Antiamoebic Activity of Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother and Its Effect on the Actin Cytoskeleton of Entamoeba histolytica.
ABSTRACT: In Mexico, the Adenophyllum aurantium (L.) Strother plant is consumed as an infusion to treat intestinal diseases such as amoebiasis, which is an endemic health problem in Mexico and other countries. However, the effect of A. aurantium on Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, is unknown. An aerial part methanolic extract (AaMeA), a root methanolic extract (AaMeR) and a root ethyl acetate extract (AaEaR) were tested on E. histolytica trophozoites. AaMeA and AaMeR did not show antiproliferative activity; however, AaEaR exhibited an in vitro GI50 of 230 ?g/ml, and it was able to inhibit the differentiation of Entamoeba invadens trophozoites into cysts. The intraperitoneal administration of AaEaR (2.5 or 5 mg) to hamsters that were infected with E. histolytica inhibited the development of amoebic liver abscesses in 48.5 or 89.0% of the animals, respectively. Adhesion to fibronectin and erythrophagocytosis were 28.7 and 37.5% inhibited by AaEaR, respectively. An ultrastructure analysis of AaEaR-treated trophozoites shows a decrease in the number of vacuoles but no apparent cell damage. Moreover, this extract affected the actin cytoskeleton structuration, and it prevented the formation of contractile rings by mechanism(s) that were independent of reactive oxygen species and RhoA activation pathways. (13)C NMR data showed that the major compounds in the AaEaR extract are thiophenes. Our results suggest that AaEaR may be effective in treatments against amoebiasis, nevertheless, detailed toxicity studies on thiophenes, contained in AaEaR, are required to avoid misuse of this vegetal species.
Project description:<i>Entamoeba histolytica</i> (protozoan; family Endomoebidae) is the cause of amoebiasis, a disease related to high morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, this illness is considered a significant public health issue in developing countries. In addition, parasite resistance to conventional medicinal treatment has increased in recent years. Traditional medicine around the world represents a valuable source of alternative treatment for many parasite diseases. In a previous paper, we communicated about the antiprotozoal activity in vitro of the methanolic (MeOH) extract of <i>Ruta chalepensis</i> (Rutaceae) against <i>E. histolytica</i>. The plant is extensively employed in Mexican traditional medicine. The following workup of the MeOH extract of <i>R. chalepensis</i> afforded the furocoumarins rutamarin (<b>1</b>) and chalepin (<b>2</b>), which showed high antiprotozoal activity on <i>Entamoeba histolytica</i> trophozoites employing in vitro tests (IC<sub>50</sub> values of 6.52 and 28.95 µg/mL, respectively). Therefore, we offer a full scientific report about the bioguided isolation and the amebicide activity of chalepin and rutamarin.
Project description:<i>Entamoeba histolytica</i>, the causal agent of human amoebiasis, has two morphologically different phases: a resistant cyst and a trophozoite responsible for the invasion of the host tissues such as the colonic mucosa and the intestinal epithelium. During <i>in vitro</i> migration, trophozoites usually produce protuberances such as pseudopods and rarely filopodia, structures that have been observed in the interaction of trophozoites with human colonic epithelial tissue. To study the different membrane projections produced by the trophozoites, including pseudopods, filopodia, uropods, blebs, and others, we designed an induction system using erythrocyte extract or fibronectin (FN) in micropatterned grill lines (each micro-line containing multiple micro-portions of FN or erythrocyte extract) on which the trophozoites were placed in culture for migration assays. Using light, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy, we established that <i>E. histolytica</i> trophozoites frequently produce short and long filopodia, large retractile uropods in the rear, pseudopods, blebs, and others structures, also showing continuous migration periods. The present study provides a simple migration method to induce trophozoites to generate abundant membrane protrusion structures that are rarely obtained in normal or induced cultures, such as long filopodia; this method will allow a-better understanding of the interactions of trophozoites with FN and cell debris. <i>E. histolytica</i> trophozoites motility plays an important role in invasive amoebiasis. It has been proposed that both physical forces and chemical signals are involved in the trophozoite motility and migration. However, the <i>in vivo</i> molecules that drive the chemotactic migration remain to be determined. We propose the present assay to study host molecules that guide chemotactic behavior because the method is highly reproducible, and a live image of cell movement and migration can be quantified.
Project description:Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.
Project description:Galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica has roles in pathogenicity and induction of protective immunity in rodent models of amoebiasis. Recently, the intermediate subunit of the lectin, Igl1, of E. histolytica has been shown to have hemolytic activity. However, the corresponding lectin is also expressed in a non-virulent species, Entamoeba dispar, and another subunit, Igl2, is expressed in the protozoa. Therefore, in this study, we compared the activities of Igl1 and Igl2 subunits from E. histolytica and E. dispar using various regions of recombinant Igl proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. dispar Igl proteins had comparable hemolytic activities with those of E. histolytica Igl proteins. Furthermore, Igl1 gene-silenced E. histolytica trophozoites showed less hemolytic activity compared with vector-transfected trophozoites, indicating that the expression level of Igl1 protein influences the activity. These results suggest that the lower hemolytic activity in E. dispar compared with E. histolytica reflects the lower expression level of Igl1 in the E. dispar parasite.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica infects 50 million people per year, causing 100,000 deaths worldwide. The primary treatment for amoebiasis is metronidazole. However, increased pathogen resistance combined with the drug's toxic side effects encourages a search for alternative therapeutic agents. Secondary metabolites from marine bacteria are a promising resource for antiprotozoan drug discovery. In this study, extracts from a collection of marine-derived actinomycetes were screened for antiamoebic properties, and the activities of antibiotics echinomycin A and tirandamycin A are shown. Both antibiotics inhibited the in vitro growth of a E. histolytica laboratory strain (HM-1:IMSS) and a clinical isolate (Colombia, Col) at 30- to 60-?M concentrations. EIC(50) (estimated inhibitory concentration) values were comparable for both antibiotics (44.3-46.3 ?M) against the E. histolytica clinical isolate.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic colitis and liver abscess in developing countries such as Mexico and India. Entamoeba dispar is morphologically identical but is not associated with disease. Here we determined the ploidy of E. histolytica and developed PCR-based methods for distinguishing field isolates of E. histolytica or E. dispar. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that E. histolytica trophozoites are diploid for five "single-copy" probes tested. Intergenic sequences between superoxide dismutase and actin 3 genes of clinical isolates of E. histolytica from the New and Old Worlds were identical, as were those of E. dispar. These results suggest a bottleneck or demographic sweep in entamoebae which infect humans. In contrast, E. histolytica and E. dispar genes encoding repeat antigens on the surface of trophozoites (Ser-rich protein) or encysting parasites (chitinase) were highly polymorphic. chitinase alleles suggested that the early axenized strains of E. histolytica, HM-1 from Mexico City, Mexico, and NIH-200 from Calcutta, India, are still present and that similar E. dispar parasites can be identified in both the New and Old Worlds. Ser-rich protein alleles, which suggested the presence of the HM-1 strain in Mexico City, included some E. histolytica genes that predicted Ser-rich proteins with very few repeats. These results, which suggest diversifying selection at chitinase and Ser-rich protein loci, demonstrate the usefulness of these alleles for distinguishing clinical isolates of E. histolytica and E. dispar.
Project description:Amoebiasis is caused by <i>Entamoeba histolytica</i> infection, a protozoan parasite belonging to the phylum Amoebozoa. This parasite undergoes a fundamental cell differentiation process from proliferative trophozoite to dormant cyst, termed "encystation." The cysts formed by encystation are solely responsible for the transmission of amoebiasis; therefore, <i>Entamoeba</i> encystation is an important subject from both biological and medical perspectives. Here, we have established a flow cytometry strategy for not only determining the percentage of formed cysts but also for monitoring changes in cell populations during encystation. This strategy together with fluorescence microscopy enables visualization of the cell differentiation process of <i>Entamoeba</i> encystation. We also standardized another flow cytometry protocol for counting live trophozoites. These two different flow cytometry techniques could be integrated into 96-well plate-based bioassays for monitoring the processes of cyst formation and trophozoite proliferation, which are crucial to maintain the <i>Entamoeba</i> life cycle. The combined two systems enabled us to screen a chemical library, the Pathogen Box of the Medicine for Malaria Venture, to obtain compounds that inhibit either the formation of cysts or the proliferation of trophozoites, or both. This is a prerequisite for the development of new drugs against amoebiasis, a global public health problem. Collectively, the two different 96-well plate-based <i>Entamoeba</i> bioassay and flow cytometry analysis systems (cyst formation and trophozoite proliferation) provide a methodology that can not only overcome the limitations of standard microscopic counting but also is effective in applied as well as basic <i>Entamoeba</i> biology.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, a worldwide protozoal disease that results in approximately 100,000 deaths annually. The virulence of E. histolytica may be due to interactions with the host bacterial flora, whereby trophozoites engulf colonic bacteria as a nutrient source. The engulfment process depends on trophozoite recognition of bacterial epitopes that activate phagocytosis pathways. E. histolytica GPCR-1 (EhGPCR-1) was previously recognized as a putative G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) used by Entamoeba histolytica during phagocytosis. In the present study, we attempted to characterize EhGPCR-1 by using heterologous GPCR expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an activator of EhGPCR-1 and that LPS stimulates EhGPCR-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, we demonstrated that Entamoeba histolytica prefers to engulf bacteria with intact LPS and that this engulfment process is sensitive to suramin, which prevents the interactions of GPCRs and G-proteins. Thus, EhGPCR-1 is an LPS-recognizing GPCR that is a potential drug target for treatment of amoebiasis, especially considering the well-established drug targeting to GPCRs.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis. This disease results in 40,000 to 100,000 deaths annually. The pathogenic molecules involved in the invasion of trophozoites had been constantly being clarified. This study explored the role of elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) in E. histolytica pathogenicity. Biolayer interferometry binding and pull-down assays suggest that EF1a and intermediate subunit of lectin (Igl) binding are specific. Submembranous distribution of EF1a closely aligns with the localization of Igl, which appear in abundance on membranes of trophozoites. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of EF1a is positively correlated with trends in Igl levels after co-incubation with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro, suggesting a regulatory linkage between these proteins. Erythrophagocytosis assays also imply a role for EF1a in phagocytosis. Finally, EF1a and actin are collocated in trophozoites. These results indicated elongation factor 1a is associated with E. histolytica phagocytosis, and the relationships between EF1a, Igl, and actin are worth further study to better understand the pathogenic process.
Project description:A single-round PCR assay was developed for detection and differential diagnosis of the three Entamoeba species found in humans, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba histolytica, and Entamoeba dispar, that are morphologically identical as both cysts and trophozoites. A conserved forward primer was derived from the middle of the small-subunit rRNA gene, and reverse primers were designed from signature sequences specific to each of these three Entamoeba species. PCR generates a 166-bp product with E. histolytica DNA, a 752-bp product with E. dispar DNA, and a 580-bp product with E. moshkovskii DNA. Thirty clinical specimens were examined, and the species present were successfully detected and differentiated using this assay. It was possible to detect as little as 10 pg of E. moshkovskii and E. histolytica DNA, while for E. dispar the sensitivity was about 20 pg of DNA. Testing with DNA from different pathogens, including bacteria and other protozoa, confirmed the high specificity of the assay. We propose the use of this PCR assay as an accurate, rapid, and effective diagnostic method for the detection and discrimination of these three morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba species in both routine diagnosis of amoebiasis and epidemiological surveys.