Carbonylation Modification Regulates Na/K-ATPase Signaling and Salt Sensitivity: A Review and a Hypothesis.
ABSTRACT: Na/K-ATPase signaling has been implicated in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress not only regulates the Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, but also regulates its signaling and other functions. While cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is an intermediate step in CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling, increase in ROS alone also stimulates Na/K-ATPase signaling. Based on literature and our observations, we hypothesize that ROS have biphasic effects on Na/K-ATPase signaling, transcellular sodium transport, and urinary sodium excretion. Oxidative modulation, in particular site specific carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase ?1 subunit, is a critical step in proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase signaling and decreased transcellular sodium transport leading to increases in urinary sodium excretion. However, once this system is overstimulated, the signaling, and associated changes in sodium excretion are blunted. This review aims to evaluate ROS-mediated carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase, and its potential role in the regulation of pump signaling and sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (RPT).
Project description:Cardiotonic steroids (such as ouabain) signaling through Na/K-ATPase regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. We report here that reactive oxygen species are required to initiate ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling, protein carbonylation, redistribution of Na/K-ATPase and sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3, and inhibition of active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. Disruption of the Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling complex attenuated ouabain-stimulated protein carbonylation. Ouabain-stimulated protein carbonylation is reversed after removal of ouabain, and this reversibility is largely independent of de novo protein synthesis and degradation by either the lysosome or the proteasome pathways. Furthermore, ouabain stimulated direct carbonylation of two amino acid residues in the actuator domain of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit. Taken together, the data indicate that carbonylation modification of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit is involved in a feed-forward mechanism of regulation of ouabain-mediated renal proximal tubule Na/K-ATPase signal transduction and subsequent sodium transport.
Project description:We have demonstrated that cardiotonic steroids, such as ouabain, signaling through the Na/K-ATPase, regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. By direct carbonylation modification of the Pro222 residue in the actuator (A) domain of pig Na/K-ATPase ?1 subunit, reactive oxygen species are required for ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase/c-Src signaling and subsequent regulation of active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. In the present study we sought to determine the functional role of Pro222 carbonylation in Na/K-ATPase signaling and sodium handling.Stable pig ?1 knockdown LLC-PK1-originated PY-17 cells were rescued by expressing wild-type rat ?1 and rat ?1 with a single mutation of Pro224 (corresponding to pig Pro222) to Ala. This mutation does not affect ouabain-induced inhibition of Na/K-ATPase activity, but abolishes the effects of ouabain on Na/K-ATPase/c-Src signaling, protein carbonylation, Na/K-ATPase endocytosis, and active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport.Direct carbonylation modification of Pro224 in the rat ?1 subunit determines ouabain-mediated Na/K-ATPase signal transduction and subsequent regulation of renal proximal tubule sodium transport.
Project description:We have demonstrated that Na/K-ATPase acts as a receptor for reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulating renal Na+ handling and blood pressure. TALLYHO/JngJ (TH) mice are believed to mimic the state of obesity in humans with a polygenic background of type 2 diabetes. This present work is to investigate the role of Na/K-ATPase signaling in TH mice, focusing on susceptibility to hypertension due to chronic excess salt ingestion. Age-matched male TH and the control C57BL/6J (B6) mice were fed either normal diet or high salt diet (HS: 2, 4, and 8% NaCl) to construct the renal function curve. Na/K-ATPase signaling including c-Src and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, as well as protein carbonylation (a commonly used marker for enhanced ROS production), were assessed in the kidney cortex tissues by Western blot. Urinary and plasma Na+ levels were measured by flame photometry. When compared to B6 mice, TH mice developed salt-sensitive hypertension and responded to a high salt diet with a significant rise in systolic blood pressure indicative of a blunted pressure-natriuresis relationship. These findings were evidenced by a decrease in total and fractional Na+ excretion and a right-shifted renal function curve with a reduced slope. This salt-sensitive hypertension correlated with changes in the Na/K-ATPase signaling. Specifically, Na/K-ATPase signaling was not able to be stimulated by HS due to the activated baseline protein carbonylation, phosphorylation of c-Src and ERK1/2. These findings support the emerging view that Na/K-ATPase signaling contributes to metabolic disease and suggest that malfunction of the Na/K-ATPase signaling may promote the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in obesity. The increased basal level of renal Na/K-ATPase-dependent redox signaling may be responsible for the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in polygenic obese TH mice.
Project description:Na/K-ATPase has been extensively studied for its ion pumping function, but, in the past several decades, has been identified as a scaffolding and signaling protein. Initially it was found that cardiotonic steroids (CTS) mediate signal transduction through the Na/K-ATPase and result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are also capable of initiating the signal cascade. However, in recent years, this Na/K-ATPase/ROS amplification loop has demonstrated significance in oxidative stress related disease states, including obesity, atherosclerosis, heart failure, uremic cardiomyopathy, and hypertension. The discovery of this novel oxidative stress signaling pathway, holds significant therapeutic potential for the aforementioned conditions and others that are rooted in ROS.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Circulating levels of cardiotonic steroids (CTS) are elevated in various chronic inflammatory conditions, but the role of CTS in inflammation remains largely unknown. We have previously shown that the CTS ouabain stimulates proinflammatory responses in murine macrophages. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism how CTS induce proinflammatory responses in primary murine and human macrophages. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Using both murine peritoneal macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages, we demonstrated that ouabain activated NF-?B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), leading to proinflammatory cytokine (eg, MCP-1 [monocyte chemotactic protein 1], TNF-? [tumor necrosis factor-?], IL-1? [interleukin-1?], and IL-6) production. By applying siRNA techniques and murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from genetically modified mice, we showed that macrophages partially deficient in Na/K-ATPase, the receptor for CTS, or fully deficient in the scavenger receptor CD36 or TLR4 (Toll-like receptor) were resistant to ouabain-induced NF-?B activation, suggesting an indispensable role of these 3 receptors in this pathway. Mechanistically, this effect of ouabain was independent of the ion transport function of the Na/K-ATPase. Instead, ouabain stimulated a signaling complex, including Na/K-ATPase, CD36, and TLR4. Subsequently, TLR4 recruited MyD88 adaptor protein for NF-?B activation. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of ouabain into mice specifically recruited Ly6C+CCR2+ monocyte subtypes to the peritoneal cavities, indicating that the CTS ouabain triggers inflammation in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:CTS activate NF-?B leading to proinflammatory cytokine production in primary macrophages through a signaling complex, including CD36, TLR4, and Na/K-ATPase. These findings warrant further studies on endogenous CTS in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis.
Project description:Background Recent studies have highlighted a critical role for a group of natriuretic hormones, cardiotonic steroid (CTS), in mediating renal inflammation and fibrosis associated with volume expanded settings, such as chronic kidney disease. Immune cell adhesion is a critical step in the inflammatory response; however, little is currently understood about the potential regulatory role of CTS signaling in this setting. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that CTS signaling through Na+/K+-ATPase ?-1 (NKA ?-1) enhances immune cell recruitment and adhesion to renal epithelium that ultimately advance renal inflammation. Methods and Results We demonstrate that knockdown of the ?-1 isoform of Na/K-ATPase causes a reduction in CTS-induced macrophage infiltration in renal tissue as well reduces the accumulation of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity in vivo. Next, using functional adhesion assay, we demonstrate that CTS-induced increases in the adhesion of macrophages to renal epithelial cells were significantly diminished after reduction of NKA ?-1 in either macrophages or renal epithelial cells as well after inhibition of NKA ?-1-Src signaling cascade with a specific peptide inhibitor, pNaKtide in vitro. Finally, CTS-induced expression of adhesion markers in both endothelial and immune cells was significantly inhibited in an NKA ?-1-Src signaling dependent manner in vitro. Conclusions These findings suggest that CTS potentiates immune cell migration and adhesion to renal epithelium through an NKA ?-1-dependent mechanism; our new findings suggest that pharmacological inhibition of this feed-forward loop may be useful in the treatment of renal inflammation associated with renal disease.
Project description:Cardiotonic steroids (CTS), specific inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase activity, have been widely used for treating cardiac insufficiency. Recent studies suggest that low levels of endogenous CTS do not inhibit Na,K-ATPase activity but play a role in regulating blood pressure, inducing cellular kinase activity, and promoting cell viability. Higher CTS concentrations inhibit Na,K-ATPase activity and can induce reactive oxygen species, growth arrest, and cell death. CTS are being considered as potential novel therapies in cancer treatment, as they have been shown to limit tumor cell growth. However, there is a lack of information on the relative toxicity of tumor cells and comparable non-tumor cells. We have investigated the effects of CTS compounds, ouabain, digitoxin, and bufalin, on cell growth and survival in cell lines exhibiting the full spectrum of non-cancerous to malignant phenotypes. We show that CTS inhibit membrane Na,K-ATPase activity equally well in all cell lines tested regardless of metastatic potential. In contrast, the cellular responses to the drugs are different in non-tumor and tumor cells. Ouabain causes greater inhibition of proliferation and more extensive apoptosis in non-tumor breast cells compared to malignant or oncogene-transfected cells. In tumor cells, the effects of ouabain are accompanied by activation of anti-apoptotic ERK1/2. However, ERK1/2 or Src inhibition does not sensitize tumor cells to CTS cytotoxicity, suggesting that other mechanisms provide protection to the tumor cells. Reduced CTS-sensitivity in breast tumor cells compared to non-tumor cells indicates that CTS are not good candidates as cancer therapies.
Project description:Compound 21 (C-21) is a highly selective nonpeptide AT2 receptor (AT2R) agonist.To test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubule AT2Rs induce natriuresis and lower blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats and mice.In rats, AT2R activation with intravenous C-21 increased urinary sodium excretion by 10-fold (P<0.0001); this natriuresis was abolished by direct renal interstitial infusion of specific AT2R antagonist PD-123319. C-21 increased fractional excretion of Na(+) (P<0.05) and lithium (P<0.01) without altering renal hemodynamic function. AT2R activation increased renal proximal tubule cell apical membrane AT2R protein (P<0.001) without changing total AT2R expression and internalized/inactivated Na(+)-H(+) exchanger-3 and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase. C-21-induced natriuresis was accompanied by an increase in renal interstitial cGMP (P<0.01); C-21-induced increases in urinary sodium excretion and renal interstitial cGMP were abolished by renal interstitial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-N(6)-nitroarginine methyl ester or bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant. Renal AT2R activation with C-21 prevented Na(+) retention and lowered blood pressure in the angiotensin II infusion model of experimental hypertension.AT2R activation initiates its translocation to the renal proximal tubule cell apical membrane and the internalization of Na(+)-H(+) exchanger-3 and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase, inducing natriuresis in a bradykinin-nitric oxide-cGMP-dependent manner. Intrarenal AT2R activation prevents Na(+) retention and lowers blood pressure in angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. AT2R activation holds promise as a renal proximal tubule natriuretic/diuretic target for the treatment of fluid-retaining states and hypertension.
Project description:Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS), also called digitalis-like factors, have been postulated to play important roles in health and disease for nearly half a century. Recent discoveries, which include the specific identification of endogenous cardenolide (endogenous ouabain) and bufadienolide (marinobufagenin) CTS in humans along with the delineation of an alternative mechanism by which CTS can signal through the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, have increased the interest in this field substantially. Although CTS were first considered important in the regulation of renal sodium transport and arterial pressure, more recent work implicates these hormones in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and fibrosis, the modulation of immunity and of carbohydrate metabolism, and the control of various central nervous functions and even behavior. This review focuses on the physiological interactions between CTS and other regulatory systems that may be important in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension, preeclampsia, end-stage renal disease, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. Based on our increasing understanding of the regulation of CTS as well as the molecular mechanisms of these hormone increases, we also discuss potential therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Recent studies have suggested that postprandial increases in insulin directly contribute to reduced urinary sodium excretion. An abundance of research supports the ability of insulin to augment epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) transport. This study hypothesized that ENaC contributes to the increase in renal sodium reabsorption following a meal. To test this, we used fasted or 4?hour postprandial Sprague Dawley rats to analyze ENaC expression and activity. We also assessed total expression of additional sodium transporters (Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC), Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC2), and Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA)) and circulating hormones involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). We found that after carbohydrate stimulus, ENaC open probability increased in split-open isolated collecting duct tubules, while ENaC protein levels remained unchanged. This was supported by a lack of change in phosphorylated Nedd4-2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase protein which regulates the number of ENaCs at the plasma membrane. Additionally, we found no differences in total expression of NCC, NKCC2, or NKA in the postprandial rats. Lastly, there were no significant changes in RAAS signaling between the stimulated and fasted rats, suggesting that acute hyperinsulinemia increases ENaC activity independent of the RAAS signaling cascade. These results demonstrate that insulin regulation of ENaC is a potential mechanism to preserve sodium and volume loss following a meal, and that this regulation is distinct from classical ENaC regulation by RAAS.