Different Effects of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids on Atherogenic High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver damage, such as that from liver cirrhosis and cancer. Recent studies have shown the benefits of consuming n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the effects of the major n-3 PUFAs-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6)-in preventing atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed the AHF diet supplemented with or without EPA or DHA for four weeks. Both EPA and DHA reduced the pathological features of AHF diet-induced NASH pathologies such as hepatic lobular inflammation and elevated serum transaminase activity. Intriguingly, EPA had a greater hepatic triacylglycerol (TG)-reducing effect than DHA. In contrast, DHA had a greater suppressive effect than EPA on AHF diet-induced hepatic inflammation and ROS generation, but no difference in fibrosis. Both EPA and DHA could be effective for treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Meanwhile, the two major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might differ in a relative contribution to pathological intermediate steps towards liver fibrosis.
Project description:The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has increased in parallel with the incidence of obesity. While both NAFLD and NASH are characterized by hepatosteatosis, NASH is characterized by hepatic damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. We previously reported that feeding Ldlr(-/-) mice a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet containing menhaden oil attenuated several markers of NASH, including hepatosteatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Herein, we test the hypothesis that DHA [22:6 (n-3)] is more effective than EPA [20:5 (n-3)] at preventing Western diet (WD)-induced NASH in Ldlr(-/-) mice. Mice were fed the WD supplemented with either olive oil (OO), EPA, DHA, or EPA + DHA for 16 wk. WD + OO feeding induced a severe NASH phenotype, characterized by robust hepatosteatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Whereas none of the C20-22 (n-3) fatty acid treatments prevented WD-induced hepatosteatosis, all 3 (n-3) PUFA-containing diets significantly attenuated WD-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatic damage. The capacity of dietary DHA to suppress hepatic markers of inflammation (Clec4F, F4/80, Trl4, Trl9, CD14, Myd88), fibrosis (Procol1?1, Tgf?1), and oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase subunits Nox2, p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox) was significantly greater than dietary EPA. The effects of DHA on these markers paralleled DHA-mediated suppression of hepatic Fads1 mRNA abundance and hepatic arachidonic acid content. Because DHA suppression of NASH markers does not require a reduction in hepatosteatosis, dietary DHA may be useful in combating NASH in obese humans.
Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic fatty liver disease worldwide. The incidence of NAFLD parallels the prevalence of obesity. Moreover, NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). As such, NAFLD has become a major public health concern. We discuss recent clinical trials and meta-analyses evaluating the efficacy of C20-22 ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to attenuate preexisting NAFLD in adults and children. RECENT FINDINGS:Humans with NAFLD and NASH; and preclinical mouse models of NASH, have a high abundance of hepatic saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fat, but a low abundance of hepatic C20-22 ?3 PUFA. This change in hepatic fat type and abundance is associated with hepatic lipotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Recent meta-analyses and clinical trials evaluated the capacity of C20-22 ?3 PUFA dietary supplementation to improve health outcomes in adults and children with preexisting NAFLD. Diets supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22?:?6,?3) alone or with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20?:?5,?3) are tolerated and effective at lowering liver fat in NAFLD patients. However, outcomes are mixed with respect to C20-22 ?3 PUFA attenuation of more severe NAFLD markers, such as hepatic injury, inflammation and fibrosis. SUMMARY:These studies suggest that dietary supplementation with C20-22 ?3 PUFA should be considered as a viable and effective option to lower liver fat in obese adults and children with NAFLD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and a risk factor for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Previously, we reported that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6,n-3) was more effective than eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5,n-3) at reversing western diet (WD) induced NASH in LDLR(-/-) mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Using livers from our previous study, we carried out a global non-targeted metabolomic approach to quantify diet-induced changes in hepatic metabolism.<h4>Results</h4>Livers from WD + olive oil (WD + O)-fed mice displayed histological and gene expression features consistent with NASH. The metabolomic analysis of 320 metabolites established that the WD and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation had broad effects on all major metabolic pathways. Livers from WD + O-fed mice were enriched in saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), palmitoyl-sphingomyelin, cholesterol, n-6 PUFA, n-6 PUFA-containing phosphoglycerolipids, n-6 PUFA-derived oxidized lipids (12-HETE) and depleted of C20-22 n-3 PUFA-containing phosphoglycerolipids, C20-22 n-3 PUFA-derived oxidized lipids (18-HEPE, 17,18-DiHETE) and S-lactoylglutathione, a methylglyoxal detoxification product. WD + DHA was more effective than WD + EPA at attenuating WD + O-induced changes in NASH gene expression markers, n-6 PUFA and oxidized lipids, citrate and S-lactosyl glutathione. Diet-induced changes in hepatic MUFA and sphingolipid content were associated with changes in expression of enzymes involved in MUFA and sphingolipid synthesis. Changes in hepatic oxidized fatty acids and S-lactoylglutathione, however, correlated with hepatic n-3 and n-6 C20-22 PUFA content. Hepatic C20-22 n-3 PUFA content was inversely associated with hepatic ?-tocopherol and ascorbate content and positively associated with urinary F2- and F3-isoprostanes, revealing diet effects on whole body oxidative stress.<h4>Conclusion</h4>DHA regulation of hepatic SFA, MUFA, PUFA, sphingomyelin, PUFA-derived oxidized lipids and S-lactoylglutathione may explain the protective effects of DHA against WD-induced NASH in LDLR(-/-) mice.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health problem worldwide. NAFLD ranges in severity from benign steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are strongly associated with NAFLD, and the western diet (WD) is a major contributor to the onset and progression of these chronic diseases. Our aim was to use a lipidomic approach to identify potential lipid mediators of diet-induced NASH. We previously used a preclinical mouse (low density lipoprotein receptor null mouse, Ldlr -/-) model to assess transcriptomic mechanisms linked to WD-induced NASH and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, ?3)-mediated remission of NASH. This report used livers from the previous study to carry out ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with dynamic multi-reaction monitoring (HPLC-dMRM) to assess the impact of the WD and DHA on hepatic membrane lipid and oxylipin composition, respectively. Feeding mice the WD increased hepatic saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4, ?6) in membrane lipids and suppressed ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in membrane lipids and ?3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory oxylipins. Supplementing the WD with DHA lowered hepatic ARA in membrane lipids and ARA-derived oxylipins and significantly increased hepatic DHA and its metabolites in membrane lipids, as well as C20-22 ?3 PUFA-derived oxylipins. NASH markers of inflammation and fibrosis were inversely associated with hepatic C20-22 ?3 PUFA-derived Cyp2C- and Cyp2J-generated anti-inflammatory oxylipins (false discovery rate adjusted p-value; q ? 0.026). Our findings suggest that dietary DHA promoted partial remission of WD-induced NASH, at least in part, by lowering hepatic pro-inflammatory oxylipins derived from ARA and increasing hepatic anti-inflammatory oxylipins derived from C20-22 ?3 PUFA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern in western societies. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of NAFLD, is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. NASH is a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is predicted to be the leading cause of liver transplants by 2020. Despite this growing public health concern, there remain no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved NASH treatments. Using Ldlr -/- mice as a preclinical model of western diet (WD)-induced NASH, we previously established that dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6,?3) attenuated WD-induced NASH in a prevention study. Herein, we evaluated the capacity of DHA supplementation of the WD and a low fat diet to fully reverse NASH in mice with pre-existing disease.<h4>Methods</h4>Ldlr -/- mice fed the WD for 22 wks developed metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a severe NASH phenotype, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and low hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content. These mice were randomized to 5 groups: a baseline group (WDB, sacrificed at 22 wks) and 4 treatments: 1) WD + olive oil (WDO); 2) WD + DHA (WDD); 3) returned to chow + olive oil (WDChO); or 4) returned to chow + DHA (WDChD). The four treatment groups were maintained on their respective diets for 8 wks. An additional group was maintained on standard laboratory chow (Reference Diet, RD) for the 30-wk duration of the study.<h4>Results</h4>When compared to the WDB group, the WDO group displayed increased hepatic expression of genes linked to inflammation (Opn, Il1rn, Gdf15), hepatic fibrosis (collagen staining, Col1A1, Thbs2, Lox) reflecting disease progression. Mice in the WDD group, in contrast, had increased hepatic C20-22 ?3 PUFA and no evidence of NASH progression. MetS and NASH markers in the WDChO or WDChD groups were significantly attenuated and marginally different from the RD group, reflecting disease remission.<h4>Conclusion</h4>While these studies establish that DHA supplementation of the WD blocks WD-induced NASH progression, DHA alone does not promote full remission of diet-induced MetS or NASH.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Low hepatic content of n-3 PUFA has been associated with NAFLD in humans. Whether this is associated with reduced dietary intake or increased turnover of these FA is not clear. We have here investigated the effects of dietary fat quality on hepatic lipid storage and transcriptomics over time.<h4>Aim</h4>To investigate the effects of quality of fat in a high fat diet (HFD) over time on hepatic lipid storage and liver transcriptomics.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Male C57BL/6J mice were fed control, HFD-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or HFD-corn oil diet for 8 or 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition, plasma and hepatic triglyceride contents were measured. Hepatic transcriptomes were analysed by microarray followed by gene-set enrichment analyses. At 8 weeks, the HFD-corn oil mice had higher body weight and adipose depot mass than the HFD-EPA/DHA but there were no differences at 12 weeks. Hepatic triglyceride content was lower in HFD-EPA/DHA fed compared with the HFD-corn oil fed mice at both time-points. Enrichment analyses of the hepatic transcriptomes showed that lipid/fatty acid biosynthesis; transport and homeostasis were lower in the HFD-EPA/DHA fed compared with the HFD-corn oil fed mice. Genes encoding proteins associated to cytoplasmic lipid droplets were expressed at higher levels in livers from the HFD-corn oil compared to HFD-EPA/DHA mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Dietary EPA and DHA counteracted development of HFD-induced fatty liver. The liver transcriptome data implicate that the quality of dietary fat could modulate Ppar-related gene expression that in turn affects hepatic lipid storage and maintenance of metabolic health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:FADS1 gene encodes delta 5 desaturase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Minor alleles of FADS1 locus polymorphisms are associated with reduced FADS1 expression and intra-hepatic fat accumulation. However, the relationship between FADS1 expression and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk remains to be explored. METHODS:We analyzed FADS1 transcription levels and their association with intra-hepatic fat and histology in children, and we performed pathway enrichment analysis on transcriptomic profiles associated with FADS1 polymorphisms. We also evaluated the weight of FADS1 alleles on the response to combined docosahexaenoic acid, choline, and vitamin E (DHA-CHO-VE) treatment. RESULTS:FADS1 mRNA level was significantly and inversely associated with intra-hepatic fat (p?=?0.004), degree of steatosis (p?=?0.03), fibrosis (p?=?0.05), and NASH (p?=?0.008) among pediatric livers. Transcriptomics demonstrated a significant enrichment of a number of pathways strongly related to NAFLD (e.g., liver damage, fibrosis, and hepatic stellate cell activation). Compared to children who are common allele homozygotes, children with FADS1 minor alleles had a greater reduction in steatosis, fibrosis, and NAFLD activity score after DHA-CHO-VE. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that decreased FADS1 expression may be associated with NAFLD in children but an increased response to DHA-CHO-VE.
Project description:The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide, concurrent with increased obesity. Thus, there is urgent need for research that can lead to effective NAFLD prevention/treatment strategies. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), improve inflammation- and dyslipidemia-related metabolic disorders; however, mechanisms mediating the benefits of n-3 PUFAs in NAFLD treatment are less understood. We previously reported that EPA reversed obesity-induced hepatic steatosis in high-fat (HF)-fed B6 mice. Utilizing a combination of biochemical analyses of liver tissues from HF and HF-EPA-fed mice and a series of in vitro studies in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-stimulated HepG2 cells, we dissect the mechanistic effects of EPA in reducing hepatic steatosis, including the role of EPA-targeted microRNAs (miRNA). With EPA, hepatic lipid metabolism was improved in HF-EPA mice, as indicated by decreased protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (<i>Acaca</i>) gene, and increased mRNA levels for the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (<i>Ppar?</i>), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (<i>Cpt</i>) 1a and 2 genes in the HF-EPA mice. Additionally, inflammation was reduced, as shown by decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (<i>Tnf?</i>) gene expression. Accordingly, EPA also significantly reduced <i>FASN</i> and <i>ACACA</i> mRNAs in human HepG2 cells. Glycolysis, estimated by extracellular acidification rate, was significantly reduced in HepG2 cells treated with EPA vs. vehicle. Furthermore, we identified several miRNAs that are regulated by EPA in mouse liver, including miR-19b-3p, miR-21a-5p, and others, which target lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways. In conclusion, our findings provide novel mechanistic evidence for beneficial effects of EPA in NAFLD, through the identification of specific genes and miRNAs, which may be further exploited as future NAFLD therapies.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in approximately 25% of the population worldwide. It is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in the liver, which can progress to steatohepatitis with different degrees of fibrosis, stages that lack approved pharmacological therapies and represent an indication for liver transplantation with consistently increasing frequency. In view that hepatic steatosis is a reversible condition, effective strategies preventing disease progression were addressed using combinations of natural products in the preclinical high-fat diet (HFD) protocol (60% of fat for 12 weeks). Among them, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:5n-3, DHA), DHA and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), or EPA plus hydroxytyrosol (HT) attained 66% to 83% diminution in HFD-induced steatosis, with the concomitant inhibition of the proinflammatory state associated with steatosis. These supplementations trigger different molecular mechanisms that modify antioxidant, antisteatotic, and anti-inflammatory responses, and in the case of DHA and HT co-administration, prevent NAFLD. It is concluded that future studies in NAFLD patients using combined supplementations such as DHA plus HT are warranted to prevent liver steatosis, thus avoiding its progression into more unmanageable stages of the disease.
Project description:Food contains bioactive compounds that may prevent changes in gut microbiota associated with Westernized diets. The aim of this study is to explore the possible additive effects of D-fagomine and ?-3 PUFAs (EPA/DHA 1:1) on gut microbiota and related risk factors during early stages in the development of fat-induced pre-diabetes. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed a standard diet, or a high-fat (HF) diet supplemented with D-fagomine, EPA/DHA 1:1, a combination of both, or neither, for 24 weeks. The variables measured were fasting glucose and glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, liver inflammation, fecal/cecal gut bacterial subgroups and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The animals supplemented with D-fagomine alone and in combination with ?-3 PUFAs accumulated less fat than those in the non-supplemented HF group and those given only ?-3 PUFAs. The combined supplements attenuated the high-fat-induced incipient insulin resistance (IR), and liver inflammation, while increasing the cecal content, the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and the populations of Bifidobacteriales. The functional effects of the combination of D-fagomine and EPA/DHA 1:1 against gut dysbiosis and the very early metabolic alterations induced by a high-fat diet are mainly those of D-fagomine complemented by the anti-inflammatory action of ?-3 PUFAs.