Chronic Posttraumatic Epilepsy following Neocortical Undercut Lesion in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) usually develops in a small percentage of patients of traumatic brain injury after a varying latent period. Modeling this chronic neurological condition in rodents is time consuming and inefficient, which constitutes a significant obstacle in studying its mechanism and discovering novel therapeutics for its prevention and treatment. Partially isolated neocortex, or undercut, is known to induce cortical hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity in vitro, and has been used extensively for studying the neurophysiological mechanism of posttraumatic epileptogenesis. However, whether the undercut lesion in rodents causes chronic epileptic seizures has not been systematically characterized. Here we used a miniature telemetry system to continuously monitor electroencephalography (EEG) in adult C57BL mice for up to 3 months after undercut surgery. We found that 50% of animals developed spontaneous seizures between 16-50 days after injury. The mean seizure duration was 8.9±3.6 seconds, and the average seizure frequency was 0.17±0.17 times per day. There was no progression in seizure frequency and duration over the recording period. Video monitoring revealed behavioral arrests and clonic limb movement during seizure attacks. A pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) test further showed increased seizure susceptibility in the undercut mice. We conclude that undercut lesion in mice is a model of chronic PTE that involves spontaneous epileptic seizures.
Project description:Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a prevalent type of acquired epilepsy secondary to traumatic brain injury, and is characterized by repeated seizures. Traditional antiepileptic drugs have minimal response in preventing posttraumatic epileptic seizures. It is essential for the development of new therapeutic strategy. Our previous work disclosed a potent neuroprotective role of baicalein, a flavonoid extracted from <i>Scutellaria baicalensis</i> Georgi, against inherited epilepsy in rats. Whether baicalein has protective potential in posttraumatic epileptic seizures and the possible molecular mechanism remain elusive. Additionally, the brain is vulnerable to lipid peroxidation-induced damage due to high consumption of oxygen and abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids in neuronal membranes. Our present investigation aimed to elucidate whether baicalein exerts neuroprotective effects on posttraumatic epileptic seizures by inhibiting ferroptosis, a newly discovered lipid peroxidation-dependent cell death modality. We found that baicalein significantly reduced seizure score, number of seizures, and average seizure duration in an iron chloride (FeCl<sub>3</sub>)-induced PTE mouse model. The neuroprotective effect of baicalein was also validated in a ferric ammonium citrate (FAC)-induced HT22 hippocampal neuron damage model. Moreover, <i>in vitro</i>, baicalein could remarkably decrease ferroptotic indices (lipid reactive oxygen species, 4-hydroxynonenal, and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2) and inhibit the expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) in an iron-induced HT22 cell damage model. These findings were also validated in a mouse PTE model. It was concluded that baicalein exerted neuroprotective effects against posttraumatic epileptic seizures <i>via</i> suppressing ferroptosis and 12/15-LOX was likely to be involved in baicalein's neuroprotection.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) accounts for 20% of acquired epilepsies. Experimental models are important for studying epileptogenesis. We previously reported that repetitive high-frequency oscillations with spikes (rHFOSs) occur early after lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) and may be a biomarker for PTE. The objective of this study was to use multiple electrodes in rat hippocampal and neocortical regions to describe the long-term electroencephalographic and behavioral evolution of rHFOSs and epileptic seizures after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS:Adult male rats underwent mild, moderate, or severe FPI or sham injury followed by video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings with a combination of 16 neocortical and hippocampal electrodes at an early, intermediate, or late time-point after injury, up to 52 weeks. Recordings were analyzed for the presence of rHFOSs and seizures. RESULTS:Analysis was done on 28 rats with FPI and 7 shams. Perilesional rHFOSs were recorded in significantly more rats after severe (70.3%) than mild (20%) injury or shams (14.3%). Frequency of occurrence was significantly highest in the early (10.8/h) versus late group (3.2/h). Late focal seizures originating from the same electrodes were recorded in significantly more rats in the late (87.5%) versus early period (22.2%), occurring almost exclusively in injured rats. Seizure duration increased significantly over time, averaging 19 s at the beginning of the early period and 27 s at the end of the late period. Seizure frequency also increased significantly over time, from 4.4 per week in the early group to 26.4 per week in the late group. Rarely, rats displayed early seizures or generalized seizures. SIGNIFICANCE:FPI results in early rHFOSs and later spontaneous focal seizures arising from peri-lesional neocortex, supporting its use as a model for PTE. Epilepsy severity increased over time and was related to injury severity. The association between early rHFOSs and later focal seizures suggests that rHFOSs may be a potential noninvasive biomarker of PTE.
Project description:Epilepsy is a common and debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seizures contribute to progressive neurodegeneration and poor functional and psychosocial outcomes for TBI survivors, and epilepsy after TBI is often resistant to existing anti-epileptic drugs. The development of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) occurs in a complex neurobiological environment characterized by ongoing TBI-induced secondary injury processes. Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury process, though how it contributes to epileptogenesis, and the development of chronic, spontaneous seizure activity, remains poorly understood. A mechanistic understanding of how inflammation contributes to the development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis) after TBI is important to facilitate the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to reduce or prevent seizures. BODY: We reviewed previous clinical and pre-clinical data to evaluate the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to seizures and epilepsy after TBI. Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation is a common consequence of epileptic seizure activity, and also contributes to epileptogenesis as well as seizure initiation (ictogenesis) and perpetuation. Three key signaling factors implicated in both seizure activity and TBI-induced secondary pathogenesis are highlighted in this review: high-mobility group box protein-1 interacting with toll-like receptors, interleukin-1? interacting with its receptors, and transforming growth factor-? signaling from extravascular albumin. Lastly, we consider age-dependent differences in seizure susceptibility and neuroinflammation as mechanisms which may contribute to a heightened vulnerability to epileptogenesis in young brain-injured patients.Several inflammatory mediators exhibit epileptogenic and ictogenic properties, acting on glia and neurons both directly and indirectly influence neuronal excitability. Further research is required to establish causality between inflammatory signaling cascades and the development of epilepsy post-TBI, and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of pharmaceuticals targeting inflammatory pathways to prevent or mitigate the development of PTE.
Project description:Epilepsy is a devastating neurological condition exhibited by repeated spontaneous and unpredictable seizures afflicting around 70 million people globally. The basic pathophysiology of epileptic seizures is still elusive, reflecting an extensive need for further research. Developing a novel animal model is crucial in understanding disease mechanisms as well as in assessing the therapeutic target. Most of the pre-clinical epilepsy research has been focused on rodents. Nevertheless, zebrafish disease models are relevant to human disease pathophysiology hence are gaining increased attention nowadays. The current study for the very first time developed a pilocarpine-induced chronic seizure-like condition in adult zebrafish and investigated the modulation in several neuroinflammatory genes and neurotransmitters after pilocarpine exposures. Seizure score analysis suggests that compared to a single dose, repeated dose pilocarpine produces chronic seizure-like effects maintaining an average seizure score of above 2 each day for a minimum of 10 days. Compared to the single dose pilocarpine treated group, there was increased mRNA expression of HMGB1, TLR4, TNF-?, IL-1, BDNF, CREB-1, and NPY; whereas decreased expression of NF-?B was upon the repeated dose of pilocarpine administration. In addition, the epileptic group demonstrates modulation in neurotransmitters levels such as GABA, Glutamate, and Acetylcholine. Moreover, proteomic profiling of the zebrafish brain from the normal and epileptic groups from LCMS/MS quantification detected 77 and 13 proteins in the normal and epileptic group respectively. Summing up, the current investigation depicted that chemically induced seizures in zebrafish demonstrated behavioral and molecular alterations similar to classical rodent seizure models suggesting the usability of adult zebrafish as a robust model to investigate epileptic seizures.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS) is a prospective, longitudinal follow-up of 1,221 Vietnam War veterans with mostly penetrating head injuries (PHIs). The high prevalence (45%-53%) of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) in this unique cohort makes it valuable for study.<h4>Methods</h4>A standardized multidisciplinary neurologic, cognitive, behavioral, and brain imaging evaluation was conducted on 199 VHIS veterans plus uninjured controls, some 30 to 35 years after injury, as part of phase 3 of this study.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of seizures (87 patients, 43.7%) was similar to that found during phase 2 evaluations 20 years earlier, but 11 of 87 (12.6%) reported very late onset of PTE after phase 2 (more than 14 years after injury). Those patients were not different from patients with earlier-onset PTE in any of the measures studied. Within the phase 3 cohort, the most common seizure type last experienced was complex partial seizures (31.0%), with increasing frequency after injury. Of subjects with PTE, 88% were receiving anticonvulsants. Left parietal lobe lesions and retained ferric metal fragments were associated with PTE in a logistic regression model. Total brain volume loss predicted seizure frequency.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients with PHI carry a high risk of PTE decades after their injury, and so require long-term medical follow-up. Lesion location, lesion size, and lesion type were predictors of PTE.
Project description:Determine if genetic variation in enzymes/transporters influencing extracellular adenosine homeostasis, including adenosine kinase (ADK), [ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E), cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73)], and equilibrative nucleoside transporter type-1 (ENT-1), is significantly associated with epileptogenesis and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) risk, as indicated by time to first seizure analyses.Nine ADK, three CD73, and two ENT-1 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 162 white adults with moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and no history of premorbid seizures. Kaplan-Meier models were used to screen for genetic differences in time to first seizure occurring >1 week post-TBI. SNPs remaining significant after correction for multiple comparisons were examined using Cox proportional hazards analyses, adjusting for subdural hematoma, injury severity score, and isolated TBI status. SNPs significant in multivariate models were then entered simultaneously into an adjusted Cox model.Comparing Kaplan-Meier curves, rs11001109 (ADK) rare allele homozygosity and rs9444348 (NT5E) heterozygosity were significantly associated with shorter time to first seizure and an increased seizure rate 3 years post-TBI. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models showed that these genotypes remained significantly associated with increased PTE hazard up to 3 years post-TBI after controlling for variables of interest (rs11001109: hazard ratio (HR) 4.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-15.77, p = 0.020; rs9444348: HR 2.95, 95% CI 1.19-7.31, p = 0.019) .Genetic variation in ADK and NT5E may help explain variability in time to first seizure and PTE risk, independent of previously identified risk factors, after TBI. Once validated, identifying genetic variation in adenosine regulatory pathways relating to epileptogenesis and PTE may facilitate exploration of therapeutic targets and pharmacotherapy development.
Project description:Epileptic seizures/post-traumatic epilepsy (ES/PTE) are frequent in persons with brain injuries, particularly for patients with more severe injuries including ones that result in disorders of consciousness (DoC). Surprisingly, there are currently no best practice guidelines for assessment or management of ES in persons with DoC. This study aimed to identify clinician attitudes toward epilepsy prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment in patients with DoC as well as current practice in regards to the use of amantadine in these individuals. A cross-sectional online survey was sent to members of the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA). Fifty physician responses were included in the final analysis. Withdrawal of antiepileptic drug/anti-seizure medications (AED/ASM) therapy was guided by the absence of evidence of clinical seizure whether or not the AED/ASM was given prophylactically or for actual seizure/epilepsy treatment. Standard EEG was the most frequent diagnostic method utilized. The majority of respondents ordered an EEG if there were concerns regarding lack of neurological progress. AED/ASM prescription was reported to be triggered by the first clinically evident seizure with levetiracetam being the AED/ASM of choice. Amantadine was frequently prescribed although less so in patients with epilepsy and/or EEG based epileptic abnormalities. A minority of respondents reported an association between amantadine and seizure. Longitudinal studies on epilepsy management, epilepsy impact on neurologic prognosis, as well as potential drug effects on seizure risk in persons with DoC appear warranted with the goal of pushing guideline development forward and improving clinical assessment and management of seizures in this unique, albeit challenging, population.
Project description:Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult.
Project description:<h4>Study objectives</h4>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in sequelae that include posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) and sleep-wake disturbances. Here, we sought to determine whether sleep characteristics could predict development of PTE in a model of severe TBI.<h4>Methods</h4>Following controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham injury (craniotomy only), CD-1 mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and nuchal electromyography (EMG) electrodes. Acute (1st week) and chronic (months 1, 2, or 3) 1-week-long video-EEG recordings were performed after the injury to examine epileptiform activity. High-amplitude interictal events were extracted from EEG using an automated method. After scoring sleep-wake patterns, sleep spindles and EEG delta power were derived from nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep epochs. Brain CTs (computerized tomography) were performed in sham and CCI cohorts to quantify the brain lesions. We then employed a no craniotomy (NC) control to perform 1-week-long EEG recordings at week 1 and month 1 after surgery.<h4>Results</h4>Posttraumatic seizures were seen in the CCI group only, whereas interictal epileptiform activity was seen in CCI or sham. Sleep-wake disruptions consisted of shorter wake or NREM bout lengths and shorter duration or lower power for spindles in CCI and sham. NREM EEG delta power increased in CCI and sham groups compared with NC though the CCI group with posttraumatic seizures had lower power at a chronic time point compared with those without. Follow-up brain CTs showed a small lesion in the sham injury group suggesting a milder form of TBI that may account for their interictal activity and sleep changes.<h4>Significance</h4>In our TBI model, tracking changes in NREM delta power distinguishes between CCI acutely and animals that will eventually develop PTE, but further work is necessary to identify sleep biomarkers of PTE. Employing NC controls together with sham controls should be considered in future TBI studies.
Project description:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated for the treatment of epilepsy. In rodents, an increase in the latency for the development of seizures and status epilepticus (SE) has been reported in different animal models but the consequences of delivering stimulation to chronic epileptic animals have not been extensively addressed. We study the effects of anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) stimulation at different current intensities in rats rendered epileptic following pilocarpine (Pilo) administration. Four months after Pilo-induced SE, chronic epileptic rats were bilaterally implanted with AN electrodes or had sham-surgery. Stimulation was delivered for 6 h/day, 5 days/week at 130 Hz, 90 µsec. and either 100 µA or 500 µA. The frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures in animals receiving stimulation was compared to that recorded in the preoperative period and in rats given sham treatment. To investigate the effects of DBS on hippocampal excitability, brain slices from animals receiving AN DBS or sham surgery were studied with electrophysiology. We found that rats treated with AN DBS at 100 µA had a 52% non-significant reduction in the frequency of seizures as compared to sham-treated controls and 61% less seizures than at baseline. Animals given DBS at 500 µA had 5.1 times more seizures than controls and a 2.8 fold increase in seizure rate as compared to preoperative values. In non-stimulated controls, the average frequency of seizures before and after surgery remained unaltered. In vitro recordings have shown that slices from animals previously given DBS at 100 µA had a longer latency for the development of epileptiform activity, shorter and smaller DC shifts, and a smaller spike amplitude compared to non-stimulated controls. In contrast, a higher spike amplitude was recorded in slices from animals given AN DBS at 500 µA.