Bioremediation of high-strength agricultural wastewater using Ochrobactrum sp. strain SZ1.
ABSTRACT: The biggest agricultural sector that contributes to the Malaysian economy is the oil palm industry. The effluent generated during the production of crude palm oil known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME undergoes anaerobic treatment that requires long retention time and produces large amount of methane that consequently contributes to global warming. In this study, an isolated bacteria was selected based on its ability to degrade kraft lignin (KL) and identified as Ochrobactrum sp. The bacteria were able to treat POME (from anaerobic pond) under the aerobic condition without addition of nutrient, resulting in a significant chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 71 %, removal rate of 1385 mg/l/day, and 12.3 times higher than that of the ponding system. It has also resulted in 60 % removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and 55 % of total polyphenolic after 6-day treatment period with the detection of lignocellulolytic enzymes.
Project description:Colorants contained in palm oil mill effluent (POME) are recalcitrant and carcinogenic in nature. The commonly applied ponding treatment methods have been reported inefficient for remediating the concentration of the colorants before discharge. The need for sustainable and efficient treatment technique is crucial in order to preserve the environment. In this view, this study reported the first attempt to decolorize POME using a proliferate Klebsiella Pneumonia ABZ11 at varied inoculum sizes of 5-25% (v/v), initial color concentration (650-2,600 ADMI) and treatment time of 5-40 h. The treatment conditions were optimized using Response Surface Methodology. At optimal conditions of 20% (v/v) inoculum size, initial-color concentration of 2,600 ADMI, initial pH of 7 and 35 h treatment retention time, over 80.40% color removal was achieved with insignificant disparity compared with the model predicted value of 81.538%. Also, the Monod model excellently described the decolorization kinetic process with 0.9214 coefficient of correlation (R 2), and the calculated maximum growth ? max ) and half-saturation constant (K s ) were 7.023 d-1 and 340.569 ADMI d-1, respectively. This study revealed that the Klebsiella Pneumonia ABZ11 was highly prolific and such feature may favor a synergistic biodegradation process.
Project description:Empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) are the major wastes generated by the oil palm industry in Malaysia. The practice of EFB and POME digester sludge co-composting has shown positive results, both in mitigating otherwise environmentally damaging waste streams and producing a useful product (compost) from these streams. In this study, the bacterial ecosystems of 12-week-old EFB-POME co-compost and POME biogas sludge from Felda Maokil, Johor were analysed using 16S metagenome sequencing. Over ten phyla were detected, with Chloroflexi being the predominant phylum, representing approximately 53% of compost and 23% of the POME microbiome reads. The main bacterial lineage found in the compost and POME was Anaerolinaceae (Chloroflexi) with 30% and 18% of the total gene fragments, respectively. The significant differences between compost and POME communities were abundances of Syntrophobacter, Sulfuricurvum and Coprococcus. No methanogens were identified due to the bias in general 16S primers to eubacteria. The preponderance of anaerobic species in the compost and high abundance of secondary metabolite fermenting bacteria is due to an extended composting time, with anaerobic collapse of the pile due to the tropical heat. Predictive functional profiles of the metagenomes using 16S rRNA marker genes suggest that the presence of enzymes involved in degradation of polysaccharides such as glucoamylase, endoglucanase and arabinofuranosidase, all of which were strongly active in POME. Eubacterial species associated with cellulytic methanogenesis were present in both samples.
Project description:The increasing demand for water, food and energy poses challenges for the world´s sustainability. Tropical palm oil is currently the major source of vegetable oil worldwide with a production that exceeds 55 million tons per year, while generating over 200 million tons of palm oil mill effluent (POME). It could potentially be used as a substrate for production of microalgal biomass though. In this study, the microalgal strain Chlamydomonas biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40, originally isolated from a sugarcane vinasse stabilization pond, was selected among 17 strains tested for growth in POME retrieved from anaerobic ponds of a palm oil industrial plant located within the Amazon rainforest region. During cultivation in POME, C. biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40 biomass productivity reached 190.60 mgDW • L-1 • d-1 using 15L airlift flat plate photobioreactors. Carbohydrates comprised the major fraction of algal biomass (31.96%), while the lipidic fraction reached up to 11.3% of dry mass. Reductions of 99% in ammonium and nitrite, as well as 98% reduction in phosphate present in POME were detected after 5 days of algal cultivation. This suggests that the aerobic pond stage, usually used in palm oil industrial plants to reduce POME inorganic load, could be substituted by high rate photobioreactors, significantly reducing the time and area requirements for wastewater treatment. In addition, the complete mitochondrial genome of C. biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40 strain was sequenced, revealing a compact mitogenome, with 15.98 kb in size, a total of 14 genes, of which 9 are protein coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the strain taxonomic status within the Chlamydomonas genus, opening up opportunities for future genetic modification and molecular breeding programs in these species.
Project description:Fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) is a potential alternative to recover and reuse water and nutrients from agricultural wastewater, such as palm oil mill effluent that consists of 95% water and is rich in nutrients. This study investigated the potential of commercial fertilizers as draw solution (DS) in FDFO to treat anaerobic palm oil mill effluent (An-POME). The process parameters affecting FO were studied and optimized, which were then applied to fertilizer selection based on FO performance and fouling propensity. Six commonly used fertilizers were screened and assessed in terms of pure water flux (J<sub>w</sub>) and reverse salt flux (J<sub>S</sub>). Ammonium sulfate ((NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>), mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), and potassium chloride (KCl) were further evaluated with An-POME. MAP showed the best performance against An-POME, with a high average water flux, low flux decline, the highest performance ratio (PR), and highest water recovery of 5.9% for a 4-h operation. In a 24-h fouling run, the average flux decline and water recovered were 84% and 15%, respectively. Both hydraulic flushing and osmotic backwashing cleaning were able to effectively restore the water flux. The results demonstrated that FDFO using commercial fertilizers has the potential for the treatment of An-POME for water recovery. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed to address challenges such as J<sub>S</sub> and the dilution factor of DS for direct use of fertigation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Full-scale biogas production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) was inhibited by low pH and highly volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation. Three strategies were investigated for recovering the anaerobic digestion (AD) imbalance on biogas production, namely the dilution method (tap water vs. biogas effluent), pH adjustment method (NaOH, NaHCO<sub>3</sub>, Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub>, oil palm ash), and bioaugmentation (active methane-producing sludge) method. The highly economical and feasible method was selected and validated in a full-scale application.<h4>Results</h4>The inhibited sludge from a full-scale biogas reactor could be recovered within 30-36 days by employing various strategies. Dilution of the inhibited sludge with biogas effluent at a ratio of 8:2, pH adjustment with 0.14% w/v NaOH, and 8.0% w/v oil palm ash were considered to be more economically feasible than other strategies tested (dilution with tap water, or pH adjustment with 0.50% w/v Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub>, or 1.25% NaHCO<sub>3</sub> and bioaugmentation) with a recovery time of 30-36 days. The recovered biogas reactor exhibited a 35-83% higher methane yield than self-recovery, with a significantly increased hydrolysis constant (k<sub>H</sub>) and specific methanogenic activity (SMA). The population of <i>Clostridium</i> sp., <i>Bacillus</i> sp., and <i>Methanosarcina</i> sp. increased in the recovered sludge. The imbalanced full-scale hybrid cover lagoon reactor was recovered within 15 days by dilution with biogas effluent at a ratio of 8:2 and a better result than the lab-scale test (36 days).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Dilution of the inhibited sludge with biogas effluent could recover the imbalance of the full-scale POME-biogas reactor with economically feasible and high biogas production performance.
Project description:Despite efforts to address the composition of the microbial community during the anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME), its composition in relation to biodegradation in the full-scale treatment system has not yet been extensively examined. Therefore, a thorough analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities was performed in the present study using MiSeq sequencing at the different stages of the POME treatment, which comprised anaerobic as well as facultative anaerobic and aerobic processes, including the mixed raw effluent (MRE), mixing pond, holding tank, and final discharge phases. Based on the results obtained, the following biodegradation processes were suggested to occur at the different treatment stages: (1) Lactobacillaceae (35.9%) dominated the first stage, which contributed to high lactic acid production; (2) the higher population of Clostridiaceae in the mixing pond (47.7%) and Prevotellaceae in the holding tank (49.7%) promoted acetic acid production; (3) the aceticlastic methanogen Methanosaetaceae (0.6-0.8%) played a role in acetic acid degradation in the open digester and closed reactor for methane generation; (4) Syntrophomonas (21.5-29.2%) appeared to be involved in the degradation of fatty acids and acetic acid by syntrophic cooperation with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanobacteriaceae (0.6-1.3%); and (5) the phenols and alcohols detected in the early phases, but not in the final discharge phase, indicated the successful degradation of lignocellulosic materials. The present results contribute to a better understanding of the biodegradation mechanisms involved in the different stages of the full-scale treatment of POME.
Project description:This study was aimed at identifying indigenous microorganisms from palm oil mill effluent (POME) and to ascertain the microbial load. Isolation and identification of indigenous microorganisms was subjected to standard microbiological methods and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes for the microbial strains signifies that they were known as Micrococcus luteus 101PB, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 102PB, Bacillus cereus 103PB, Providencia vermicola 104PB, Klebsiella pneumoniae 105PB, Bacillus subtilis 106PB, Aspergillus fumigatus 107PF, Aspergillus nomius 108PF, Aspergillus niger 109PF and Meyerozyma guilliermondii 110PF. Results revealed that the population of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) ranged from 9.5 × 105 - 7.9 × 106 cfu/mL. The total heterotrophic fungi (THF) ranged from 2.1 × 104 - 6.4 × 104 cfu/mL. Total viable heterotrophic indigenous microbial population on CMC agar ranged from 8.2 × 105 - 9.1 × 106 cfu/mL and 1.4 × 103 - 3.4 × 103 cfu/mL for bacteria and fungi respectively. The microbial population of oil degrading bacteria (ODB) ranged from 6.4 × 105 - 4.8 × 106 cfu/mL and the oil degrading fungi (ODF) ranged from 2.8 × 103 - 4.7 × 104 cfu/mL. The findings revealed that microorganisms flourish well in POME. Therefore, this denotes that isolating native microorganisms from POME is imperative for effectual bioremediation, biotreatment and biodegradation of industrial wastewaters.
Project description:Phytoremediation is one of the environmental-friendly and cost-effective systems for the treatment of wastewater, including industrial wastewater such as palm oil mill effluent final discharge (POME FD). However, the effects of the wastewater on the phytoremediator plants, in term of growth performance, lignocellulosic composition, and the presence of nutrients and heavy metals in the plants are not yet well studied. In the present work, we demonstrated that POME FD increased the growth of P. purpureum. The height increment of P. purpureum supplied with POME FD (treatment) was 61.72% as compared to those supplied with rain water (control) which was 14.42%. For lignocellulosic composition, the cellulose percentages were 38.77?±?0.29% (treatment) and 34.16?±?1.01% (control), and the difference was significant. These results indicated that POME FD could be a source of plant nutrients, which P. purpureum can absorb for growth. It was also found that the heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb) inside the plant were below the standard limit of the World Health Organization (WHO). Since POME FD was shown to have no adverse effects on P. purpureum, further research regarding the potential application of P. purpureum following phytoremediation of POME FD such as biofuel production is warranted to evaluate its potential use to fit into the waste-to-wealth agenda.
Project description:This study focused on developing a hydrophilic hybrid polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hollow membrane by incorporating Nano-magnesium oxide (NMO) as a potent antifouling mediator. The Nano-hybrid hollow fibers with varied loading of NMO (0 g; 0.25 g; 0.50 g; 0.75 g and 1.25 g) were spun through phase inversion technique. The resultants Nano-hybrid fibers were characterized and compared based on SEM, EDX, contact angle, surface zeta-potential, permeability flux, fouling resistance and color rejection from palm oil mill effluent (POME). Noticeably, the permeability flux, fouling resistance and color rejection improved with the increase in NMO loading. PVDF-PEG with 0.50 g-NMO loading displayed an outstanding performance with 198.35 L/m2·h, 61.33 L/m2·h and 74.65% of water flux, POME flux and color rejection from POME, respectively. More so, a remarkable fouling resistance were obtained such that the flux recovery, reversible fouling percentage and irreversible fouling percentage remains relatively steady at 90.98%, 61.39% and 7.68%, respectively, even after 3 cycles of continuous filtrations for a total period of 9 h. However, at excess loading of 0.75 and 1.25 g-NMO, deterioration in the flux and fouling resistance was observed. This was due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles within the matrix structure at the excessive loading.
Project description:Investigating waterborne viruses is of great importance to minimizing risks to public health. Viruses tend to adsorb to sludge particles from wastewater processes by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between virus, aquatic matrix, and particle surface. Sludge is often re-used in agriculture; therefore, its evaluation is also of great interest to public health. In the present study, a pilot scale system treating real domestic wastewater from a large city in Brazil was used to evaluate the removal, the overall reduction, and liquid-solid partitioning of human adenovirus (HAdV), the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and fecal indicators (F-specific coliphages and E. coli). The system consists of a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) post-treating the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Samples were collected from the influent and effluent of each unit, as well as from the sludge of the UASB and from the microalgae biomass in the HRAP. Pathogens and indicators were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (for HAdV), qPCR with reverse transcription (RTqPCR) (for SARS-CoV-2), the double agar plaque assay (for coliphages), and the most probable number (MPN) method (for E. coli). The removal and overall reduction of HAdV and SARS-CoV-2 was greater than 1-log<sub>10</sub>. Almost 60% of remaining SARS-CoV-2 RNA and more than 70% of remaining HAdV DNA left the system in the sludge, demonstrating that both viruses may have affinity for solids. Coliphages showed a much lower affinity to solids, with only 3.7% leaving the system in the sludge. The system performed well in terms of the removal of organic matter and ammoniacal nitrogen, however tertiary treatment would be necessary to provide further pathogen reduction, if the effluent is to be reused in agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated the reduction and partitioning of SARS-CoV-2 and HAdV through the complete cycle of a wastewater treatment system consisting of a UASB reactor followed by HRAPs.