A new autoinhibited kinase conformation reveals a salt-bridge switch in kinase activation.
ABSTRACT: In the structure of autoinhibited EphA2 tyrosine kinase reported herein, we have captured the entire activation segment, revealing a previously unknown role of the conserved Arg762 in kinase autoinhibition by interacting with the essential Mg(2+)-chelating Asp757. While it is well known that this Arg residue is involved in an electrostatic interaction with the phospho-residue of the activation loop to stabilize the active conformation, our structure determination revealed a new role for the Arg, acting as a switch between the autoinhibited and activated conformations. Mutation of Arg762 to Ala in EphA2 sensitized Mg(2+) response, resulting in enhanced kinase catalytic activity and Mg(2+) cooperativity. Furthermore, mutation of the corresponding Arg/Lys to Ala in PKA and p38MAPK also exhibited similar behavior. This new salt bridge-mediated switch may thus be an important mechanism of activation on a broader scope for kinases which utilize autophosphorylation.
Project description:The ?-kinases are a family of a typical protein kinases present in organisms ranging from protozoa to mammals. Here we report an autoinhibited conformation for the ?-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase A (MHCK-A) in which nucleotide binding to the catalytic cleft, located at the interface between an N-terminal and C-terminal lobe, is sterically blocked by the side chain of a conserved arginine residue (Arg592). Previous ?-kinase structures have shown that an invariant catalytic aspartic acid residue (Asp766) is phosphorylated. Unexpectedly, in the autoinhibited conformation the phosphoryl group is transferred to the adjacent Asp663, creating an interaction network that stabilizes the autoinhibited state. The results suggest that Asp766 phosphorylation may play both catalytic and regulatory roles. The autoinhibited structure also provides the first view of a phosphothreonine residue docked into the phospho-specific allosteric binding site (Pi-pocket) in the C-lobe of the ?-kinase domain.
Project description:The substrate specificity of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP kinase-2) was investigated by using synthetic peptides related to the N-terminus of glycogen synthase. The minimum sequence required for efficient phosphorylation was found to be Xaa-Xaa-Hyd-Xaa-Arg-Xaa-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Xaa, where Hyd is a bulky hydrophobic residue (Phe > Leu > Val >> Ala), and the peptide Lys-Lys-Phe-Asn-Arg-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Ala was phosphorylated with a Km of 9.3 microM and Vmax. of 10 mumol/min per mg. MAPKAP kinase-1 (a homologue of ribosomal protein S6 kinase) also requires an arginine three residues N-terminal to the serine (position n-3), but not a hydrophobic residue at position n-5. Neither MAPKAP kinase-1 nor MAPKAP kinase-2 could tolerate a proline residue at position n + 1, indicating that their specificities do not overlap with that of MAP kinase. The specificity of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II resembled that of MAPKAP kinase-2, except that it could tolerate replacement of the arginine by a lysine and the phosphorylation-site serine by a threonine residue. Partial cDNAs encoding MAPKAP kinase-2 were isolated from rabbit and human skeletal muscle and human teratocarcinoma libraries, and Northern-blotting experiments revealed a single 3.3 kb mRNA transcript present at similar levels in six human tissues examined. The catalytic domain was most similar (35-40% identity) to calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II and IV, phosphorylase kinase, putative serine kinase H1 and the C-terminal domain of MAPKAP kinase-1, which form one branch of the protein kinase phylogenetic tree. The sequence N-terminal to the catalytic domain is proline-rich and contains two putative SH3-binding sites. The threonine residue phosphorylated by MAP kinase lies immediately C-terminal to the catalytic domain and is followed by a nuclear localization signal, Lys-Lys-(Xaa)10-Lys-Arg-Arg-Lys-Lys, near the C-terminus.
Project description:Although the amino acid residues that are important for peptide substrates of myosin light-chain kinase have been reported, those that are important for peptide inhibitors of this enzyme have not previously been investigated. Synthetic peptides based on the sequence Lys11-Lys12-Arg13-Ala-Ala-Arg16-Ala-Thr-Ser19 -Asn-Val21-Phe22-Ala of the chicken gizzard myosin light chain were tested as inhibitors of pig carotid-artery myosin light-chain kinase. The basic amino acid residues of the known myosin light-chain kinase inhibitor Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Thr-Ser-NH2 (IC50 = 14 microM) [Pearson, Misconi & Kemp (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 25-27] were shown to be the important residues that contribute to inhibitor potency, as evidence by the finding that the hexapeptide Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-NH2 had an IC50 value of 22 microM. This indicates that binding of the phosphorylatable serine residue to myosin light-chain kinase, which is of obvious importance for a substrate, does not enhance the potency of an inhibitor. With the aim of preparing more potent inhibitors, peptides Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Ala-Xaa-NH2 were prepared with a variety of amino acids substituted for the phosphorylatable serine residue. None of these peptides was a more potent inhibitor than the serine peptide.
Project description:NAD kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of NAD(+) to synthesize NADP(+), whereas NADH kinase catalyzes conversion of NADH to NADPH. The mitochondrial protein Pos5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows much higher NADH kinase than NAD kinase activity and is therefore referred to as NADH kinase. To clarify the structural determinant underlying the high NADH kinase activity of Pos5 and its selectivity for NADH over NAD(+), we determined the tertiary structure of Pos5 complexed with NADH at a resolution of 2.0 Å. Detailed analysis, including a comparison of the tertiary structure of Pos5 with the structures of human and bacterial NAD kinases, revealed that Arg-293 of Pos5, corresponding to His-351 of human NAD kinase, confers a positive charge on the surface of NADH-binding site, whereas the corresponding His residue does not. Accordingly, conversion of the Arg-293 into a His residue reduced the ratio of NADH kinase activity to NAD kinase activity from 8.6 to 2.1. Conversely, simultaneous changes of Ala-330 and His-351 of human NAD kinase into Ser and Arg residues significantly increased the ratio of NADH kinase activity to NAD kinase activity from 0.043 to 1.39; human Ala-330 corresponds to Pos5 Ser-272, which interacts with the side chain of Arg-293. Arg-293 and Ser-272 were highly conserved in Pos5 homologs (putative NADH kinases), but not in putative NAD kinases. Thus, Arg-293 of Pos5 is a major determinant of NADH selectivity. Moreover, Ser-272 appears to assist Arg-293 in achieving the appropriate conformation.
Project description:Digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase of the inhibitor protein of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase results in the sequential formation of three active inhibitory peptides. The smallest active peptide has the sequence Thr-Thr-Tyr-Ala-Asp-Phe-Ile-Ala-Ser-Gly-Arg-Thr-Gly-Arg-Arg-Asn-Ala-Ile- His-Asp . This 20-amino-acid-residue peptide has 20-40% of the activity of the native molecule and a Ki of 0.2 nM. Inhibition, as a minimum, appears to be based upon the inhibitor protein containing the recognition sequences that dictate protein-substrate-specificity. This inhibitory peptide also has sequence homology with the phosphorylation site for a protein kinase other than the cyclic AMP-dependent enzyme.
Project description:The known amino acid sequences at the two sites on phosphorylase kinase that are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were extended. The sequences of 42 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the alpha-subunit and of 14 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the beta-subunit were shown to be: alpha-subunit Phe-Arg-Arg-Leu-Ser(P)-Ile-Ser-Thr-Glu-Ser-Glx-Pro-Asx-Gly-Gly-His-Ser-Leu-Gly-Ala-Asp-Leu-Met-Ser-Pro-Ser-Phe-Leu-Ser-Pro-Gly-Thr-Ser-Val-Phe(Ser,Pro,Gly)His-Thr-Ser-Lys; beta-subunit, Ala-Arg-Thr-Lys-Arg-Ser-Gly-Ser(P)-VALIle-Tyr-Glu-Pro-Leu-Lys. The sites on histone H2B which are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro were identified as serine-36 and serine-32. The amino acid sequence in this region is: Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Arg-Ser32(P)-Arg-Lys-Glu-Ser36(P)-Tyr-Ser-Val-Tyr-Val- [Iwai, K., Ishikawa, K. & Hayashi, H. (1970) Nature (London) 226, 1056-1058]. Serine-36 was phosphorylated at 50% of the rate at which the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase was phosphorylated, and it was phosphorylated 6-7-fold more rapidly than was serine-32. The amino acid sequences when compared with those at the phosphorylation sites of other physiological substrates suggest that the presence of two adjacent basic amino acids on the N-terminal side of the susceptible serine residue may be critical for specific substrate recognition in vivo.
Project description:Arg-136, Glu-137, Arg-138 and Arg-139 are conserved in all sequences of the 2-kinase domain of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. Their role was studied by site-directed mutagenesis. All the mutations had little, if any, effect on fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity. Mutations of Arg-136 and Glu-137 into Ala caused only minor modifications of phosphofructo-2-kinase activity. In contrast, mutation of Arg138 into Ala increased 280-fold the Km for fructose 6-phosphate of phosphofructo-2-kinase. Mutation of Arg-139 into Ala resulted in decreases in phosphofructo-2-kinase Vmax/Km for MgATP and fructose 6-phosphate 600-fold and 5000-fold respectively. Mutation of Arg-139 into Lys and Gln increased the Km of phosphofructo-2-kinase for MgATP (20-fold and 25-fold respectively) and for fructose 6-phosphate (8-fold and 13-fold), and the IC50 for MgADP (30-fold and 50-fold) and for magnesium citrate (7-fold and 25-fold). However, these two mutations did not affect nucleotide binding, as measured by quenching of intrinsic fluorescence. The changes in kinetic properties induced by mutations could not be attributed to structural changes. It is proposed that Arg-138 is involved in fructose 6-phosphate binding and that Arg-139 is probably involved in the stabilization of the transition state and so participates in catalysis.
Project description:Eukaryotic protein kinases (EPKs) feature two coevolved structural segments, the Activation segment, which starts with the Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) and ends with the Ala-Pro-Glu (APE) motifs, and the helical GHI subdomain that comprises ?G-?H-?I helices. Eukaryotic-like kinases have a much shorter Activation segment and lack the GHI subdomain. They thus lack the conserved salt bridge interaction between the APE Glu and an Arg from the GHI subdomain, a hallmark signature of EPKs. Although the conservation of this salt bridge in EPKs is well known and its implication in diseases has been illustrated by polymorphism analysis, its function has not been carefully studied. In this work, we use murine cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) as the model enzyme (Glu208 and Arg280) to examine the role of these two residues. We showed that Ala replacement of either residue caused a 40- to 120-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency of the enzyme due to an increase in K(m)(ATP) and a decrease in k(cat). Crystal structures, as well as solution studies, also demonstrate that this ion pair contributes to the hydrophobic network and stability of the enzyme. We show that mutation of either Glu or Arg to Ala renders both mutant proteins less effective substrates for upstream kinase phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1. We propose that the Glu208-Arg280 pair serves as a center hub of connectivity between these two structurally conserved elements in EPKs. Mutations of either residue disrupt communication not only between the two segments but also within the rest of the molecule, leading to altered catalytic activity and enzyme regulation.
Project description:Many eukaryotic protein kinases are activated by phosphorylation on a specific conserved residue in the regulatory activation loop, a post-translational modification thought to stabilize the active DFG-In state of the catalytic domain. Here we use a battery of spectroscopic methods that track different catalytic elements of the kinase domain to show that the ~100 fold activation of the mitotic kinase Aurora A (AurA) by phosphorylation occurs without a population shift from the DFG-Out to the DFG-In state, and that the activation loop of the activated kinase remains highly dynamic. Instead, molecular dynamics simulations and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments show that phosphorylation triggers a switch within the DFG-In subpopulation from an autoinhibited DFG-In substate to an active DFG-In substate, leading to catalytic activation. This mechanism raises new questions about the functional role of the DFG-Out state in protein kinases.
Project description:The bisphosphatase activity of the hepatic bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase is repressed by its kinase domain, and regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-catalysed phosphorylation. In the present study, the mechanism by which the bisphosphatase activity is repressed by the kinase domain and regulated by phosphorylation was investigated. We found that truncation of the C-terminus of the enzyme by 25, but not 20, amino acids dramatically enhanced the catalytic rate of the bisphosphatase, abrogated the inhibition by the kinase domain, and eliminated the effect of PKA-mediated phosphorylation on activity. In addition, mutation of His444-Arg-Glu-Arg to Ala-Ala-Glu-Ala had similar effects as the deletion. Moreover, the mutations also significantly affected the phosphorylation-mediated regulation of the kinase activity of the enzyme. Furthermore, the mutations altered the pH-dependence of the bisphosphatase, and the mutant bisphosphatases were more sensitive to modification by diethyl pyrocarbonate and guanidine-induced inactivation than the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the sequence His444-Arg-Glu-Arg plays a critical role in repression of the bisphosphatase activity by both the N-terminal kinase domain and the C-terminal tail itself. These results also explain the activation of the bisphosphatase activity by PKA-catalysed phosphorylation, by suggesting that phosphorylation may relieve the inhibitory effect of the kinase domain that is mediated by the three basic residues in this sequence.