Role of endoscopic ultrasound in diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. The mortality rate remains high despite many advances in treatment. HCC is frequently diagnosed late in its course due to lack of classical symptoms at earlier stages. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic tool for the diagnostic evaluation, staging, and treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration has been a valuable addition to EUS by being able to obtain tissue under direct visualization. Here, we review the potential role of EUS in the diagnosis and management of HCC. EUS seems to be a safe and reliable alternative method for obtaining tissue for diagnosis of liver cancer, especially for lesions that are inaccessible by traditional methods. EUS could play an important role in the diagnosis and management of HCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided (EUS) liver biopsy (LB) is proposed as a newer method that offers several advantages over existing techniques for sampling liver tissue. This study evaluated the diagnostic yield of EUS-LB as the primary outcome measure. In addition, the safety of the technique in a large patient cohort was assessed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing EUS for evaluation of elevated liver enzymes or hepatic disease were included in this prospective, non-randomized, multicenter study. EUS-LB was performed with EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA; 19-gauge needle). Tissue was formalin-fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and trichrome. Using a microscope micrometer, specimen length was measured and the number of complete portal triads (CPTs) were counted. The main outcome measure was to assess the diagnostic yield of EUS-LB, and to monitor for any procedure-related complications. RESULTS: Patients (110; median age, 53 years; 62 women) underwent EUS-LB at eight centers. The indication was abnormal liver enzymes in 96 patients. LB specimens sufficient for pathological diagnosis were obtained in 108 of 110 patients (98 %). The overall tissue yield from 110 patients was a median aggregate length of 38 mm (range, 0 - 203), with median of 14 CPTs (range, 0 - 68). There was no statistical difference in the yield between bilobar, left lobe only, or right lobe only biopsies. There was one complication (0.9 %) where self-limited bleeding occurred in a coagulopathic and thrombocytopenic patient. This complication was managed conservatively. CONCLUSIONS: EUS-guided LB was a safe technique that yields tissue adequate for diagnosis among 98 % of patients evaluated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a standard procedure used to obtain tissue samples for diagnosis of solid retroperitoneal tumours. However, this procedure demands high technical expertise and requires a strong learning curve. Our aim was to identify factors associated with false-negative EUS-FNA results during the learning for endoscopists. METHODS:Our retrospective analysis was based on the EUS-FNA specimens collected by two novice endoscopists in 200 patients with retroperitoneal lesions who had confirmed image- or tissue-based diagnoses of malignancy or benign lesions. RESULTS:In the first 40 performances endoscopists, the false-negative diagnostic rate of EUS-FNA was higher among patients with chronic pancreatitis than in patients without chronic pancreatitis. Patients who underwent FNA through the trans-duodenal puncture route also had lower success cytological diagnosis rate than through the trans-gastric puncture route. The rate of successful cytological diagnoses with EUS-FNA improved after 40 procedures and was not influenced by chronic pancreatitis presentation or difference puncture route. CONCLUSION:Regarding the learning curve, more than 40 procedures were required to achieve a stable success rate of EUS-FNA. Chronic pancreatitis and trans-duodenal puncture route are the predictive factors for a false-negative FNA cytological result during learning. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This was a retrospective study.
Project description:<h4>Introduction and importance</h4>An adrenal metastasis is uncommon in esophageal cancer. Its diagnosis could be challenging if a percutaneous approach was inaccessible. Moreover, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), a useful adrenal sampling technique, is complicated by the luminal obstruction.<h4>Case presentation</h4>A patient with esophageal cancer accompanying by adrenal mass and established gastrostomy was described. The EUS-FNA of the adrenal lesion was successfully performed via the dilated gastrostomy tract. Adequate tissue for pathological examination was achieved, and the result indicated metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Chemotherapy was started accordingly.<h4>Clinical discussion</h4>This report described an uncommon event of adrenal metastasis of esophageal primary. Even though it is possible to perform EUS via the gastrostomy tract, performing EUS from an unusual direction might add some difficulty to an endoscopist, considering that EUS involves image pattern recognition in identifying structures. Thus, this technique should be operated by experienced EUS endoscopists.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Gastrostomy can provide an enteral route for nutrition support in esophageal cancer patients. In addition, it could be an alternative EUS intervention portal when an esophageal stent is not accessible.
Project description:Pancreatic cysts are becoming more common. Their differential diagnosis includes benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions. Distinguishing the type of cyst helps in the management decision making. We report on a novel tissue acquisition device for pancreatic cysts.Data on two patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) - guided fine-needle aspiration with a new micro forceps device are presented.Two patients had large pancreatic cystic lesions in the pancreatic head. Linear EUS was performed, and tissue samples were obtained with the Moray micro forceps through a 19-gauge needle. In both patients, mucinous columnar epithelium lined the cystic walls. One patient underwent surgical resection, and the other elected surveillance. Examination of the surgical specimen from the first patient confirmed the cyst was a side-branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), gastric type.The Moray micro forceps is a new tool that can be used to help determine the nature of pancreatic cysts and aid in their risk stratification and management.
Project description:Background and study aims? Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has emerged as an important method for obtaining a preoperative tissue diagnosis for suspected cholangiocarcinoma. However, doubts remain about test sensitivity. This study assessed the value and limitations of EUS-FNA in clinical practice. Patients and methods? Patients undergoing EUS-FNA for biliary strictures/masses at a UK tertiary referral center from 2005 to 2014 were prospectively enrolled. Data on EUS-FNA findings, histology, and endoscopy and patient outcomes were collected to evaluate test performance and identify factors predictive of an inaccurate diagnostic result. Results? Ninety-seven patients underwent a total of 112 EUS-FNA procedures. Overall test sensitivity for an initial EUS-FNA for suspected cholangiocarcinoma was 75?% (95?% CI 64?%-84?%), with specificity 100?% (95?% CI 85?%-100?%) and negative predictive value 0.62 (95?% CI 0.47-0.75). Hilar lesions, the presence of a biliary stent, and a diagnosis of PSC were significantly independently associated with an inaccurate result. For the most difficult cases, repeat sampling and use of the Papanicolaou cytopathology grading scale led to an increase in test sensitivity from 17?% to 100?% ( P ?=?0.015) with no loss of specificity. Conclusions? EUS-FNA was found to be a useful method for obtaining a preoperative tissue diagnosis for patients with suspected cholangiocarcinoma. This study identified markers that can reduce test accuracy and measures that can improve test performance of EUS-FNA.
Project description:Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become one of the most useful diagnostic modalities for the diagnosis of pancreatic mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of analyzing the minimal specimens obtained by EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of solid masses of pancreas.This study consisted of retrospective and prospective analyses. The retrospective study was performed on 116 patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid masses for cytological smear, histological analysis, and combined analysis including immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. In the prospective study, 79 patients were enrolled to evaluate the quality and accuracy of EUS-FNA histological analysis and feasibility of IHC staining.The final diagnoses of all patients included pancreatic cancer (n?=?126), nonpancreatic cancer (n?=?21), other neoplasm (n?=?27), and benign lesions (n?=?21). In our retrospective study, the combined analysis was more sensitive than cytological analysis alone (P?<?0.01). The overall sensitivity of cytology, histology, and combined analysis was 69.8%, 67.2%, and 81.8%, respectively. In the prospective analysis, 64.2% of all punctures were helpful for determining the diagnosis and 40.7% provided sufficient tissue for IHC staining. Histological analysis was helpful for diagnosis in 74.7% of patients. IHC staining was necessary for a definite diagnosis in 11.4% of patients, especially in the cases of nonmalignant pancreatic mass.Histological analysis and IHC study of EUS-FNA specimens was useful for the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesions. Combined analysis showed significantly higher sensitivity than cytology alone because IHC staining was helpful for a diagnosis in some patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM:Standard endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) procedures involve use of no-suction or suction aspiration techniques. A new aspiration method, the stylet slow-pull technique, involves slow withdrawal of the needle stylet to create minimum negative pressure. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of EUS-FNA using stylet slow-pull or suction techniques for malignant solid pancreatic lesions using a standard 22-gauge needle. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Consecutive patients presenting for EUS-FNA of pancreatic mass lesions were randomized to the stylet slow-pull or suction techniques using a 22-gauge needle. Both techniques were standardized for each pass until an adequate specimen was obtained, as determined by rapid on-site cytology examination. Patients were crossed over to the alternative technique after four nondiagnostic passes. RESULTS:Of 147 patients screened, 121 (mean age 64?±?13.8 years) met inclusion criteria and were randomized to the stylet slow-pull technique (n?=?61) or the suction technique (n?=?60). Technical success rates were 96.7?% and 98.3?% in the slow-pull and suction groups, respectively (P?>?0.99). The sensitivity for malignancy of EUS-FNA was 82?% in the slow-pull group and 69?% in the suction group (P?=?0.10). The first-pass diagnostic rate (42.6?% vs. 38.3?%; P?=?0.71), acquisition of core tissue (60.6?% vs. 46.7?%; P?=?0.14), and the median (range) number of passes to diagnosis (2 1 2 3 vs. 1 1 2; P?=?0.71) were similar in the slow-pull and suction groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The stylet slow-pull and suction techniques both offered high and comparable diagnostic sensitivity with a mean of 2 passes required for diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions. The endosonographer may choose either technique during FNA.
Project description:To evaluate endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biopsies for the pretreatment characterization of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) to personalize the management of patients.All patients with lesions suspected to be GIST who were referred for EUS-sampling at a tertiary Swedish center were eligible for inclusion 2006-2015. During the observational study phase (2006-2011), routine fine-needle-aspiration (EUS-FNA) was performed. In 2012-2015, we converted to an interventional, randomized protocol with dual sampling EUS-FNA and fine-needle-biopsy-sampling (EUS-FNB) for all lesions. c-KIT- and DOG-1-immunostaining was attempted in all samples and a manual count of the Ki-67-index was performed. FNB-sampled tissue and the resected specimens were subjected to Sanger sequencing of the KIT and platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA) genes.In all, 64 unique patients with GIST were included, and of these, 38 were subjected to pretreatment dual sampling. EUS-FNB had a higher diagnostic sensitivity when compared head-to-head with EUS-FNA (98% vs 58%, P < 0.001) and was more adequate for Ki-67-indexing (Ki-67EUS) (92% vs 40%, P < 0.001). Sequencing of EUS-biopsies was successful in 43/44 (98%) patients, and the mutation profiles (KIT-mutation 73%, PDGFRA-mutation 18%, wild-type 7%) were fully congruent with those detected in the corresponding resected specimens. In imatinib-naïve patients, the Ki-67EUS was comparable with the Ki-67-index in the corresponding surgical specimens (Ki-67SURG) (2.7% vs 2.9%, P = 0.68). In patients treated with neoadjuvant imatinib who also carried mutations indicating sensitivity, the Ki-67EUS was higher than the Ki-67SURG (2.5% vs 0.2%, P = 0.005), with a significant reduction in the Ki-67-index of -91.5% (95%CI: -82.4 to -96.0, P = 0.005).EUS-guided biopsy sampling is accurate for the pretreatment diagnosis and characterization of GISTs and allows the prediction and evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant imatinib therapy.
Project description:The implications of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) have expanded considerably in recent years to cover more fields in invasive gastroenterology practice, as both an investigative and therapeutic modality. The utility of EUS in the diagnosis and management of focal liver lesions has gained a special attractiveness recently. The EUS probe proximity to the liver and its excellent spatial resolution enables real-time images coupled with several enhancement techniques, such as contrast-enhanced (CE) EUS. Aside from its notable capability to execute targeted biopsies and therapeutic interventions, EUS has developed into a hopeful therapeutic tool for the management of solid liver lesions. Herein, we provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the efficacy and safety of EUS in the diagnosis and management of focal solid liver lesions. Medline/PubMed and Embase database searches were conducted by two separate authors (T.K. and W.S.), all relevant studies were assessed, and relevant data was extracted and fully reported. EUS-guided diagnosis of focal liver lesions by sonographic morphologic appearance and cytological and histopathological finding of biopsies obtained via fine needle aspiration/biopsy have been shown to significantly improve the diagnosis of solid liver lesions compared with traditional imaging tools. Similarly, EUS-guided treatment has been shown to consistently have excellent technical success, high efficacy, and minor adverse events. The evolving valuable evidences of EUS utility might satisfy the unmet need of optimizing management of focal solid liver lesions.
Project description:Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.