Morphology and molecular phylogeny of two colepid species from China, Coleps amphacanthus Ehrenberg, 1833 and Levicoleps biwae jejuensis Chen et al., 2016 (Ciliophora, Prostomatida).
ABSTRACT: Two colepid ciliates, Coleps amphacanthus Ehrenberg, 1833 and Levicoleps biwae jejuensis Chen et al., 2016, were first recorded in China. Their living morphology, infraciliature and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were determined using standard methods. The improved diagnosis of Coleps amphacanthus is as follows:cell size about 100×50 ?m in vivo, barrel-shaped; 22-28 ciliary rows each composed of about 14-21 monokinetids and two perioral dikinetids; 5-10 caudal cilia; and one terminal contractile vacuole. Levicoleps biwae jejuensis was also investigated, with an improved diagnosis given based on previous and present work. The phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequences revealed that all Coleps species were grouped together, except for Coleps amphacanthus, which was grouped into a clade of the genus Levicoleps.
Project description:We found the euryhaline microalga, <i>Tetraselmis jejuensis</i> sp. nov., which was adapted to supralittoral tide pools with salinities varying from 0.3-3.1%. Fifteen strains of <i>T</i>. <i>jejuensis</i> were isolated from Daejeong (DJ) and Yongduam (YO), and clonal cultures were established in the laboratory. Morphological characterization revealed that the cells have a compressed shape, four flagella emerging from a depression near the apex in two opposite pairs, a cup-shaped chloroplast containing one pyrenoid surrounded by starch, and eyespot regions not located near the flagellar base. <i>T</i>. <i>jejuensis</i> cells showed distinct characteristics compared to other <i>Tetraselmis</i> species. First, a regular subunit pattern with honeycomb-like structures was predominantly displayed on the surface in the middle of the cell body. Second, the pyrenoid was invaded by both cytoplasmic channels comprising electron-dense material separated from the cytoplasm, and two branches of small cytoplasmic channels (canaliculi) in various directions, which characterize the subgenus <i>Tetrathele</i>. Eyespot regions containing a large number of osmiophilic globules, packed closely together and arranged in subcircular close packing of diverse sizes, were dispersed throughout the chloroplast. In the phylogenetic analysis of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences, the 15 strains isolated from DJ and YO separated a newly branched clade in the Chlorodendrophyceae at the base of a clade comprising the <i>T. carteriiformi/subcordiformis</i> clade, <i>T. chuii</i>/<i>suecica</i> clade, and <i>T. striata/convolutae</i> clade. The strains in the diverging clade were considered to belong to the same species. The SSU rDNA sequences of the DJ and YO strains showed a maximum difference of 1.53% and 1.19% compared to <i>Tetraselmis suecica</i> (MK541745), the closest species of the family based on the phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Based on morphological, molecular, and physiological features, we suggest a new species in the genus <i>Tetraselmis</i> named <i>Tetraselmis jejuensis</i>, with the species name "jejuensis" referring to the collection site, Jeju Island, Korea.
Project description:The morphology and phylogeny of two new sessilid species, <i>Zoothamnium weishanicum</i> n. sp. and <i>Epicarchesium sinense</i> n. sp., two insufficiently known species, <i>Zoothamnium arbuscula</i> Ehrenberg, 1831 and <i>Zoothamnium hentscheli</i> Kahl, 1935, and a well-known species, <i>Carchesium polypinum</i> (Linnaeus, 1767) Ehrenberg, 1838, collected from freshwater habitats of China, were investigated. <i>Zoothamnium weishanicum</i> n. sp. is characterized by its inverted bell-shaped zooids, double-layered peristomial lip, alternately branched stalk, and two different-length rows in infundibular polykinety 3 (P3). <i>Epicarchesium sinense</i> n. sp. is recognized by its asymmetric-pyriform zooids, single-layered peristomial lip, conspicuous cortical blisters on the pellicle, dichotomously branched stalk, and P3 containing one short inner row and two long outer rows. Based on previous and newly obtained data of the three known species, improved diagnoses and redescriptions are provided including, for the first time, data on the infraciliature of <i>Z. arbuscula</i> and <i>Z. hentscheli</i>. In addition, we analyzed the phylogeny of each species based on SSU rDNA sequence data.
Project description:Bacterial and algal floc formation was induced by inoculating three species of wastewater-derived bacteria (Melaminivora jejuensis, Comamonas flocculans, and Escherichia coli) into algal cultures (Chlorella sorokiniana). Bacterial and algal flocs formed in algal cultures inoculated with M. jejuensis and C. flocculans, and these flocs showed higher sedimentation rates than pure algal culture. The floc formed by M. jejuensis (4988.46 ± 2589.81 ?m) was 10-fold larger than the floc formed by C. flocculans (488.60 ± 226.22 ?m), with a three-fold higher sedimentation rate (M. jejuensis, 91.08 ± 2.32% and C. flocculans, 32.55 ± 6.33%). Biomass and lipid productivity were improved with M. jejuensis inoculation [biomass, 102.25 ± 0.35 mg/(L·day) and 57.80 ± 0.20 mg/(L·day)] compared with the productivity obtained under pure algal culture conditions [biomass, 78.00 ± 3.89 mg/(L·day) and lipids, 42.26 ± 2.11 mg/(L·day)]. Furthermore, the fatty acid composition of the biomass produced under pure algal culture conditions was mainly composed of C16:0 (43.67%) and C18:2 (45.99%), whereas the fatty acid composition of the biomass produced by M. jejuensis was mainly C16:0 (31.80%), C16:1 (24.45%), C18:1 (20.23%), and C18:2 (16.11%). These results suggest the possibility of developing an efficient method for harvesting microalgae using M. jejuensis and provide information on how to improve biomass productivity using floc-forming bacteria.
Project description:The Heterotrichea Stein, 1859 are a group of ciliated protists (single-celled eukaryotes) that occur in a wide variety of aquatic habitat where they play important roles in the flow of nutrients and energy within the microbial food web. Many species are model organisms for research in cytology and regenerative biology. In the present study, the morphology and phylogeny of two heterotrich ciliates, namely, <i>Linostomella pseudovorticella</i> n. sp. and <i>Peritromus kahli</i> Villeneuve-Brachon, 1940, collected from subtropical wetlands of China, were investigated using morphological and molecular methods. <i>L. pseudovorticella</i> n. sp. differs from its only known congener, <i>Linostomella vorticella</i> Ehrenberg, 1833 Aescht in Foissner et al., 1999, by having more ciliary rows (48-67, mean about 56 vs. 26-51, mean about 42) and its small-subunit (SSU) rDNA sequence, which shows a 15-bp divergence. Although <i>P. kahli</i> has been reported several times in recent decades, its infraciliature has yet to be described. A redescription and improved diagnosis of this species based on a combination of previous and present data are here supplied. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequences revealed that the genus <i>Linostomella</i> is positioned within Condylostomatidae, and Peritromidae is sister to Climacostomidae with relatively low support, and the family Spirostomidae is the root branch of the class Heterotrichea.
Project description:The flora of diatoms from Brazil has been studied by several authors from the beginning of the 19(th) up to now. Some of the old lists and descriptions are unknown or have been ignored by Brazilian researchers and the situation of the names cited was not assessed. Here we compiled a list of 101 taxa of diatoms from Brazil registered by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg during the 19(th) century. We checked the current nomenclatural status of those taxa and lectotypified species from Brazil described by this author. For this, we accessed the Ehrenberg collection in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany, where 11 samples from Brazil studied by Ehrenberg are housed and published in different papers. Using these samples, we found 101 taxa (specific and infraspecific) published by Ehrenberg from Brazil. Five species (Eunotia bidens Ehrenb., Eunotia depressa Ehrenb., Eunotia elephas Ehrenb., Pinnularia microstauron Ehrenb., and Terpsinoe brasiliensis Ehrenb.) were new descriptions and were lectotypified here. The other species cited for Brazil were described initially from other places. However, 23 names were invalid and one illegitimate.
Project description:Pedobacter jejuensis TN23 was isolated from soil from Terra Nova Bay, Victoria Land, Antarctica. The assembled draft genome size is 4,795,808 bp, and it contains a total of 4,095 genes with 3,970 coding sequences, including genes putatively involved in the degradation of chitin.
Project description:Sinularia leptoclados (Ehrenberg, 1834) is re-described. Sinularia leptoclados var. gonatodes Kolonko, 1926 is synonymized with Sinularia maxima Verseveldt, 1977. Two new species of Sinularia with digitiform lobules, leptoclados-type surface clubs and unbranched interior spindles, are described. An updated maximum likelihood tree of Sinularia species with leptoclados-type clubs (clade 5C) based on two mitochondrial genes (mtMutS, COI) and a nuclear gene (28S rDNA) is presented.
Project description:Sinularia polydactyla (Ehrenberg, 1834) is re-described and a lectotype assigned. This led to examination of related material from various Indo-Pacific regions. Consequently, Sinularia levi sp. n. is described from Eilat, Israel (Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea) and Sinularia compressa Tixier-Durivault, 1945 and Sinularia candidula Verseveldt and Benayahu, 1983 are synonymized with Sinularia polydactyla. Additional specimens identified in the literature as Sinularia polydactyla are provisionally reassigned to other taxa.