increasingly important to (i) establish biomarkers for an early diagnosis and (ii) to develop biomarkers that correlate with disease progression of PSP. [18F]-THK5351 is a novel PET-ligand that may afford in vivo visualization and quantification of tau-related alterations. We investigated binding characteristics of [18F]-THK5351 in patients with clinically diagnosed PSP and correlate tracer uptake with clinical findings. Eleven patients (68.4 ± 7.4 year; N = 6 female) with probable PSP according to current clinical criteria and nine healthy controls (71.7 ± 7.2 year; N = 4 female) underwent [18F]-THK5351 PET scanning. Voxel-wise statistical parametric comparison and volume-of-interest based quantification of standardized-uptake-values (SUV) were conducted using the cerebellar cortex as reference region. We correlated disease severity as measured with the help of the PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) as well as several other clinical parameters with the individual PET findings. By voxel-wise mapping of [18F]-THK5351 uptake in the patient group we delineated typical distribution patterns that fit to known tau topology for PSP post mortem. Quantitative analysis indicated the strongest discrimination between PSP patients and healthy controls based on tracer uptake in the midbrain (+35%; p = 3.01E-7; Cohen's d: 4.0), followed by the globus pallidus, frontal cortex, and medulla oblongata. Midbrain [18F]-THK5351 uptake correlated well with clinical severity as measured by PSPRS (R = 0.66; p = 0.026). OCT and MRI delineated PSP patients from healthy controls by use of established discrimination thresholds but only OCT did as well correlate with clinical severity (R = 0.79; p = 0.024). Regional [18F]-THK5351 binding patterns correlated well with the established post mortem distribution of lesions in PSP and with clinical severity. The contribution of possible MAO-B binding to the [18F]-THK5351 signal needs to be further evaluated, but nevertheless [18F]-THK5351 PET may still serve as valuable biomarker for diagnosis of PSP.
Project description:Blood-based biomarkers for neurodegenerative conditions could improve diagnosis and treatment development. Neurofilament light chain (NfL), a marker of axonal injury, is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of plasma NfL in patients with PSP.Plasma NfL was measured with ultrasensitive digital immunoassay-based technology at baseline and 1-year follow-up in a pilot cohort of 15 PSP patients and 12 healthy controls, and a validation cohort of 147 PSP patients. Mixed linear models tested the ability of plasma NfL to predict neurological, cognitive and functional decline, and brain atrophy.Baseline mean plasma NfL levels were elevated in PSP patients (31 ± 4 pg/mL, vs. control, 17.5 ± 1 pg/mL, P < 0.05) and this difference persisted at follow-up. A cutoff value of 20 pg/mL related to the diagnosis of PSP with a sensitivity of 0.80 and specificity of 0.83 (positive likelihood ratio = 4.7 and a negative likelihood radio of 0.24). Patients with higher NfL levels had more severe neurological (PSPRS, -36.9% vs. -28.9%, P = 0.04), functional (SEADL, -38.2% vs. -20%, P = 0.03), and neuropsychological (RBANS, -23.9% vs. -12.3%, P = 001) deterioration over 1 year. Higher baseline NfL predicted greater whole-brain and superior cerebellar peduncle volume loss. Plasma and CSF NfL were significantly correlated (r = 0.74, P = 0.002).Plasma NfL is elevated in PSP and could be of value as a biomarker both to assist clinical diagnosis and to monitor pharmacodynamic effects on the neurodegenerative process in clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:to date, there are no medical or surgical treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). It is possible to speculate that patients with PSP could benefit from rehabilitative treatments designed for Parkinson's disease, including the use of robot-assisted walking training. OBJECTIVE:to evaluate whether the use of the robotic device Lokomat® is superior in PSP patients to the use of treadmill with visual cues and auditory feedbacks (treadmill-plus) in the context of an aerobic, multidisciplinary, intensive, motor-cognitive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT) conceived for Parkinsonian patients. METHODS:we enrolled twenty-four PSP patients. Twelve subjects underwent a 4-week MIRT exploiting the use of the treadmill-plus (MIRT group). Twelve subjects underwent the same treatment, but replacing the treadmill-plus with Lokomat® (MIRT-Lokomat group). Subjects were evaluated with clinical and functional scales at admission and discharge. The primary outcomes were the total PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) score and its "limb" and "gait" sub-scores. Secondary outcomes were Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Six Minutes Walking test (6MWT) and the number of falls. RESULTS:total PSPRS, PSPRS-gait sub-score, BBS, 6MWT and number of falls improved significantly in both groups (p ? 0.003 all, except 6MWT, p = 0.032 and p = 0.018 in MIRT-Lokomat and MIRT group respectively). The PSPRS-limb sub-score improved significantly only in the MIRT group (p = 0.002). A significant difference between groups was observed only for total PSPRS, indicating a slightly better improvement for patients in the MIRT group (p = 0.047). No differences between groups were revealed for the other outcomes, indicating that the effect of rehabilitation was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS:Lokomat® training, in comparison with treadmill-plus training, does not provide further benefits in PSP patients undergoing MIRT. Our findings suggest the usefulness of an aerobic, multidisciplinary, intensive, motor-cognitive and goal-based approach for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from such a complex disease as PSP. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02109393.
Project description:An investigator-initiated, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to determine whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is safe, well tolerated, and effective in slowing functional decline in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).Sixty-one participants received CoQ10 (2,400 mg/d) or placebo for up to 12 months. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Rating Scale (PSPRS), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, activities of daily living, Mini-Mental State Examination, the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, and 36-item Short Form Health Survey were monitored at baseline and months 3, 6, 9, and 12. The safety profile of CoQ10 was determined by adverse events, vital signs, and clinical laboratory values. Primary outcome measures were changes in PSPRS and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores from baseline to month 12.CoQ10 was well tolerated. No statistically significant differences were noted between CoQ10 and placebo groups in primary or secondary outcome measures. A nonsignificant difference toward slower clinical decline in the CoQ10 group was observed in total PSPRS among those participants who completed the trial. Before the final study visit at 12 months, 41% of participants withdrew because of travel distance, lack of perceived benefit, comorbidities, or caregiver issues.High doses of CoQ10 did not significantly improve PSP symptoms or disease progression. The high withdrawal rate emphasizes the difficulty of conducting clinical trials in patients with PSP.NCT00382824.This study provides Class II evidence that CoQ10 does not significantly slow functional decline in PSP. The study lacks the precision to exclude a moderate benefit of CoQ10.
Project description:In preclinical studies, davunetide promoted microtubule stability and reduced tau phosphorylation. Because progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be a treatment for PSP. We assessed the safety and efficacy of davunetide in patients with PSP.In a double-blind, parallel group, phase 2/3 trial, participants were randomly assigned with permuted blocks in a 1:1 ratio to davunetide (30 mg twice daily, intranasally) or placebo for 52 weeks at 48 centres in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the UK, and the USA. Participants met the modified Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndrome study criteria for PSP. Primary endpoints were the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. All participants and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT01110720.313 participants were randomly assigned to davunetide (n=157) or to placebo (n=156), and 241 (77%) completed the study (118 and 156 in the davunetide and placebo groups, respectively). There were no differences in the davunetide and placebo groups in the baseline PSPRS and SEADL. The davunetide and placebo groups did not differ in the change from baseline in PSPRS (median 11·8 [95% CI 10·5 to 13·0] vs 11·8 [10·5 to 13·0], respectively, p=0·41) or SEADL (-0·20 [-0·20 to -0·17] vs -0·20 [-0·22 to -0·17], respectively, p=0·92). 54 serious adverse events were reported in each of the treatment groups, including 11 deaths in the davunetide group and ten in the placebo group. The frequency of nasal adverse events was greater in the davunetide group than in the placebo group (epistaxis 18 [12%] of 156 vs 13 [8%] of 156, rhinorrhoea 15 [10%] vs eight [5%], and nasal discomfort 15 [10%] vs one [<1%]).Davunetide is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of disease-modifying treatment are feasible in patients with PSP and should be pursued with other promising tau-directed treatments.Allon Therapeutics.
Project description:Numerous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies on gray matter (GM) of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) have been conducted separately. Identifying the different neuroanatomical changes in GM resulting from PSP and PD through meta-analysis will aid the differential diagnosis of PSP and PD. In this study, a systematic review of VBM studies of patients with PSP and PD relative to healthy control (HC) in the Embase and PubMed databases from January 1995 to April 2013 was conducted. The anatomical distribution of the coordinates of GM differences was meta-analyzed using anatomical likelihood estimation. Separate maps of GM changes were constructed and subtraction meta-analysis was performed to explore the differences in GM abnormalities between PSP and PD. Nine PSP studies and 24 PD studies were included. GM reductions were present in the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, midbrain, insular cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, and left precentral gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus in PSP. Atrophy of GM was concentrated in the bilateral middle and inferior frontal gyrus, precuneus, left precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, right superior parietal lobule, and right cuneus in PD. Subtraction meta-analysis indicated that GM volume was lesser in the bilateral midbrain, thalamus, and insula in PSP compared with that in PD. Our meta-analysis indicated that PSP and PD shared a similar distribution of neuroanatomical changes in the frontal lobe, including inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus, and that atrophy of the midbrain, thalamus, and insula are neuroanatomical markers for differentiating PSP from PD.
Project description:To examine the utility and reliability of volumetric MRI in measuring disease progression in the 4 repeat tauopathies, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS), to support clinical development of new tau-directed therapeutic agents.Six- and 12-month changes in regional MRI volumes and PSP Rating Scale scores were examined in 55 patients with PSP and 33 patients with CBS (78% amyloid PET negative) compared to 30 normal controls from a multicenter natural history study. Longitudinal voxel-based morphometric analyses identified patterns of volume loss, and region-of-interest analyses examined rates of volume loss in brainstem (midbrain, pons, superior cerebellar peduncle), cortical, and subcortical regions based on previously validated atlases. Results were compared to those in a replication cohort of 226 patients with PSP with MRI data from the AL-108-231 clinical trial.Patients with CBS exhibited greater baseline atrophy and greater longitudinal atrophy rates in cortical and basal ganglia regions than patients with PSP; however, midbrain and pontine atrophy rates were similar. Voxel-wise analyses showed distinct patterns of regional longitudinal atrophy in each group as compared to normal controls. The midbrain/pons volumetric ratio differed between diagnoses but remained stable over time. In both patient groups, brainstem atrophy rates were correlated with disease progression measured using the PSP Rating Scale.Volume loss is quantifiable over a period of 6 months in CBS and PSP. Future clinical trials may be able to combine CBS and PSP to measure therapeutic effects.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an atypical parkinsonian syndrome characterized by vertical gaze palsy and postural instability. Midbrain atrophy is suggested as a hallmark, but it has not been validated systematically in whole-brain imaging. METHODS:We conducted whole-brain meta-analyses identifying disease-related atrophy in structural MRI. Eighteen studies were identified (N?=?315 PSP, 393 controls) and separated into gray or white matter analyses (15/12). All patients were diagnosed according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP criteria, Litvan et al. (1996a)), which are now considered as PSP-Richardson syndrome (Höglinger et al., 2017). With overlay analyses, we double-validated two meta-analytical algorithms: anatomical likelihood estimation and seed-based D mapping. Additionally, we conducted region-of-interest effect size meta-analyses on radiological biomarkers and subtraction analyses differentiating PSP from Parkinson's disease. RESULTS:Whole brain meta-analyses revealed consistent gray matter atrophy in bilateral thalamus, anterior insulae, midbrain, and left caudate nucleus. White matter alterations were consistently detected in bilateral superior/middle cerebellar pedunculi, cerebral pedunculi, and midbrain atrophy. Region-of-interest meta-analyses demonstrated that midbrain metrics generally perform very well in distinguishing PSP from other parkinsonian syndromes with strong effect sizes. Subtraction analyses identified the midbrain as differentiating between PSP and Parkinson's disease. CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analyses identify gray matter atrophy of the midbrain and white matter atrophy of the cerebral/cerebellar pedunculi and midbrain as characteristic for PSP. Results support the incorporation of structural MRI data, and particularly these structures, into the revised PSP diagnostic criteria.