ABSTRACT: The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted 'breakthrough' designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE(®)) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens.
Project description:Immunotherapy is an evolving modality in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Vaccinations with patient-specific tumor-derived antigens have been developed to strengthen immune response to tumor. The success of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody for CD20 on malignant B-cells, fueled further immunotherapy research. The power of the immune system to fight hematologic malignancies is seen in allogeneic stem cell transplant, where donor T cells attack residual malignant cells in the recipient. Now, three innovative therapeutic immunotherapy classes (I) adoptive cellular therapy; (II) immune-checkpoint inhibitors; and (III) novel antibody therapies show promising results in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genetically engineered T cells, CAR T cells, obtained remissions in lymphomas refractory to conventional chemotherapy. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab revolutionized the treatment of many solid tumors, and unprecedented results are now reported in relapsed/refractory lymphoma. Building on the success of rituximab, additional therapeutic monoclonal antibodies were developed for lymphoma treatment. Antibodies have recently been further engineered with multiple binding sites to directly engage both tumor and T cells. There are exciting early clinical trial results for the first bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE), blinatumomab, as well as promising ongoing studies for dual antibody molecules, Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting (DART) proteins. This review highlights these three immunotherapy classes for relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphomas and discusses the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and toxicities of each.
Project description:Blinatumomab is the first-and-only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cluster of differentiation (CD) 19-directed CD3 bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) immunotherapy. It is currently FDA approved for the treatment of adults and children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) and Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) relapsed/refractory (R/R) B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and B-cell precursor ALL with minimal residual disease. Similarly, initial marketing authorization for blinatumomab in the European Union was granted for the treatment of adults with Ph- R/R B-cell precursor ALL. The benefits of treating R/R B-cell precursor ALL patients with blinatumomab include increased overall survival, more favorable hematologic remission and molecular response rates, and a lower incidence rate of selected adverse events when compared with standard-of-care chemotherapy. The key risks associated with blinatumomab treatment include cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity, and medication errors. Here, we review the benefits and risks of blinatumomab treatment and describe how these risks can be mitigated.
Project description:Targeted therapy has been the forefront of cancer treatment. Cancer immunotherapy is the most recent focus. In addition, novel immunotherapeutics targeting B cell receptor signaling (e.g., ibrutinib), T cell receptor ( e.g., CART19), and NK cells (e.g., AFM13) are being developed. This review summarized the new development in blinatumomab (MT103/MEDI-538), a first-in-class bispecific T engager (BiTE) antibody against CD19/CD3 in patients with relapsed/refractory precursor B cell acute lymphoid leukemia.
Project description:Although complete remission rate of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) has improved significantly over the past few decades, patients with relapsed/refractory ALL still have dismal outcome. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibody-drug conjugates and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy are changing the therapy landscape for B- ALL. Blinatumomab, a bi-specific T cell engager, has been approved for patients with relapsed/refractory and minimal residual disease positive B-ALL. This review summarized data from recent clinical trials of blinatumomab for B-ALL treatment.
Project description:The use of multiagent combination chemotherapy regimens results in cure rates of >90% for children and ?40% for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) but is associated with extensive toxicity and disappointingly low efficacy in relapsed patients. ALL blast cells express several surface antigens, including CD20, CD22, and CD19, which represent valuable targets for immunotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, and bispecific T-cell-engaging antibodies targeting these antigens offer novel mechanisms of action. Within the last several years, the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has been added to chemotherapy for newly diagnosed patients <60 years with CD20+ pre-B ALL and significantly improved the 2-year event-free survival from 52% to 65%. In adults with relapsed or refractory CD22+ ALL, the antibody-drug conjugate inotuzumab ozogamicin resulted in a complete response rate of 81% and median overall survival of 7.7 months with reduced toxicity compared with standard chemotherapy. Similarly, the bispecific T-cell-engaging antibody blinatumomab yielded a complete response rate of 44% and a median overall survival of 7.7 months in an extensively treated ALL population. Moreover, ?80% of ALL patients in complete remission with evidence of minimal residual disease (MRD) achieved a complete MRD response following treatment with blinatumomab. These results highlight the tremendous promise of antibody-based treatment approaches for ALL. Ongoing and future research is critical to further define the role of the various immunotherapies in the frontline treatment of ALL. Additional challenges include the optimal sequencing of the available antibodies in the relapsed setting as well as their integration with stem cell transplant and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.
Project description:Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has a poor overall survival compared with pediatric ALL where cure rates are observed in more than 90% of patients. The recent development of novel monoclonal antibodies targeting CD20, CD19, and CD22 has changed the long-term outcome of this disease, both in the frontline setting (e.g. rituximab) and for patients with relapsed/refractory disease (e.g. inotuzumab ozogamicin and blinatumomab). The CD3-CD19 bispecific T-cell-engaging antibody blinatumomab is also the first drug approved in ALL for patients with persistent or recurrent measurable residual disease, providing a new treatment paradigm for these patients. Several new agents are also in development that use novel constructs or target alternative surface epitopes such as CD123, CD25, and CD38. Herein, we review the role of monoclonal antibodies in adult ALL and summarize the current and future approaches in ALL, including novel combination therapies and the possibility of early incorporation of these agents into treatment regimens.
Project description:The past decade witnessed the rapid development of adult B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Beyond the development of chemotherapy regimens, immunotherapy is starting a new era with unprecedented complete remission (CR) rate. Targeting B-lineage-specific surface markers such as CD19, CD20, CD22, or CD52, immunotherapy has been demonstrating promising clinical results. Among the immunotherapeutic methods, naked monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), bispecific T cell engager (BiTE), and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are the main types. In this review, we will examine the emerging preclinical and clinical development on (1) anti-CD20 naked mAbs rituximab, ofatumumab, and obinutuzumab; (2) anti-CD19 ADCs SAR3419 and SGN-CD19A and anti-CD19 BiTE blinatumomab; (3) anti-CD22 naked mAb epratuzumab and anti-CD22 ADC inotuzumab ozogamicin; (4) anti-CD52 naked mAb alemtuzumab; and (5) anti-CD19 CAR T cells. We will discuss their efficacy, adverse effects, as well as future development.
Project description:Blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) associated with improved survival in relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), was recently approved for treatment of minimal residual disease (MRD). MRD is an important predictor of survival in ALL, and recent studies suggest that achievement of MRD-negativity with blinatumomab improves outcomes in patients with ALL. However, further research is needed to determine how to optimally incorporate blinatumomab, and other novel therapies, into current therapies for ALL.
Project description:On July 11, 2017, the Food and Drug Administration granted approval for blinatumomab for the treatment of relapsed or refractory (R/R) precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Blinatumomab is a bispecific CD19-directed CD3 T-cell engager. The basis for the approval included results from two clinical trials, TOWER and ALCANTARA. TOWER, a randomized trial comparing overall survival in patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative R/R ALL receiving blinatumomab versus standard-of-care (SOC) chemotherapy, demonstrated a hazard ratio of 0.71 favoring blinatumomab (p?=?.012; median survival, 7.7 months with blinatumomab and 4.0 months with SOC chemotherapy). Complete remission (CR) rates were 34% for patients receiving blinatumomab and 16% for those receiving SOC. Adverse events were consistent with those observed in prior trials, with cytokine release syndrome and some neurologic events, including tremor, encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and depression, observed more frequently in the blinatumomab arm, whereas neutropenia and infection were less common among patients receiving blinatumomab. Depression emerged as a rare but potentially severe neurologic event associated with blinatumomab. In ALCANTARA, a single-arm trial of blinatumomab in patients with Ph-positive R/R ALL, the CR rate was 31%, and adverse events were similar to those observed previously in Ph-negative R/R ALL. These results support conversion from accelerated to regular approval of blinatumomab for R/R ALL and broadening of the intended population to include both Ph-positive and Ph-negative precursor B-cell R/R ALL. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In TOWER, a randomized trial in patients with relapsed or refractory Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), treatment with blinatumomab showed superiority over conventional chemotherapy for complete remission (CR) rate (34% vs. 16%) and survival (3.7-month improvement in median; hazard ratio, 0.71). In ALCANTARA, a single-arm trial of blinatumomab for treatment of relapsed or refractory Ph-positive precursor B-cell ALL, the CR rate was 31%. Blinatumomab is now approved for treatment of relapsed or refractory precursor B-cell ALL that is Ph positive or Ph negative.
Project description:Polatuzumab vedotin (polatuzumab vedotin-piiq; Polivy™) is an antibody-drug conjugate comprising a monoclonal antibody against CD79b (a B cell receptor component) covalently conjugated to the anti-mitotic cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin (MMAE) via a cleavable linker. After binding to CD79b on the B-cell surface, polatuzumab vedotin is internalized and the linker is cleaved, releasing MMAE into the cell, where it inhibits division and induces apoptosis. Polatuzumab vedotin is being developed by Genentech (a subsidiary of Roche) for the treatment of haematological malignancies. In June 2019, the US FDA granted accelerated approval to polatuzumab vedotin, in combination with bendamustine plus rituximab, for the treatment of adults with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who have received at least two prior therapies. Use of the compound in combination with bendamustine plus rituximab is also under regulatory review for relapsed/refractory DLBCL in the EU and is in ongoing phase 1b/2 development in this setting or relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) in several countries. Various other polatuzumab vedotin combination therapy regimens are also in phase 1b/2 development for relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) [including DLBCL and FL] or in phase 2 or 3 development for previously untreated DLBCL, while polatuzumab vedotin monotherapy has been in phase 1 development for relapsed/refractory B-cell NHL in Japan. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of polatuzumab vedotin leading to this first approval for its use in combination with bendamustine plus rituximab for relapsed/refractory DLBCL.