Geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of the prenyltransferase UBIAD1 between membranes of the ER and Golgi.
ABSTRACT: UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize the vitamin K2 subtype menaquinone-4. Previously, we found that sterols trigger binding of UBIAD1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, including GGpp. This binding inhibits sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase, which contributes to feedback regulation of the enzyme. The addition to cells of geranylgeraniol (GGOH), which can become converted to GGpp, triggers release of UBIAD1 from reductase, allowing for its maximal degradation and permitting ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. Here, we further characterize geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of UBIAD1. Results of this characterization support a model in which UBIAD1 continuously cycles between the ER and medial-trans Golgi of isoprenoid-replete cells. Upon sensing a decline of GGpp in ER membranes, UBIAD1 becomes trapped in the organelle where it inhibits reductase degradation. Mutant forms of UBIAD1 associated with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD), a human eye disease characterized by corneal accumulation of cholesterol, are sequestered in the ER and block reductase degradation. Collectively, these findings disclose a novel sensing mechanism that allows for stringent metabolic control of intracellular trafficking of UBIAD1, which directly modulates reductase degradation and becomes disrupted in SCD.
Project description:UBIAD1 (UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1) utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize vitamin K2 We previously reported that sterols stimulate binding of UBIAD1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase. UBIAD1 binding inhibits sterol-accelerated, ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of reductase, one of several mechanisms for feedback control of this rate-limiting enzyme in the branched pathway that produces cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids such as GGpp. Accumulation of GGpp in ER membranes triggers release of UBIAD1 from reductase, permitting its maximal ERAD and ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. Mutant UBIAD1 variants associated with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD), a human disorder characterized by corneal accumulation of cholesterol, resist GGpp-induced release from reductase and remain sequestered in the ER to block reductase ERAD. Using lines of genetically manipulated cells, we now examine consequences of UBIAD1 deficiency and SCD-associated UBIAD1 on reductase ERAD and cholesterol synthesis. Our results indicated that reductase becomes destabilized in the absence of UBIAD1, resulting in reduced cholesterol synthesis and intracellular accumulation. In contrast, an SCD-associated UBIAD1 variant inhibited reductase ERAD, thereby stabilizing the enzyme and contributing to enhanced synthesis and intracellular accumulation of cholesterol. Finally, we present evidence that GGpp-regulated, ER-to-Golgi transport enables UBIAD1 to modulate reductase ERAD such that synthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids is maintained in sterol-replete cells. These findings further establish UBIAD1 as a central player in the reductase ERAD pathway and regulation of isoprenoid synthesis. They also indicate that UBIAD1-mediated inhibition of reductase ERAD underlies cholesterol accumulation associated with SCD.
Project description:Autosomal-dominant Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is characterized by corneal opacification owing to overaccumulation of cholesterol. SCD is caused by mutations in UBIAD1, which utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize vitamin K2. Using cultured cells, we previously showed that sterols trigger binding of UBIAD1 to the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR), thereby inhibiting its endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) (Schumacher et al. 2015). GGpp triggers release of UBIAD1 from HMGCR, allowing maximal ERAD and ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. SCD-associated UBIAD1 resists GGpp-induced release and is sequestered in ER to inhibit ERAD. We now report knockin mice expressing SCD-associated UBIAD1 accumulate HMGCR in several tissues resulting from ER sequestration of mutant UBIAD1 and inhibition of HMGCR ERAD. Corneas from aged knockin mice exhibit signs of opacification and sterol overaccumulation. These results establish the physiological significance of UBIAD1 in cholesterol homeostasis and indicate inhibition of HMGCR ERAD contributes to SCD pathogenesis.
Project description:Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is a rare genetic eye disease characterized by corneal opacification resulted from deposition of excess free cholesterol. UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) is an enzyme catalyzing biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin K2. More than 20 UBIAD1 mutations have been found to associate with human SCD. How these mutants contribute to SCD development is not fully understood. Here, we identified HMGCR as a binding partner of UBIAD1 using mass spectrometry. In contrast to the Golgi localization of wild-type UBIAD1, SCD-associated mutants mainly resided in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and competed with Insig-1 for HMGCR binding, thereby preventing HMGCR from degradation and increasing cholesterol biosynthesis. The heterozygous Ubiad1 G184R knock-in (Ubiad1G184R/+) mice expressed elevated levels of HMGCR protein in various tissues. The aged Ubiad1G184R/+ mice exhibited corneal opacification and free cholesterol accumulation, phenocopying clinical manifestations of SCD patients. In summary, these results demonstrate that SCD-associated mutations of UBIAD1 impair its ER-to-Golgi transportation and enhance its interaction with HMGCR. The stabilization of HMGCR by UBIAD1 increases cholesterol biosynthesis and eventually causes cholesterol accumulation in the cornea.
Project description:3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzymes of sterol synthesis, undergoes feedback-regulated endoplasmic reticulum degradation in both mammals and yeast. The yeast Hmg2p isozyme is subject to ubiquitin-mediated endoplasmic reticulum degradation by the HRD pathway. We had previously shown that alterations in cellular levels of the 15-carbon sterol pathway intermediate farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) cause increased Hmg2p ubiquitination and degradation. We now present evidence that the FPP-derived, 20-carbon molecule geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) is a potent endogenous regulator of Hmg2p degradation. This work was launched by the unexpected observation that GGPP addition directly to living yeast cultures caused high potency and specific stimulation of Hmg2p degradation. This effect of GGPP was not recapitulated by FPP, GGOH, or related isoprenoids. GGPP-caused Hmg2p degradation met all the criteria for the previously characterized endogenous signal. The action of added GGPP did not require production of endogenous sterol molecules, indicating that it did not act by causing the build-up of an endogenous pathway signal. Manipulation of endogenous GGPP by several means showed that naturally made GGPP controls Hmg2p stability. Analysis of the action of GGPP indicated that the molecule works upstream of retrotranslocation and can directly alter the structure of Hmg2p. We propose that GGPP is the FPP-derived regulator of Hmg2p ubiquitination. Intriguingly, the sterol-dependent degradation of mammalian HMGR is similarly stimulated by the addition of GGOH to intact cells, implying that a dependence on 20-carbon geranylgeranyl signals may be a common conserved feature of HMGR regulation that may lead to highly specific therapeutic approaches for modulation of HMGR.
Project description:UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein 1 (UBIAD1) plays a key role in biosynthesis of vitamin K2 and coenzyme Q10 using geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). However, the mechanism by which UBIAD1 participates in tumorigenesis remains unknown. This study show that UBIAD1 interacts with H-Ras, retains H-Ras in the Golgi apparatus, prevents H-Ras trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane, blocks the aberrant activation of Ras/MAPK signaling, and inhibits the proliferation of bladder cancer cells. In addition, GGPP was required to maintain the function of UBIAD1 in regulating the Ras/ERK signaling pathway. A Drosophila model was employed to confirm the function of UBIAD1/HEIX in vivo. The activation of Ras/ERK signaling at the plasma membrane induced melanotic masses in Drosophila larvae. Our study suggests that UBIAD1 serves as a tumor suppressor in cancer and tentatively reveals the underlying mechanism of melanotic mass formation in Drosophila.
Project description:Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by germline variants in UBIAD1 introducing missense alterations leading to deposition of cholesterol in the cornea, progressive opacification, and loss of visual acuity. UBIAD1 was recently shown to synthesize menaquinone-4 (MK-4, vitamin K(2) ), but causal mechanisms of SCD are unknown. We report a novel c.864G>A UBIAD1 mutation altering glycine 177 to glutamic acid (p.G177E) in six SCD families, including four families from Finland who share a likely founder mutation. We observed reduced MK-4 synthesis by UBIAD1 altered by SCD mutations p.N102S, p.G177R/E, and p.D112N, and molecular models showed p.G177-mutant UBIAD1 disrupted transmembrane helices and active site residues. We show UBIAD1 interacts with HMGCR and SOAT1, enzymes catalyzing cholesterol synthesis and storage, respectively, using yeast two-hybrid screening and immunoprecipitation. Docking simulations indicate cholesterol binds to UBIAD1 in the substrate-binding cleft and substrate-binding overlaps with GGPP binding, an MK-4 substrate, suggesting potential competition between these metabolites. Impaired MK-4 synthesis is a biochemical defect identified in SCD suggesting UBIAD1 links vitamin K and cholesterol metabolism through physical contact between enzymes and metabolites. Our data suggest a role for endogenous MK-4 in maintaining cornea health and visual acuity.
Project description:UBIAD1 plays critical roles in physiology including vitamin K and CoQ10 biosynthesis as well as pathophysiology including dyslipimedia-induced SCD (Schnyder's corneal dystrophy), Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease and bladder carcinoma. Since the subcellular localization of UBIAD1 varies in different cell types, characterization of the exact subcellular localization of UBIAD1 in specific human disease is vital for understanding its molecular mechanism. As UBIAD1 suppresses bladder carcinoma, we studied its subcellular localization in human bladder carcinoma cell line T24. Since fluorescent images of UBIAD1-EGFP in T24, human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 and human hepatocyte cell line L02 are similar, these four cell lines were used for present study. Using a combination of fluorescent microscopy and immunohistochemistry, it was found that UBIAD1 localized on the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but not on the plasma membrane, of T24 and HEK293 cells. Using scanning electron microscopy and western blot analysis, we found that UBIAD1 is enriched in the Golgi fraction extracted from the L02 cells, verifying the Golgi localization of UBAID1. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the RPWS motif, which forms an Arginine finger on the UBIAD1 N terminus, serves as the Golgi retention signal. With both cycloheximide and brefeldin A inhibition assays, it was shown that UBIAD1 may be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi by a COPII-mediated mechanism. Based upon flow cytometry analysis, it is shown that mutation of the RPWS motif reduced the UBIAD1-induced apoptosis of T24 cells, indicating that the proper Golgi localization of UBIAD1 influences its tumor suppressant activity. This study paves the way for further understanding the molecular mechanism of UBIAD1 in human diseases.
Project description:HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) undergoes regulated degradation as part of feedback control of the sterol pathway. In yeast, the stability of the HMGR isozyme Hmg2 is controlled by the 20-carbon isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). Increasing GGPP levels cause more efficient degradation by the HMG-CoA reductase degradation (HRD) pathway, allowing for feedback regulation of HMGR. The HRD pathway is critical for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded ER proteins. Here, we have explored GGPP's role in HRD-dependent Hmg2 degradation. We found that GGPP potently regulates Hmg2 levels in vivo and causes reversible Hmg2 misfolding at nanomolar concentrations in vitro These GGPP-mediated effects were absent in several stabilized or nonregulated Hmg2 mutants. Consistent with its high potency, GGPP's effects were highly specific such that other structurally related molecules were ineffective in altering Hmg2 structure. For instance, two closely related GGPP analogues, 2F-GGPP and GGSPP, were completely inactive at all concentrations tested. Furthermore, GGSPP antagonized GGPP's effects in vivo and in vitro Chemical chaperones reversed GGPP's effects on Hmg2 structure and degradation, suggesting that GGPP causes selective Hmg2 misfolding. These results indicate that GGPP functions in a manner similar to an allosteric ligand, causing Hmg2 misfolding through interaction with a reversible, specific binding site. Consistent with this, the Hmg2 protein formed multimers, typical of allosteric proteins. We propose that this "allosteric misfolding," or mallostery, observed here for Hmg2 may be a widely used tactic of biological regulation with potential for development of therapeutic small molecules that induce selective misfolding.
Project description:PURPOSE:Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is a rare inherited disease that leads to gradual vision loss by the deposition of lipids in the corneal stroma. The aim of this study is to report a novel pathogenic variant in the UBIAD1 gene and present clinical and molecular findings in Polish patients with SCD. METHODS:Individuals (n?=?37) originating from four Polish SCD families were subjected for a complete ophthalmological check-up and genetic testing. Corneal changes were visualized by slit-lamp examination, anterior segment optical coherent tomography (AS-OCT), and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). RESULTS:In a proband with primarily mild SCD that progressed rapidly at the end of the fifth decade of life, a novel missense pathogenic variant in UBIAD1 (p.Thr120Arg) was identified. The other studied SCD family represents the second family reported worldwide with the UBIAD1 p.Asp112Asn variant. SCD in the remaining two families resulted from a frequently identified p.Asn102Ser pathogenic variant. All affected subjects presented a crystalline form of SCD. The severity of corneal changes was age-dependent, and their morphology and localization are described in detail. CONCLUSION:The novel p.Thr120Arg is the fourth SCD-causing variant lying within the FARM motif of the UBIAD1 protein, which underlines a high importance of this motif for SCD pathogenesis. The current study provides independent evidence for the pathogenic potential of UBIAD1 p.Asp112Asn and new information useful for clinicians.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in a novel gene, UBIAD1, were recently found to cause the autosomal dominant eye disease Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD). SCD is characterized by an abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids in the cornea resulting in progressive corneal opacification and visual loss. We characterized lesions in the UBIAD1 gene in new SCD families and examined protein homology, localization, and structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We characterized five novel mutations in the UBIAD1 gene in ten SCD families, including a first SCD family of Native American ethnicity. Examination of protein homology revealed that SCD altered amino acids which were highly conserved across species. Cell lines were established from patients including keratocytes obtained after corneal transplant surgery and lymphoblastoid cell lines from Epstein-Barr virus immortalized peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These were used to determine the subcellular localization of mutant and wild type protein, and to examine cholesterol metabolite ratios. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for UBIAD1 protein in keratocytes revealed that both wild type and N102S protein were localized sub-cellularly to mitochondria. Analysis of cholesterol metabolites in patient cell line extracts showed no significant alteration in the presence of mutant protein indicating a potentially novel function of the UBIAD1 protein in cholesterol biochemistry. Molecular modeling was used to develop a model of human UBIAD1 protein in a membrane and revealed potentially critical roles for amino acids mutated in SCD. Potential primary and secondary substrate binding sites were identified and docking simulations indicated likely substrates including prenyl and phenolic molecules. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Accumulating evidence from the SCD familial mutation spectrum, protein homology across species, and molecular modeling suggest that protein function is likely down-regulated by SCD mutations. Mitochondrial UBIAD1 protein appears to have a highly conserved function that, at least in humans, is involved in cholesterol metabolism in a novel manner.