Fyn is a redox sensor involved in solar ultraviolet light-induced signal transduction in skin carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a major etiological factor in skin carcinogenesis, with solar UV-stimulated signal transduction inducing pathological changes and skin damage. The primary sensor of solar UV-induced cellular signaling has not been identified. We use an experimental system of solar simulated light (SSL) to mimic solar UV and we demonstrate that Fyn is a primary redox sensor involved in SSL-induced signal transduction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by SSL exposure directly oxidize Cys488 of Fyn, resulting in increased Fyn kinase activity. Fyn oxidation was increased in mouse skin after SSL exposure and Fyn-knockout mice formed larger and more tumors compared with Fyn wild-type mice when exposed to SSL for an extended period of time. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Fyn and cells in which Fyn expression was knocked down were resistant to SSL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, cells expressing mutant Fyn (C448A) were resistant to SSL-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that Fyn acts as a regulatory nexus between solar UV, ROS and signal transduction during skin carcinogenesis.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>The study aimed to identify endogenous lipid mediators of metabolic and inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes to solar UV irradiation. Physiologically relevant doses of solar simulated UVA+UVB were applied to human skin surface lipids (SSL) or to primary cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). The decay of photo-sensitive lipid-soluble components, alpha-tocopherol, squalene (Sq), and cholesterol in SSL was analysed and products of squalene photo-oxidation (SqPx) were quantitatively isolated from irradiated SSL. When administered directly to NHEK, low-dose solar UVA+UVB induced time-dependent inflammatory and metabolic responses. To mimic UVA+UVB action, NHEK were exposed to intact or photo-oxidised SSL, Sq or SqPx, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and the product of tryptophan photo-oxidation 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). FICZ activated exclusively metabolic responses characteristic for UV, i.e. the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) machinery and downstream CYP1A1/CYP1B1 gene expression, while 4-HNE slightly stimulated inflammatory UV markers IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS genes. On contrast, SqPx induced the majority of metabolic and inflammatory responses characteristic for UVA+UVB, acting via AhR, EGFR, and G-protein-coupled arachidonic acid receptor (G2A).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Our findings indicate that Sq could be a primary sensor of solar UV irradiation in human SSL, and products of its photo-oxidation mediate/induce metabolic and inflammatory responses of keratinocytes to UVA+UVB, which could be relevant for skin inflammation in the sun-exposed oily skin.
Project description:Ultraviolet radiation is an important etiologic factor in skin cancer and a better understanding of how solar stimulated light (SSL) affects signal transduction pathways in human skin which is needed in further understanding activated networks that could be targeted for skin cancer prevention. We utilized Reverse Phase Protein Microarray Analysis (RPPA), a powerful technology that allows for broad-scale and quantitative measurement of the activation/phosphorylation state of hundreds of key signaling proteins and protein pathways in sun-protected skin after an acute dose of two minimal erythema dose (MED) of SSL. RPPA analysis was used to map the altered cell signaling networks resulting from acute doses of solar simulated radiation (SSL). To that end, we exposed sun-protected skin in volunteers to acute doses of two MED of SSL and collected biopsies pre-SSL and post-SSL irradiation. Frozen biopsies were subjected to laser capture microdissection (LCM) and then assessed by RPPA. The activation/phosphorylation or total levels of 128 key signaling proteins and drug targets were selected for statistical analysis. Coordinate network-based analysis was performed on specific signaling pathways that included the PI3k/Akt/mTOR and Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways. Overall, we found early and sustained activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK pathways. Cell death and apoptosis-related proteins were activated at 5 and 24 h. Ultimately, expression profile patterns of phosphorylated proteins in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), AKT, mTOR, and other relevant pathways may be used to determine pharmacodynamic activity of new and selective topical chemoprevention agents administered in a test area exposed to SSL to determine drug-induced attenuation or reversal of skin carcinogenesis pathways.
Project description:Despite the predominance of ultraviolet A (UVA) relative to UVB in terrestrial sunlight, solar mutagenesis in humans and rodents is characterized by mutations specific for UVB. We have investigated the kinetics of repair of UVA- and UVB-induced DNA lesions in relation to mutagenicity in transgenic mouse fibroblasts irradiated with equilethal doses of UVA and UVB in comparison to simulated-sunlight UV (SSL). We have also analyzed mutagenesis-derived carcinogenesis in sunlight-associated human skin cancers by compiling the published data on mutation types found in crucial genes in nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Here, we demonstrate a resistance to repair of UVB-induced cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine-dimers (CPDs) together with rapid removal of UVA-induced oxidized purines in the genome overall and in the cII transgene of SSL-irradiated cells. The spectra of mutation induced by both UVB and SSL irradiation in this experimental system are characterized by significant increases in relative frequency of C-->T transitions at dipyrimidines, which are the established signature mutation of CPDs. This type of mutation is also the predominant mutation found in human nonmelanoma and melanoma tumor samples in the TP53, CDKN2, PTCH, and protein kinase genes. The prevailing role of UVB over UVA in solar mutagenesis in our test system can be ascribed to different kinetics of repair for lesions induced by the respective UV irradiation.
Project description:Solar ultraviolet irradiation is an environmental carcinogen that causes skin cancer. Caspase-7 is reportedly expressed at reduced levels in many cancers. The present study was designed to examine the role of caspase-7 in solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced skin cancer and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Our study revealed that mice with genetic deficiency of caspase-7 are highly susceptible to SSL-induced skin carcinogenesis. Epidermal hyperplasia, tumor volume and the average number of tumors were significantly increased in caspase-7 knockout (KO) mice compared with SKH1 wild-type mice irradiated with SSL. The expression of cell proliferation markers, such as survivin and Ki-67, was elevated in SSL-irradiated skin of caspase-7 KO mice compared with those observed in SSL-exposed wild-type SKH1 mouse skin. Moreover, SSL-induced apoptosis was abolished in skin from caspase-7 KO mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight analysis of skin tissue lysates from SSL-irradiated SKH1 wild-type and caspase-7 KO mice revealed an aberrant induction of keratin-17 in caspase-7 KO mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of skin tumors also showed an increase of keratin-17 expression in caspase-7 KO mice compared with SKH1 wild-type mice. The expression of keratin-17 was also elevated in SSL-irradiated caspase-7 KO keratinocytes as well as in human basal cell carcinomas. The in vitro caspase activity assay showed keratin-17 as a substrate of caspase-7, but not caspase-3. Overall, our study demonstrates that genetic loss of caspase-7 promotes SSL-induced skin carcinogenesis by blocking caspase-7-mediated cleavage of keratin-17.
Project description:The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared with those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here, we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared with controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared with vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.
Project description:Solar ultraviolet (sUV) irradiation is a major environmental carcinogen that can cause inflammation and skin cancer. The costs and morbidity associated with skin cancer are increasing, and therefore identifying molecules that can help prevent skin carcinogenesis is important. In this study, we identified the p53-related protein kinase (PRPK) as a novel oncogenic protein that is phosphorylated by the T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK). Knockdown of TOPK inhibited PRPK phosphorylation and conferred resistance to solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis in mouse models. In the clinic, acute SSL irradiation significantly increased epidermal thickness as well as total protein and phosphorylation levels of TOPK and PRPK in human skin tissues. We identified two PRPK inhibitors, FDA-approved rocuronium bromide (Zemuron®) or betamethasone 17-valerate (Betaderm®) that could attenuate TOPK-dependent PRPK signaling. Importantly, topical application of either rocuronium bromide or betamethasone decreased SSL-induced epidermal hyperplasia, neovascularization, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) development in SKH1 (Crl: SKH1-Hrhr) hairless mice by inhibiting PRPK activation, and also reduced expression of the proliferation and oncogenesis markers, COX-2, cyclin D1, and MMP-9. This study is the first to demonstrate that targeting PRPK could be useful against sUV-induced cSCC development.
Project description:TRAF1 is a member of the TRAF protein family, which regulates the canonical and noncanonical NF-?B signaling cascades. Although aberrant TRAF1 expression in tumors has been reported, the role of TRAF1 remains elusive. Here, we report that TRAF1 is required for solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that TRAF1 expression is up-regulated in human actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. In vivo studies indicated that TRAF1 expression levels in mouse skin are induced by short-term solar UV irradiation, and a long-term skin carcinogenesis study showed that deletion of TRAF1 in mice results in a significant inhibition of skin tumor formation. Moreover, we show that TRAF1 is required for solar UV-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 (ERK5) phosphorylation and the expression of AP-1 family members (c-Fos/c-Jun). Mechanistic studies showed that TRAF1 expression enhances the ubiquitination of ERK5 on lysine 184, which is necessary for its kinase activity and AP-1 activation. Overall, our results suggest that TRAF1 mediates ERK5 activity by regulating the upstream effectors of ERK5 and also by modulating its ubiquitination status. Targeting TRAF1 function might lead to strategies for preventing and treating skin cancer.
Project description:Solar ultraviolet (SUV) exposure is a major risk factor in the etiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). People commonly use sunscreens to prevent SUV-induced skin damage and cancer. Nonetheless, the prevalence of cSCC continues to increase every year, suggesting that commercially available sunscreens might not be used appropriately or are not completely effective. In the current study, a solar simulated light (SSL)-induced cSCC mouse model was used to investigate the efficacy of eight commonly used FDA-approved sunscreen components against skin carcinogenesis. First, we tested FDA-approved sunscreen components for their ability to block UVA or UVB irradiation by using VITRO-SKIN (a model that mimics human skin properties), and then the efficacy of FDA-approved sunscreen components was investigated in an SSL-induced cSCC mouse model. Our results identified which FDA-approved sunscreen components or combinations are effective in preventing cSCC development. Not surprisingly, the results indicated that sunscreen combinations that block both UVA and UVB significantly suppressed the formation of cutaneous papillomas and cSCC development and decreased the activation of oncoproteins and the expression of COX-2, keratin 17, and EGFR in SSL-exposed SKH-1 (Crl:SKH1-Hrhr) hairless mouse skin. Notably, several sunscreen components that were individually purported to block both UVA and UVB were ineffective alone. At least one component had toxic effects that led to a high mortality rate in mice exposed to SSL. Our findings provide new insights into the development of the best sunscreen to prevent chronic SUV-induced cSCC development.
Project description:Skin is a major barrier against external insults and is exposed to combinations of chemical and/or physical toxic agents. Co-exposure to the carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and solar UV radiation is highly relevant in human health, especially in occupational safety. In vitro studies have suggested that UVB enhances B[a]P genotoxicity by activating the AhR pathway and overexpressing the cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for the conversion of B[a]P into DNA damaging metabolites. Our present work involved more realistic conditions, namely ex vivo human skin explants and simulated sunlight (SSL) as a UV source. We found that topically applied B[a]P strongly induced expression of cutaneous cytochrome P450 genes and formation of DNA adducts. However, gene induction was significantly reduced when B[a]P was combined with SSL. Consequently, formation of BPDE-adducts was also reduced when B[a]P was associated with SSL. Similar results were obtained with primary cultures of human keratinocytes. These results indicate that UV significantly impairs B[a]P metabolism, and decreases rather than increases immediate toxicity. However, it cannot be ruled out that decreased metabolism leads to accumulation of B[a]P and delayed genotoxicity.
Project description:Solar UV (SUV) irradiation is a major factor in skin carcinogenesis, the most common form of cancer in the United States. The MAPK cascades are activated by SUV irradiation. The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK) proteins constitute a family of protein kinases that mediate signal transduction downstream of the MAPK cascades. In this study, phosphorylation of RSK and MSK1 was upregulated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and SUV-treated mouse skin. Kaempferol, a natural flavonol, found in tea, broccoli, grapes, apples, and other plant sources, is known to have anticancer activity, but its mechanisms and direct target(s) in cancer chemoprevention are unclear. Kinase array results revealed that kaempferol inhibited RSK2 and MSK1. Pull-down assay results, ATP competition, and in vitro kinase assay data revealed that kaempferol interacts with RSK2 and MSK1 at the ATP-binding pocket and inhibits their respective kinase activities. Mechanistic investigations showed that kaempferol suppresses RSK2 and MSK1 kinase activities to attenuate SUV-induced phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and histone H3 in mouse skin cells. Kaempferol was a potent inhibitor of SUV-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis showed that skin from the kaempferol-treated group exhibited a substantial reduction in SUV-induced phosphorylation of CREB, c-Fos, and histone H3. Overall, our results identify kaempferol as a safe and novel chemopreventive agent against SUV-induced skin carcinogenesis that acts by targeting RSK2 and MSK1.