The prognosis of MYC translocation positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma depends on the second hit.
ABSTRACT: A proportion of MYC translocation positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) harbour a BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocation, known as double-hit DLBCL, and are clinically aggressive. It is unknown whether there are other genetic abnormalities that cooperate with MYC translocation and form double-hit DLBCL, and whether there is a difference in clinical outcome between the double-hit DLBCL and those with an isolated MYC translocation. We investigated TP53 gene mutations along with BCL2 and BCL6 translocations in a total of 234 cases of DLBCL, including 81 with MYC translocation. TP53 mutations were investigated by PCR and sequencing, while BCL2 and BCL6 translocation was studied by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. The majority of MYC translocation positive DLBCLs (60/81 = 74%) had at least one additional genetic hit. In MYC translocation positive DLBCL treated by R-CHOP (n = 67), TP53 mutation and BCL2, but not BCL6 translocation had an adverse effect on patient overall survival. In comparison with DLBCL with an isolated MYC translocation, cases with MYC/TP53 double-hits had the worst overall survival, followed by those with MYC/BCL2 double-hits. In MYC translocation negative DLBCL treated by R-CHOP (n = 101), TP53 mutation, BCL2 and BCL6 translocation had no impact on patient survival. The prognosis of MYC translocation positive DLBCL critically depends on the second hit, with TP53 mutations and BCL2 translocation contributing to an adverse prognosis. It is pivotal to investigate both TP53 mutations and BCL2 translocations in MYC translocation positive DLBCL, and to distinguish double-hit DLBCLs from those with an isolated MYC translocation.
Project description:Recent studies provide convincing evidence that a combined immunohistochemical or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) score of MYC, BCL2, BCL6 proteins and MYC translocations predicted outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). However, by far, all these researches are based on Western populations. Therefore, we investigate the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression by immunohistochemistry and FISH from 336 de novo DLBCL, NOS treated with CHOP or R-CHOP. Breaks in MYC and BCL6, and fusion in IGH/BCL2 were detected in 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.1% of the cases, respectively, and were not significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Protein overexpression of MYC (?40%), BCL2 (?70%) and BCL6 (?50%) was encountered in 51%, 51% and 36% of the tumors, respectively. On the basis of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 expression, double-hit scores (DHSs) and triple-hit score (THS) were assigned to all patients with DLBCL. Patients with high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS had multiple adverse prognostic factors including high LDH level, poor performance status, advanced clinical stage, high International Prognostic Index (IPI) score, and non-germinal center B-cell. In univariate analysis, high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS were associated with inferior OS and PFS in both CHOP and R-CHOP cohorts (P<0.05). The highly significant correlations with OS and PFS were maintained in multivariate models that controlled for IPI (P<0.05). DLBCLs with high DHSs and high THS share the clinical features and poor prognosis of double-hit lymphoma (P>0.05). These data together suggest that the immunohistochemical DHSs and THS defined a large subset of DLBCLs with double-hit biology and was strongly associated with poor outcome in patients treated with R-CHOP or CHOP.
Project description:Concomitant deregulation of MYC and BCL2 comprises clinically significant, yet poorly characterized biological high-risk feature in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To interrogate these lymphomas, we analyzed translocations and protein expression of BCL2, BCL6, and MYC; correlated the findings with comprehensive mutational, transcriptomic, and clinical data in 181 patients with primary DLBCL; and validated the key findings in independent data sets. Structural variations of BCL2 were subtype-specific and specifically increased BCL2 expression. Molecular dissection of MYC deregulation revealed associations with other lymphoma drivers, including loss of TP53, and distinctive gene expression profiles. Double protein expression (DPE) arose from heterogeneous molecular backgrounds that exhibited subtype-dependent patterns. In the germinal center B-cell (GCB) DLBCL, concurrent alterations of MYC and BCL2 loci gave rise to the majority of DPE DLBCLs, whereas among the activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCLs, concurrent alterations were infrequent. Clinically, DPE DLBCL defined a prognostic entity, which was independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and cell of origin, and together with the loss of TP53 had a synergistic dismal impact on survival. In the DPE DLBCL, the loss of TP53 was associated with a chemorefractory disease, whereas among the other DLBCLs, no correlation with survival was seen. Importantly, BCL6 translocations identified non-GCB lymphomas with favorable BN2/C1-like survival independent of IPI and concurrent DPE status. Taken together, our findings define molecular characteristics of the DPE in DLBCL, and recognize clinically feasible predictors of outcome. Given the emerging taxonomical significance of BCL2, BCL6, MYC, and TP53, our findings provide further depth and validation to the genomic classification of DLBCL.
Project description:Double/triple-hit lymphomas (DHL/THL) account for 5-10% of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with rearrangement of MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 resulting in MYC overexpression. Despite the poor prognosis of DHL, R-CHOP chemotherapy remains the treatment backbone and new targeted therapy is needed. We performed comprehensive cytogenetic studies/fluorescence in situ hybridization on DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines (n = 11) to identify the DHL/THL DLBCL in vitro model. We identified MYC/IG in Raji and Ramos (single hit); MYC/IG-BCL2 (DHL) in DOHH2, OCI-LY1, SUDHL2, and OCI-LY10; MYC/IG-BCL2/BCL6 (THL) in VAL; and no MYC rearrangement in U2932 and HBL1 (WT-MYC). Targeting MYC in the DHL/THL DLBCLs through bromodomain extra-terminal inhibitors (BETi) (JQ1, I-BET, and OTX015) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced proliferation, similar to WT-MYC cells, accompanied by decreased MYC but not BCL2 protein. Moreover, BETi suppressed MYC transcription and decreased BRD4 binding to MYC promoter in DHL cells. CD47 and PD-L1 are immunoregulatory molecules often expressed on tumors and regulated by MYC. High levels of surface CD47 but not surface PD-L1 was observed in DHL/THL, which was reduced by JQ1 treatment. BETi in combination with Pan-HDAC inhibitor had a limited effect on survival of DHL/THL, while combination of BETi and BCL2 inhibitor (ABT-199) had a significant (p < 0.005) inhibitory effect on survival followed by BCL-XL inhibition. Overall, the data suggests that MYC-expressing DLBCLs are probably addicted to the MYC-oncogenic effect regardless of MYC rearrangements. In summary, we identified an in vitro model for DHL/THL DLBCLs and provide evidence for the therapeutic potential of BET inhibitor alone or in combination with BCL2 inhibitor.
Project description:High-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (HGBL-DH/THs) include a group of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) with inferior outcomes after standard chemoimmunotherapy. We recently described a gene expression signature that identifies 27% of germinal center B-cell DLBCLs (GCB-DLBCLs) as having a double-hit-like expression pattern (DHITsig) and inferior outcomes; however, only half of these cases have both MYC and BCL2 translocations identifiable using standard breakapart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Here, 20 DHITsig+ GCB-DLBCLs apparently lacking MYC and/or BCL2 rearrangements underwent whole-genome sequencing. This revealed 6 tumors with MYC or BCL2 rearrangements that were cryptic to breakapart FISH. Copy-number analysis identified 3 tumors with MYC and 6 tumors with MIR17HG gains or amplifications, both of which may contribute to dysregulation of MYC and its downstream pathways. Focal deletions of the PVT1 promoter were observed exclusively among DHITsig+ tumors lacking MYC translocations; this may also contribute to MYC overexpression. These results highlight that FISH fails to identify all HGBL-DH/THs, while revealing a range of other genetic mechanisms potentially underlying MYC dysregulation in DHITsig+ DLBCL, suggesting that gene expression profiling is more sensitive for identifying the biology underlying poor outcomes in GCB-DLBCL.
Project description:Genomic alterations and protein expression levels have been established as prognostic factors for survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In particular, double-hit DLBCL (DHL), which exhibits translocations in MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6, is known to be associated with a poor prognosis. However, the clinical significance of gene alterations and protein expression levels for MYC, B-cell lymphoma (BCL)2, and BCL6 are unclear. In this study, we analyzed 61 adult patients diagnosed with DLBCL without DHL, who were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone, or similar regimens. There were no differences in the distribution of MYC expression rates among the different MYC gene statuses. In log-rank tests, MYC translocation was a prognostic factor for overall survival (OS; P = 0.011), whereas BCL2 and BCL6 translocation were not prognostic indicators (P = 0.999 and P = 0.925, respectively). Although the expression levels of MYC and BCL6 were not significantly associated with OS, the expression of BCL2 was a prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.027). Furthermore, copy number gains in the MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 genes did not affect OS. MYC translocation (hazard ratio, 4.769; range, 1.518-14.98; P = 0.007) and BCL2 protein expression (hazard ratio, 3.072; range, 1.002-9.413; P = 0.049) were independent prognostic factors for survival in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, MYC translocation and BCL2 expression may need to be investigated at the initial diagnosis to predict prognosis in patients with DLBCL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The poor outcome of high-grade B-cell lymphoma, with rearrangements of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6, also known as double-hit lymphoma or triple-hit lymphoma (DHL or THL), has been well documented, while the clinical significance of extra copies of MYC, BCL2 or BCL6 are still less well known. METHODS:In total, 130 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL-NOS) were included in our study. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed in all cases to evaluate the genetic status and protein expression levels of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6. RESULTS:Among the 130 cases of DLBCL, the prevalence rates of extra copies of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 were 10.8, 20.0 and 14.6%, respectively, and the corresponding rates of gene rearrangement were 10.0, 14.6 and 16.9%, respectively. In total, 7.7% (10/130) of patients were DHL/THL; 9.2% (12/130) of patients were DLBCL with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 gene abnormalities including rearrangements or extra copies, while excluded DHL/THL. The positive protein expression rates of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 were 46.9% (61), 75.4% (98) and 70.0% (91), respectively. Among the 51 cases with MYC/BCL2 co-expression, 14 cases showed concurrence of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 genetic abnormalities, and the remaining 37 cases were classified as double-expressor lymphoma (DEL). MYC and BCL2 rearrangement and BCL2 extra copies were all associated with upregulated protein expression. Cases with concurrence of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 genetic abnormalities were both associated with MYC/BCL2 co-expression. Patients with concurrence of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 genetic abnormalities excluded DHL/THL had shorter OS (P?<?0.001) than patients with DLBCL with no genetic change, and showed no statistical different with patients with DHL/THL (P?=?0.419). Extra copies of MYC was independent prognostic factors for DLBCL. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 gene extra copies might show a trend towards poor prognosis, and the detection of extra copies of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 might deserve more attention.
Project description:Aggressive double and triple hit (DH/TH) DLBCL feature activation of Hsp90 stress pathways. Herein, we show that Hsp90 controls post-transcriptional dynamics of key mRNA species including those encoding BCL6, MYC and BCL2. Using a proteomics approach, we found that Hsp90 binds to and maintains activity of eIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E). EIF4E drives nuclear export and translation of BCL6, MYC and BCL2 mRNA. eIF4E RIP-sequencing in DLBCL suggests that nuclear eIF4E controls an extended program that includes BCR signaling, cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation. Accordingly, eIF4E was required for survival of DLBCL including the most aggressive subtypes DH/TH lymphomas. Indeed, eIF4E inhibition induces tumor regression in cell line and patient-derived tumorgrafts of TH-DLBCL, even in the presence of elevated Hsp90 activity. Targeting Hsp90 is typically limited by counter-regulatory elevation of Hsp70B, which induces resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Surprisingly, we identify Hsp70 mRNA as an eIF4E target. In this way, eIF4E inhibition can overcome drug resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Accordingly, rational combinatorial inhibition of eIF4E and Hsp90 inhibitors resulted in cooperative anti-lymphoma activity in DH/TH DLBCL in vitro and in vivo. We found that eIF4E activity regulates the nuclear export of BCL6, MYC, and BCL2 in DH/TH DLBCLs. To determine the extent of nuclear eIF4E activity in DH/TH DLBCLs and how these programs can support the oncogenic activity of BCL6, MYC and/or BCL2 transcripts, we conducted eIF4E-RIP of nuclear RNA followed by RNA-sequencing in OCI-Ly1 cells in triplicates. To understand the changes in gene expression after ribavarin in a clinically relevant sample, we generated a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) in NSG mice from a de-identified specimen isolated from a patient prior to treatment harboring a triple-hit ABC-type DLBCL. PDX cells from passage four (PDX-4) were implanted into NSG mice. When tumors were palpable, mice were randomized to receive vehicle or 80 mg/kg/b.i.d. ribavarin intraperitoneally for 10 days. We isolated RNA from tumors treated with vehicle (n=2) or ribavarin (n=2) and performed mRNA-seq.
Project description:MYC and BCL2 translocations as well as TP53 deletion/mutation are known risk factors in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) but their interplay is not well understood.In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the combined prognostic impact of TP53 deletion and mutation status, MYC and BCL2 genomic breaks in tumor samples of 101 DLBCL patients. The cohort included 53 cases with MYC rearrangements (MYC+).TP53 deletions/mutations (TP53+) were found in 32 of 101 lymphomas and were equally distributed between MYC+ and MYC- cases (35.8% vs. 27.1%). TP53+ lymphomas had lower responses to treatment than TP53- (complete remission 34.4% vs. 60.9%; P?=?0.01). TP53 alteration was the dominant independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P?=?0.01). Overall survival (OS) varied considerably between subgroups with different genomic alterations: Patients with sole MYC translocation, and interestingly, with triple MYC+/BCL2+/TP53+ aberration had favorable outcomes (median OS not reached) similar to patients without genomic alterations (median OS 65 months). In contrast, patients with MYC+/BCL2+/TP53- double-hit lymphomas (DHL) (28 months), MYC+/BCL2-/TP53+ lymphomas (10 months) or sole TP53 mutation/deletion (12 months) had a poor median OS. Our findings demonstrate differences in OS of DLBCL patients depending on absence or presence of single or combined genetic alterations of MYC, BCL2, and TP53. Cooccurrence of TP53 and BCL2 aberrations ameliorated the poor prognostic impact of single TP53+ or BCL2+ in MYC positive patients.This pilot study generates evidence for the complex interplay between the alterations of genetic pathways in DLBCL, which goes beyond the concept of DHL. The variable survival of DLBCL patients dependent on single or combined alterations in the TP53, MYC, and BCL2 genes indicates the need for comprehensive genomic diagnosis.
Project description:Aggressive double- and triple-hit (DH/TH) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) feature activation of Hsp90 stress pathways. Herein, we show that Hsp90 controls posttranscriptional dynamics of key messenger RNA (mRNA) species including those encoding BCL6, MYC, and BCL2. Using a proteomics approach, we found that Hsp90 binds to and maintains activity of eIF4E. eIF4E drives nuclear export and translation of BCL6, MYC, and BCL2 mRNA. eIF4E RNA-immunoprecipitation sequencing in DLBCL suggests that nuclear eIF4E controls an extended program that includes B-cell receptor signaling, cellular metabolism, and epigenetic regulation. Accordingly, eIF4E was required for survival of DLBCL including the most aggressive subtypes, DH/TH lymphomas. Indeed, eIF4E inhibition induces tumor regression in cell line and patient-derived tumorgrafts of TH-DLBCL, even in the presence of elevated Hsp90 activity. Targeting Hsp90 is typically limited by counterregulatory elevation of Hsp70B, which induces resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Surprisingly, we identify Hsp70 mRNA as an eIF4E target. In this way, eIF4E inhibition can overcome drug resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Accordingly, rational combinatorial inhibition of eIF4E and Hsp90 inhibitors resulted in cooperative antilymphoma activity in DH/TH DLBCL in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical peculiarities of <i>BCL2</i> and <i>BCL6</i> rearrangement in patients with high grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL) from Taiwan, compared with data from Western countries. Two hundred and eighty-two DLBCL cases from Taipei Medical University-affiliated hospitals (<i>n</i> = 179) and Tri-Service General Hospital (<i>n</i> = 103) were enrolled for this study. From the 282, 47 (16.7%) had <i>MYC</i> translocation; 24 of these harbored concurrent <i>BCL2</i> and/or <i>BCL6</i> translocation (double-hit, DH or triple-hit, TH). Twelve DH-HGBL cases had simultaneous <i>MYC</i> and <i>BCL6</i> translocations, 8 harbored <i>MYC</i> and <i>BCL2</i> rearrangement, while the remaining 4 patients exhibited TH. Together, 66.7% of DH/TH-HGBL patients were <i>BCL6</i> rearrangement positive. Among these <i>BCL6</i>-rearranged DH/TH-HGBL patients, only 6 (37.5%) overexpressed MYC and BCL6 proteins simultaneously, indicating that MYC-BCL6 co-overexpression may not be plausible surrogate biomarker for screening <i>BCL6</i>-rearranged DH-HGBL. By the end of year 5, all patients with TH-HGBL, <i>BCL2</i> DH-HGBL and all but one <i>BCL6</i> DH-HGBL cases had expired or were lost to follow-up. Progression-free survival (PFS) was longer for the non-DH/TH-HGBL group compared with the DH/TH-HGBL group. While the patients with <i>BCL2</i> DH-HGBL were lost to follow-up by day 800, their remaining TH-HGBL and <i>BCL6</i> DH-HGBL peers exhibited very poor PFS, regardless of age strata. More so, patients with <i>BCL6</i> rearrangement were 5.5-fold more likely associated with extranodal involvement compared with their BCL2-rearranged peers. Moreover, ~60.0% of the <i>BCL6</i>-rearranged DH-HGBL cases were non-GCB, suggesting that including screening for <i>BCL6</i> rearrangement in patients with the non-GCB phenotype may aid medical decision-making and therapeutic strategy. Contrary to contemporary data from western countries, 2 in every 3 patients with DH/TH-HGBL in Taiwan harbor <i>BCL6</i> rearrangement. Consistent with present findings, we recommend mandatory screening for <i>BCL6</i> rearrangement in patients with aggressive HGBL in Taiwan.