Effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Linoleic acid (LA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in high concentrations in follicular fluid, when added to maturation culture media, it affects oocyte competence. OBJECTIVE:In the present study, we investigated effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The experiments conducted on 450 ovine Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with homogenous ooplasm and more than two compact layers of cumulus cells. For in vitro maturation COCs were randomly allocated into four treatment groups for 24 hr period. Treatment groups were as follow: control maturation media, 0 µM LA, 50 µM LA, 100 µM LA and 200 µM LA. The cumulus cell expansion and blastocysts rates were recorded. Total RNA was isolated from embryo pools, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and subjected to apoptotic gene expression by real-time PCR. RESULTS:Highest concentration (200 µM/mL) of LA significantly decreased the rate of fully expanded cumulus cells 24 hr after in vitro maturation (IVM) and the percentage of blastocyste rate compared with the control (p<0.05). These inhibitory effects were associated with an increased in relative mRNA expression of Bax (Bcl-2- associated X) gene compared with controls. CONCLUSION:Data obtained in present study suggest that low concentration of LA used for maturation had no deleterious effect on subsequent embryonic development compared to high concentration of LA. Relative expression of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) and Bax in embryos seems to be associated with LA concentration.
Project description:In the cow, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acts as an auto-/paracrine factor, through its receptors LPAR1-4, on oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation (IVM). The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of LPA during IVM of bovine oocytes on: 1) oocyte maturation; 2) apoptosis of COCs; 3) expression of genes involved in developmental competence and apoptosis in bovine oocytes and subsequent blastocysts; 4) cumulus expansion and expression of genes involved in the ovulatory cascade in cumulus cells; 5) glucose metabolism and expression of genes involved in glucose utilization in cumulus cells; 6) cleavage and blastocyst rates on Day 2 and Day 7 of in vitro culture, respectively.Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro in the presence or absence of LPA (10(-5) M) for 24 h. Following maturation, we determined: oocyte maturation stage, cumulus expansion, COCs apoptosis and glucose and lactate levels in the maturation medium. Moreover, COCs were either used for gene expression analysis or fertilized in vitro. The embryos were cultured until Day 7 to assess cleavage and blastocyst rates. Oocytes, cumulus cells and blastocysts were used for gene expression analysis.Supplementation of the maturation medium with LPA enhanced oocyte maturation rates and stimulated the expression of developmental competence-related factors (OCT4, SOX2, IGF2R) in oocytes and subsequent blastocysts. Moreover, LPA reduced the occurrence of apoptosis in COCs and promoted an antiapoptotic balance in the transcription of genes involved in apoptosis (BAX and BCL2) either in oocytes or blastocysts. LPA increased glucose uptake by COCs via augmentation of GLUT1 expression in cumulus cells as well as stimulating lactate production via the enhancement of PFKP expression in cumulus cells. LPA did not affect cumulus expansion as visually assessed, however, it stimulated upstream genes of cumulus expansion cascade, AREG and EREG.Supplementation of the maturation medium with LPA improves oocyte maturation rates, decreases extent of apoptosis in COCs and sustains the expression of developmental competence related factors during oocyte maturation and subsequently affects gene expression profile at the blastocyst stage. We also demonstrate that LPA directs glucose metabolism toward the glycolytic pathway during IVM.
Project description:Bisphenol A (BPA) is synthetic organic compound that exhibits estrogen-like properties and it induces mitochondrial superoxide production. Melatonin (Mela) protects against BPA-mediated cell damage and apoptosis. However, the antioxidative effects of Mela against BPA-induced superoxide production in porcine oocytes are still not known. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of Mela against BPA-derived superoxide on oocyte maturation in pigs. To investigate the effects of the superoxide specific scavenger, Mito-TEMPO, on porcine oocyte maturation in response to BPA exposure apoptosis proteins, we treated the oocytes with Mito-TEMPO (0.1 µM) after pre-treating them with BPA (75 µM) for 22 h. As expected, the reduction in meiotic maturation and cumulus cell expansion of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) in the BPA (75 µM) treated group was recovered (p < 0.01) by treatment with Mito-TEMPO (0.1 µM). An increase in the levels of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins (AIF, cleaved Cas 3 and cleaved Parp1) in response to BPA-induced damage was also reduced by Mito-TEMPO treatment in porcine COCs. Interestingly, we confirmed the positive effects of Mela with respect to superoxide production upon BPA exposure during oocyte maturation and also confirmed the reduction in mitochondrial apoptosis in Mela (0.1 µM)-treated porcine COCs. These results provide evidence for the first time that antioxidative effects of Mela on BPA-derived superoxide improve porcine oocyte maturation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent results indicate a key role for cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the regulation of oocyte meiotic arrest in preovulatory mammalian follicles. The aim of our study was to determine whether the resumption of oocyte meiosis and expansion of cumulus cells in isolated pig cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) can be blocked by a high intracellular concentration of cGMP, and whether this effect is mediated by a cGMP-dependent inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1). METHODS: The COCs were isolated from ovaries of slaughtered gilts and cultured in vitro in M199 supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum. The expression levels of the C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) precursor (NPPC) and its receptor (NPR2) mRNAs during the culture of COCs were determined by real-time RT-PCR. To control the intracellular concentration of cGMP in the COCs, the culture medium was further supplemented with CNP or various concentrations of synthetic cGMP analogues; the concentration of cGMP in COCs was then assessed by ELISA. The effect of the drugs on oocyte maturation was assessed after 24 and 44 h of culture by determining nuclear maturation. The expansion of cumulus cells was assessed by light microscopy and the expression of cumulus expansion-related genes by real-time RT-PCR. A possible effect of cGMP on FSH-induced activation of MAPK3/1 was assessed by immunoblotting the COC proteins with phospho-specific and total anti-Erk1/2 antibodies. RESULTS: The COCs expressed NPPC and NPR2, the key components of cGMP synthesis, and produced a large amount of cGMP upon stimulation with exogenous CNP, which lead to a significant (P < 0.05) delay in oocyte meiotic resumption. The COCs also responded to cGMP analogues by inhibiting the resumption of oocyte meiosis. The inhibitory effect of cGMP on meiotic resumption was reversed by stimulating the COCs with FSH. However, high concentration of intracellular cGMP was not able to suppress FSH-induced activation of MAPK3/1 in cumulus cells, cumulus expansion and expression of expansion-related genes (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that high cGMP concentrations inhibit the maturation of pig oocytes in vitro but the inhibitory mechanism does not involve the suppression of MAPK3/1 activation in cumulus cells.
Project description:Juglone, a major naphthalenedione component of walnut trees, has long been used in traditional medicine as an antimicrobial and antitumor agent. Nonetheless, its impact on oocyte and preimplantation embryo development has not been entirely clarified. Using the bovine model, we sought to elucidate the impact of juglone treatment during the in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes on their maturation and development of embryos. Results showed a severe reduction in oocyte nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion and a significant increase in mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) treated with juglone (12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 µM). In addition, RT-qPCR showed downregulation of the expansion-related (HAS2, TNFAIP6, PTX3, and PTGS2) and mitochondrial (ATPase6 and ATP5F1E) genes in juglone-treated COCs. Moreover, the development rates of day 4 total cleavage and 8-16 cell stage embryos, as well as day 8 blastocysts, were significantly reduced following exposure to juglone. Using immunofluorescence, the apoptotic marker caspase-9 was overexpressed in oocytes exposed to juglone (25.0 µM) compared to the untreated control. In conclusion, our study reports that exposing bovine oocytes to 12.5-50.0 µM of juglone can reduce their development through the direct induction of ROS accumulation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:We sought to investigate whether miR-378 plays a role in cumulus cells and whether the manipulation of miRNA levels in cumulus cells influences oocyte maturation in vitro. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from ovarian follicles had significantly lower levels of precursor and mature miR-378 in cumulus cells surrounding metaphase II (MII) oocytes than cumulus cells surrounding germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, suggesting a possible role of miR-378 during COC maturation. Overexpression of miR-378 in cumulus cells impaired expansion and decreased expression of genes associated with expansion (HAS2, PTGS2) and oocyte maturation (CX43, ADAMTS1, PGR). Cumulus cell expression of miR-378 also suppressed oocyte progression from the GV to MII stage (from 54 ± 2.7 to 31 ± 5.1%), accompanied by a decrease of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), zona pellucida 3 (ZP3), and CX37 in the oocytes. Subsequent in vitro fertilization resulted in fewer oocytes from COCs overexpressing miR-378 reaching the blastocyst stage (7.3 ± 0.7 vs. 16.6 ± 0.5%). miR-378 knockdown led to increased cumulus expansion and oocyte progression to MII, confirming a specific effect of miR-378 in suppressing COC maturation. Aromatase (CYP19A1) expression in cumulus cells was also inhibited by miR-378, leading to a significant decrease in estradiol production. The addition of estradiol to IVM culture medium reversed the effect of miR-378 on cumulus expansion and oocyte meiotic progression, suggesting that decreased estradiol production via suppression of aromatase may be one of the mechanisms by which miR-378 regulates the maturation of COCs. Our data suggest that miR-378 alters gene expression and function in cumulus cells and influences oocyte maturation, possibly via oocyte-cumulus interaction and paracrine regulation.
Project description:Cumulus cells are essential for nutrition of oocytes during maturation. In the absence of cumulus cells during maturation, oocyte developmental competence is severely compromised. In this study, we matured bovine cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) for 8?h, the cumulus cells were removed and denuded oocytes were further matured for 15?h in either the medium conditioned by the initial 8?h culture, or in fresh unconditioned medium. Denuded oocytes that completed maturation in COC-conditioned medium demonstrated better developmental potential than denuded oocytes that completed maturation in standard maturation medium. An inventory was made of the metabolites secreted by COCs into the maturation medium during the first 8?h, from 8 to 23?h, and during an entire 23?h maturation protocol; the metabolomic changes in the cumulus cells during maturation were also investigated. In maturation medium, 173 biochemical components were detected compared to 369 different metabolites in cumulus cells. Significant changes in metabolomic components were evident in maturation medium and in cumulus cells during maturation, with most of the changes related to amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. The importance of two detected biochemicals, creatine and carnitine, for oocyte maturation was further investigated. The presence of carnitine, but not creatine during oocyte in vitro maturation improved the developmental competence of denuded oocytes.
Project description:The estrogen membrane receptor GPR30 (also known as G-protein coupled receptor 30) has recently been shown to be involved in the regulation of oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion. However, whether GPR30 expression is regulated by gonadotropin stimulation and how it participates in the regulation of the maturation process is still not clear. In this study, we explored the mechanism underlying the synergy between luteinizing hormone and 17?-estradiol (17?-E2) to improve the epidermal growth factor (EGF) response in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) during oocyte maturation in mice. The expression and distribution of GPR30, EGFR, and EGF-like growth factors were examined by real-time quantitative PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining. Lyso-Tracker Red labeling was performed to detect the lysosomal activity in follicle granular cells (FGCs). Cumulus expansion of COCs was evaluated after in vitro maturation for 16 h. We found that EGF-like growth factors transmit LH signals to increase GRP30 levels by inhibiting protein degradation in lysosomes. Meanwhile, 17?-E2 stimulates the GPR30 signaling pathway to increase EGF receptor levels, enhancing the response ability of EGF signaling in COCs and thus promoting cumulus expansion. In conclusion, our study reveals the synergistic mechanism between LH and estrogen in the regulation of cumulus expansion during oocyte maturation process.
Project description:While triclosan (TCS) exerts detrimental effects on female reproduction, the effect of TCS-derived toxins on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) is unclear. This study investigated the effects of TCS on mitochondrion-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis pathways during porcine oocyte maturation. Porcine oocytes were treated with TCS (1, 10, and 100 ?M) and triphenylphosphonium chloride (Mito-TEMPO; 0.1 ?M), and matured cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were stained with orcein, dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), and Mito-SOX. Proteins and mRNA levels of factors related to cumulus expansion and mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes were analyzed by western blotting and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Meiotic maturation and cumulus cell expansion significantly decreased for COCs after TCS treatment along with an increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels at 44 h of IVM. Further, mitochondrion-related antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis markers were significantly elevated in porcine COCs following TCS-mediated oxidative damage. The protective effect of Mito-TEMPO as a specific superoxide scavenger from TCS toxin improved the maturation capacity of porcine COCs. Mito-TEMPO downregulated the mitochondrial apoptosis of TCS-exposed porcine COCs by reducing superoxide level. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that TCS mediates toxicity during porcine oocyte maturation through superoxide production and mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis.
Project description:Acquisition of oocyte developmental competence needs to be understood to improve clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction. The stimulation of cumulus cell concentration of cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) by pharmacological agents during in vitro maturation (IVM) participates in improvement of oocyte quality. However, precise coordination and downstream targets of cAMP signaling in cumulus cells are largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated better embryo development after cAMP stimulation for first 6 h during IVM. Using this model, we investigated cAMP signaling in cumulus cells through in vitro culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in the presence of cAMP raising agents: forskolin, IBMX, and dipyridamole (here called FID treatment). Transcriptomic analysis of cumulus cells indicated that FID-induced differentially expressed transcripts were implicated in cumulus expansion, steroidogenesis, cell metabolism, and oocyte competence. Functional genomic analysis revealed that protein kinase-A (PKA), extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and calcium (Ca(2+)) pathways as key regulators of FID signaling. Inhibition of PKA (H89) in FID-supplemented COCs or substitution of FID with calcium ionophore (A23187) demonstrated that FID activated primarily the PKA pathway which inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and was upstream of calcium signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by FID supported a regulation by dual specific phosphatase (DUSP1) via PKA. Our findings imply that cAMP (FID) regulates cell metabolism, steroidogenesis, intracellular signaling and cumulus expansion through PKA which modulates these functions through optimization of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and coordination of calcium signaling. These findings have implications for development of new strategies for improving oocyte in vitro maturation leading to better developmental competence.
Project description:The estrogen-signalling pathway is critical for normal follicular development; however, little is known about its importance during in vitro maturation (IVM) in large animals, particularly yaks (Bos grunniens). Through the present study, we aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying estrogen involvement in cumulus expansion and the subsequent development of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). COCs were cultured in the maturation medium supplemented with different concentrations (10-6-10-3 mM) of 17?-estradiol (E2) or its receptor antagonist, fulvestrant, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot were performed to determine the expression of cumulus-expansion related factors and oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs). The cumulus expansion of COCs was observed using an inverted microscope, and COCs developmental ability were judged by the evaluation of cleavage and blastulation rates per inseminated oocytes by IVF, and the number of cells in the blastocyst. Cumulus expansion increased with 10-6-10-3 mM E2, but decreased with fulvestrant. HAS2, PTGS2, PTX3 and OSFs expression increased in the 10-6-10-3 mM E2 groups. Significantly higher cleavage and blastocyst rates were observed in the 10-4 mM E2 group than in the fulvestrant and 0 mM E2 groups. Moreover, in the 10-4 mM group, blastocysts at 7 days had higher cell counts than the other groups. In conclusion, the increase in cumulus expansion and subsequent oocyte development after the addition of E2 to IVM medium may have resulted from increased cumulus-expansion-related factor expression and OSF levels.