No involvement of alveolar macrophages in the initiation of carbon nanoparticle induced acute lung inflammation in mice.
ABSTRACT: Carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNP) represent a major constituent of urban particulate air pollution, and inhalation of high CNP levels has been described to trigger a pro-inflammatory response of the lung. While several studies identified specific particle characteristics driving respiratory toxicity of low-solubility and low-toxicity particles such as CNP, the major lung cell type, which initiates and drives that response, remains still uncertain. Since alveolar macrophages (AM) are known to effectively phagocytose inhaled particles and play a crucial role for the initiation of pulmonary inflammation caused by invading microbes, we aimed to determine their role for sterile stimuli such as CNP by profiling the primary alveolar cell compartments of the lung. We exposed C57BL/6 mice to 20 μg CNP by intratracheal instillation and comprehensively investigated the expression of the underlying mediators during a time span of 3 to 72 h in three different lung cell populations: CD45- (negative) structural cells, CD45+ (positive) leukocytes, and by BAL recovered cells.Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis revealed an acute inflammatory response characterized by the most prominent culmination of neutrophil granulocytes from 12 to 24 h after instillation, which declined to basal levels by day 7. As early as 3 h after CNP exposure 50 % of the AM revealed particle laden. BAL concentrations and lung gene expression profiles of TNFα, and the neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL1,-2 and-5 preceded the neutrophil recruitment and showed highest levels after 12 h of CNP exposure, pointing to a significant activation of the inflammation-evoking lung cells at this point of time. AM, isolated from lungs 3 to 12 h after CNP instillation, however, did not show a pro-inflammatory signature. On the contrary, gene expression analysis of different lung cell populations isolated 12 h after CNP instillation revealed CD45-, mainly representing alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells as major producer of inflammatory CXCL cytokines. Particularly by CD45- cells expressed Cxcl5 proved to be the most abundant chemokine, being 12 h after CNP exposure 24 (±11) fold induced.Our data suggests that AM are noninvolved in the initiation of the inflammatory response. ATII cells, which induced highest CXCL levels early on, might in contrast be the driver of acute neutrophilic inflammation upon pulmonary CNP exposure.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The alveolar macrophage (AM) - first line of innate immune defence against pathogens and environmental irritants - constitutively expresses peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?). PPAR? ligand-induced activation keeps the AM quiescent, and thereby contributes to combat invaders and resolve inflammation by augmenting the phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils and inhibiting an excessive expression of inflammatory genes. Because of these presumed anti-inflammatory functions of PPAR? we tested the hypothesis, whether reduced functional receptor availability in mutant mice resulted in increased cellular and molecular inflammatory response during acute inflammation and/or in an impairment of its resolution. METHODS: To address this hypothesis we examined the effects of a carbon-nanoparticle (CNP) lung challenge, as surrogate for non-infectious environmental irritants, in a murine model carrying a dominant-negative point mutation in the ligand-binding domain of PPAR? (P465L/wt). Animals were instilled intratracheally with Printex 90 CNPs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was gained 24 h or 72 h after instillation to investigate its cellular and protein composition. RESULTS: Higher BAL cell numbers - due to higher macrophage counts - were found in mutants irrespective of treatment. Neutrophil numbers in contrast were slightly lower in mutants. Intratracheal CNP instillation resulted in a profound recruitment of inflammatory neutrophils into the alveolus, but genotype related differences at acute inflammation (24 h) and resolution (72 h) were not observed. There were no signs for increased alveolar-capillary membrane damage or necrotic cell death in mutants as determined by BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase content. Pro-inflammatory macrophage-derived cytokine osteopontin was higher, but galectin-3 lower in female mutants. CXCL5 and lipocalin-2 markers, attributed to epithelial cell stimulation did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Despite general genotype-related differences, we had to reject our hypothesis of an increased CNP induced lung inflammation and an impairment of its resolution in PPAR? defective mice. Although earlier studies showed ligand-induced activation of nuclear receptor PPAR? to promote resolution of lung inflammation, its reduced activity did not provide signs of resolution impairment in the settings investigated here.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT) macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested.In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP), as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. METHODS: Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA) or a fat-rich (HF) diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF) diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were taken 24 h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. CONCLUSION: The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric groups and reductions in serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory factors in HF mice, clearly show diet-specific effects, pointing towards augmented systemic inflammatory conditions. Our data suggest that extended feeding periods, leading to manifest obesity, are necessary to generate an increased susceptibility to particle-induced lung inflammation; although the diet-challenge already was efficient in driving pro-inflammatory systemic events.
Project description:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) features an exudative phase characterized by alveolar damage, lung edema and exacerbated inflammatory response. Given their anti-inflammatory properties, the potential therapeutic effect of corticosteroids has been evaluated in ARDS clinical trials and experimental models of ALI. These studies produced contradictory results. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of dexamethasone in an animal model of bleomycin-induced acute lung injury and then to determine if the lack of response could be related to an impairment in repair ability of alveolar epithelial cells after injury. NMRI mice were challenged with bleomycin and then treated daily with dexamethasone or saline. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and lungs were collected for assessment of the inflammatory response and wet/dry ratio (lung edema) and for histological analyses. The effect of bleomycin and dexamethasone on wound repair was also evaluated in vitro on primary alveolar epithelial cell (ATII) cultures. Our data first showed that dexamethasone treatment did not reduce the weight loss or mortality rates induced by bleomycin. Although the TNF-? level in BAL of bleomycin-treated mice was reduced by dexamethasone, the neutrophil infiltration remained unchanged. Dexamethasone also failed to reduce lung edema and damage scores. Finally, bleomycin elicited a time- and dose-dependent reduction in repair rates of ATII cell cultures. This inhibitory effect was further enhanced by dexamethasone, which also affected the expression of ?3- and ?6-integrins, key proteins of alveolar repair. Altogether, our data indicate that the inability of dexamethasone to improve the resolution of ALI might be due to his deleterious effect on the alveolar epithelium repair.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Carbonaceous nanoparticles possess an emerging source of human exposure due to the massive release of combustion products and the ongoing revolution in nanotechnology. Pulmonary inflammation caused by deposited nanoparticles is central for their adverse health effects. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with favourable lung physiology are at lower risk for particulate matter associated respiratory diseases probably due to efficient control of inflammation and repair process. Therefore we selected a mouse strain C3H/HeJ (C3) with robust lung physiology and exposed it to moderately toxic carbon nanoparticles (CNP) to study the elicited pulmonary inflammation and its resolution. METHODS: 5 mug, 20 mug and 50 mug CNP were intratracheally (i.t.) instilled in C3 mice to identify the optimal dose for subsequent time course studies. Pulmonary inflammation was assessed using histology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis and by a panel of 62 protein markers. RESULTS: 1 day after instillation of CNP, C3 mice exhibited a typical dose response, with the lowest dose (5 mug) representing the 'no effect level' as reflected by polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN), and BAL/lung concentrations of pro-inflammatory proteins. Histological analysis and BAL-protein concentration did not reveal any evidence of tissue injury in 20 mug CNP instilled animals. Accordingly time course assessment of the inflammatory response was performed after 3 and 7 days with this dose (20 mug). Compared to day 1, BAL PMN counts were significantly decreased at day 3 and completely returned to normal by day 7. We have identified protein markers related to the acute response and also to the time dependent response in lung and BAL. After complete resolution of PMN influx on day 7, we detected elevated concentrations of 20 markers that included IL1B, IL18, FGF2, EDN1, and VEGF in lung and/or BAL. Biological pathway analysis revealed these factors to be involved in a closely regulated molecular cascade with IL1B/IL18 as upstream and FGF2/EDN1/VEGF as downstream molecules. CONCLUSION: Considering the role of VEGF, FGF2 and EDN1 in lung development and morphogenesis together with the lack of any evident tissue damage we suggest a protective/homeostatic machinery to be associated in lungs of stable organisms to counter the CNP challenge as a precautionary measure.
Project description:Declined lung function is a risk factor for particulate matter associated respiratory diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Carbon nanoparticles (CNP) are a prominent component of outdoor air pollution that causes pulmonary toxicity mainly through inflammation. Recently we demonstrated that mice (C3H/HeJ) with higher than normal pulmonary function resolved the elicited pulmonary inflammation following CNP exposure through activation of defense and homeostasis maintenance pathways. To test whether CNP-induced inflammation is affected by declined lung function, we exposed JF1/Msf (JF1) mice with lower than normal pulmonary function to CNP and studied the pulmonary inflammation and its resolution.5 ?g, 20 ?g and 50 ?g CNP (Printex 90) were intratracheally instilled in JF1 mice to determine the dose response and the time course of inflammation over 7 days (20 ?g dosage). Inflammation was assessed using histology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis and by a panel of 62 protein markers.24 h after instillation, 20 ?g and 50 ?g CNP caused a 25 fold and 19 fold increased polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) respectively while the 5 ?g represented the 'no observable adverse effect level' as reflected by PMN influx (9.7 × 10E3 vs 8.9 × 10E3), and BAL/lung concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Time course assessment of the inflammatory response revealed that compared to day1 the elevated BAL PMN counts (246.4 × 10E3) were significantly decreased at day 3 (72.9 × 10E3) and day 7 (48.5 × 10E3) but did not reach baseline levels indicating slow PMN resolution kinetics. Strikingly on day 7 the number of macrophages doubled (455.0 × 10E3 vs 204.7 × 10E3) and lymphocytes were 7-fold induced (80.6 × 10E3 vs 11.2 × 10E3) compared to day1. At day 7 elevated levels of IL1B, TNF, IL4, MDC/CCL22, FVII, and vWF were detected in JF1 lungs which can be associated to macrophage and lymphocyte activation.This explorative study indicates that JF1 mice with impaired pulmonary function also exhibits delayed resolution of particle mediated lung inflammation as evident from elevated PMN and accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes on day 7. It is plausible that elevated levels of IL1B, IL4, TNF, CCL22/MDC, FVII and vWF counteract defense and homeostatic pathways thereby driving this phenomenon.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious disease in critically ill patients that is characterized by pulmonary dysfunctions, hypoxemia and significant mortality. Patients with immunodeficiency (e.g. SCID with T and B cell deficiency) are particularly susceptible to the development of severe ARDS. However, the role of T cells on pulmonary dysfunctions in immune-competent patients with ARDS is only incompletely understood. METHODS:Wild-type (wt) and RAG2-/- mice (lymphocyte deficient) received intratracheal instillations of LPS (4?mg/kg) or saline. On day 1, 4 and 10 lung mechanics and bronchial hyperresponsiveness towards acetylcholine were measured with the flexiVent ventilation set-up. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was examined for leukocytes (FACS analysis) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (ELISA). RESULTS:In wt mice, lung mechanics, body weight and body temperature deteriorated in the LPS-group during the early phase (up to d4); these alterations were accompanied by increased leukocyte numbers and inflammatory cytokine levels in the BALF. During the late phase (day 10), both lung mechanics and the cell/cytokine homeostasis recovered in LPS-treated wt mice. RAG2-/- mice experienced changes in body weight, lung mechanics, BAL neutrophil numbers, BAL inflammatory cytokines levels that were comparable to wt mice. CONCLUSION:Following LPS instillation, lung mechanics deteriorate within the first 4?days and recover towards day 10. This response is not altered by the lack of T lymphocytes suggesting that T cells play only a minor role for the initiation, propagation or recovery of LPS-induced lung dysfunctions or function of T lymphocytes can be compensated by other immune cells, such as alveolar macrophages.
Project description:Glutamine (GLN) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) but its effect on alveolar macrophages is unknown. We hypothesized that GLN pretreatment would induce the anti-inflammatory CD163/heme oxygenase (HO)-1/p38-MAPK dephosphorylation pathway in alveolar macrophages and reduce ALI in rats insufflated with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to the following groups: GLN-IL-1/LPS-, GLN+IL-1/LPS-, GLN-IL-1/LPS+, and GLN+IL-1/LPS+. GLN pretreatment was given via gavage (1 g/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine) daily for 2 days. ALI was subsequently induced by insufflating 50 ng IL-1 followed by 5mg/kg E.coli LPS. After 24h, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neutrophil concentrations were analyzed. BAL alveolar macrophage CD163+ expression, HO-1 and p38-MAPK concentrations were measured, as well as alveolar macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-10 concentrations. Histology and immunofluorescence studies were also performed.Following IL-1/LPS insufflation, GLN pretreated rats had significantly decreased BAL protein and LDH concentrations, but not BAL neutrophil counts, compared to non-GLN pretreated rats. The number of alveolar macrophages and the number of CD163+ macrophages were significantly increased in GLN pretreated IL-1/LPS-insufflated rats compared to non-GLN pretreated, IL-1/LPS-insufflated rats. GLN pretreatment before IL-1/LPS also significantly increased HO-1 concentrations and dephosphorylated p38-MAPK levels but not cytokine levels in alveolar macrophages. Immunofluorescence localized CD163 and HO-1 in alveolar macrophages.Short-term GLN pretreatment activates the anti-inflammatory CD163/HO-1/p38-MAPK dephosphorylation pathway of alveolar macrophages and decreases capillary damage but not neutrophil recruitment in IL-1/LPS-insufflated rats.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Persons with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at-risk for health effects from ambient air pollution but little is known about the interaction of nanoparticles (NP) with CF lungs. Here we study the distribution of inhaled NP in a murine CF model and aim to reveal mechanisms contributing to adverse effects of inhaled particles in susceptible populations. METHODS: Chloride channel defective CftrTgH (neoim) Hgu mice were used to analyze lung function, lung distribution and whole body biokinetics of inhaled NP, and inflammatory responses after intratracheal administration of NP. Distribution of 20-nm titanium dioxide NP in lungs was assessed on ultrathin sections immediately and 24 h after a one-hour NP inhalation. NP biokinetics was deduced from total and regional lung deposition and from whole body translocation of inhaled 30-nm iridium NP within 24 h after aerosol inhalation. Inflammatory responses were assessed within 7 days after carbon NP instillation. RESULTS: Cftr mutant females had moderately reduced lung compliance and slightly increased airway resistance compared to wild type mice. We found no genotype dependent differences in total, regional and head deposition or in secondary-organ translocation of inhaled iridium NP. Titanium dioxide inhalation resulted in higher NP uptake by alveolar epithelial cells in Cftr mutants. Instillation of carbon NP induced a comparable acute and transient inflammatory response in both genotypes. The twofold increase of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophils in Cftr mutant compared to wild type mice at day 3 but not at days 1 and 7, indicated an impaired capacity in inflammation resolution in Cftr mutants. Concomitant to the delayed decline of neutrophils, BAL granulocyte-colony stimulating factor was augmented in Cftr mutant mice. Anti-inflammatory 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was generally significantly lower in BAL of Cftr mutant than in wild type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Despite lacking alterations in lung deposition and biokinetics of inhaled NP, and absence of significant differences in lung function, higher uptake of NP by alveolar epithelial cells and prolonged, acute inflammatory responses to NP exposure indicate a moderately increased susceptibility of lungs to adverse effects of inhaled NP in Cftr mutant mice and provides potential mechanisms for the increased susceptibility of CF patients to air pollution.
Project description:The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a clinical complication of severe acute lung injury (ALI) in humans, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. ALI is characterized by disruption of the lung alveolar-capillary membrane barrier and resultant pulmonary edema associated with a proteinaceous alveolar exudate. Current specific treatment strategies for ALI/ARDS are lacking. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with or without transfection with the vasculoprotective gene angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) would have beneficial effects in experimental ALI in mice.Syngeneic MSCs with or without transfection with plasmid containing the human ANGPT1 gene (pANGPT1) were delivered through the right jugular vein of mice 30 min after intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce lung injury. Administration of MSCs significantly reduced LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, as reflected by reductions in total cell and neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (53%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7%-101%; and 60%, CI 4%-116%, respectively) as well as reducing levels of proinflammatory cytokines in both BAL fluid and lung parenchymal homogenates. Furthermore, administration of MSCs transfected with pANGPT1 resulted in nearly complete reversal of LPS-induced increases in lung permeability as assessed by reductions in IgM and albumin levels in BAL (96%, CI 6%-185%; and 74%, CI 23%-126%, respectively). Fluorescently tagged MSCs were detected in the lung tissues by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in both naïve and LPS-injured animals up to 3 d.Treatment with MSCs alone significantly reduced LPS-induced acute pulmonary inflammation in mice, while administration of pANGPT1-transfected MSCs resulted in a further improvement in both alveolar inflammation and permeability. These results suggest a potential role for cell-based ANGPT1 gene therapy to treat clinical ALI/ARDS.
Project description:Acute lung injury is characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils into lungs and the subsequent impairment of lung function. Here we explored the role of TDAG8 in lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administrated intratracheally. In this model, cytokines and chemokines released from resident macrophages are shown to cause neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs. We found that LPS treatment increased TDAG8 expression in the lungs and confirmed its expression in resident macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. LPS administration remarkably increased neutrophil accumulation without appreciable change in the resident macrophages, which was associated with increased penetration of blood proteins into BAL fluids, interstitial accumulation of inflammatory cells, and damage of the alveolar architecture. The LPS-induced neutrophil accumulation and the associated lung damage were enhanced in TDAG8-deficient mice as compared with those in wild-type mice. LPS also increased several mRNA and protein expressions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the lungs or BAL fluids. Among these inflammatory mediators, mRNA and protein expression of KC (also known as CXCL1), a chemokine of neutrophils, were significantly enhanced by TDAG8 deficiency. We conclude that TDAG8 is a negative regulator for lung neutrophilic inflammation and injury, in part, through the inhibition of chemokine production.