Profiling of Sediment Microbial Community in Dongting Lake before and after Impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.
ABSTRACT: The sediment microbial community in downstream-linked lakes can be affected by the operation of large-scale water conservancy projects. The present study determined Illumina reads (16S rRNA gene amplicons) to analyze and compare the bacterial communities from sediments in Dongting Lake (China) before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the largest hydroelectric project in the world. Bacterial communities in sediment samples in Dongting Lake before impoundment of the TGD (the high water period) had a higher diversity than after impoundment of the TGD (the low water period). The most abundant phylum in the sediment samples was Proteobacteria (36.4%-51.5%), and this result was due to the significant abundance of Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria in the sediment samples before impoundment of the TGD and the abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in the sediment samples after impoundment of the TGD. In addition, bacterial sequences of the sediment samples are also affiliated with Acidobacteria (11.0% on average), Chloroflexi (10.9% on average), Bacteroidetes (6.7% on average), and Nitrospirae (5.1% on average). Variations in the composition of the bacterial community within some sediment samples from the river estuary into Dongting Lake were related to the pH values. The bacterial community in the samples from the three lake districts of Dongting Lake before and after impoundment of the TGD was linked to the nutrient concentration.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is a remarkable, far-reaching project in China. This study was conducted to assess the impact of TGD on changes in the ecological environment, snail distribution and schistosomiasis transmission in Dongting Lake area.<h4>Methods</h4>Hydrological data were collected from 12 monitoring sites in Hunan section of Yangtze River before and after TGD was established. Data on snail distribution and human schistosomiasis infection were also collected. Correlation analyses were performed to detect the significance of snail distribution to changes in ecological environmental factors and human schistosomiasis infection.<h4>Findings</h4>A series of ecological environmental factors have changed in Dongting Lake area following the operation of TGD. Volume of annual runoff discharged into Dongting Lake declined by 20.85%. Annual sediment volume discharged into the lake and the mean lake sedimentation rate decreased by 73.9% and 32.2%, respectively. From 2003 to 2015, occurrence rate of frames with living snails and mean density of living snails decreased overall by 82.43% and 94.35%, respectively, with annual decrements being 13.49% and 21.29%. Moreover, human infection rate of schistosomiasis had decreased from 3.38% in 2003 to 0.44% in 2015, with a reduction of 86.98%. Correlation analyses showed that mean density of living snails was significantly associated with water level (r = 0.588, p<0.001), as well as the mean elevation range of the bottomland (r = 0.374, p = 0.025) and infection rate of schistosomiasis (r = 0.865, p<0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Ecological environmental changes caused by the TGD were associated with distribution of snails, and might further affect the transmission and prevalence of schistosomiasis. Risk of schistosomiasis transmission still exists in Dongting Lake area and long-term monitoring is required.
Project description:Microplastic pollution was investigated in sediment and surface water in West Dongting Lake and South Dongting Lake for the first time. The abundance of microplastics ranged from 616.67 to 2216.67 items/m³ and 716.67 to 2316.67 items/m³ in the lakeshore surface water of West Dongting Lake and South Dongting Lake, respectively. The highest levels of microplastic pollution were found in the lakes' outlets. In the lake center sites of the West Dongting Lake and South Dongting Lake, the abundance of microplastics ranged from 433.33 to 1500 items/m³ and 366.67 to 1566.67 items/m³, respectively. Meanwhile, the study found that in lakeshore sediment of West Dongting Lake and South Dongting Lake, microplastic concentrations ranged from 320 to 480 items/m³ and 200?1150 items/m³. Polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were most common in the surface water and sediment samples, respectively. In addition, we suggest that the effects of polymer types in microplastics should be taken into account when considering abundance. This study can provide valuable points of reference to better understanding microplastic pollution in inland freshwater areas.
Project description:We studied the impacts of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) on the sedimentation regimes in the downstream-linked two largest Chinese freshwater lakes, Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang. Our results indicate that up to 1.73?×?109 t sediment was retained in TGR from June 2003 to December 2014. This resulted in a 145.9?×?106 t yr-1 decline in the suspended sediment load at Zhicheng and a 16.8?×?106 t yr-1 lower sediment flow from Yangtze River to Lake Dongting, which partially explains the 13.4?×?106 t yr-1 lower sedimentation in Lake Dongting during the post-TGR period. Furthermore, TGR resulted in a 0.5?±?0.3?m reduction of the multi-year mean water level at the Lake Poyang outlet Hukou, accelerating the suspended sediment export discharge from the lake. The reduced sedimentation in Lake Poyang during the post-TGR period was estimated to 6.3?×?106 t yr-1. We estimate that a monthly mean concentration of sediment flow from TGR below 0.60?kg m-3 will lead to erosion in Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang. Better regulation of TGR may extend the life expectancy of the two vanishing large lakes.
Project description:On the basis of monthly runoff series obtained in 1950-2013 and annual sediment load measured in 1956--2013 at five key hydrological stations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, this study used the Mann-Kendall methods to identify trend and abrupt changes of runoff and sediment load in relation to human activities. The results were as follows: (1) The annual and flood season runoffs showed significant decreasing trends at Yichang station, and showed slight downward trends at Hankou and Datong stations, while the abrupt changes of dry season runoff at Yichang, Hankou and Datong stations occurred in about 2007 and the change points were followed by significant increasing trends. The construction of the Three Gorges Dam, which began to operate in 2003, influenced the variations of runoff in the mainstream of Yangtze River, but the effect weakened with the distance along the downstream direction from TGD. (2) Since the 1990s, annual sediment loads at Yichang, Hankou, and Datong stations have been decreasing significantly, and after 2002, the annual sediment load at Yichang dropped below that of Hankou and Datong. The dams and deforestation/forestation contributed to the significant decreasing trend of the sediment load. In addition, the Three Gorges Dam aggravated the downward trend and caused the erosion of the riverbed and riverbanks in the middle and lower reaches. (3) The runoff and sediment load flowing from Dongting Lake into the mainstream of the Yangtze River showed significant decreasing trends at Chenglingji station after 1970s, and in contrast, slight increase in the sediment flow from Poyang Lake to the mainstream of the Yangtze River at Hukou station were detected over the post-TGD period (2003-2013). The result of the study will be an important foundation for watershed sustainable development of the Yangtze River under the human activities.
Project description:The ubiquitous lakes across China's Yangtze Plain (YP) are indispensable freshwater resources sustaining ecosystems and socioeconomics for nearly half a billion people. Our recent survey revealed a widespread net decline in the total YP lake inundation area during 2000-2011 (a cumulative decrease of ~10%), yet its mechanism remains contentious. Here, we uncover the impacts of climate variability and anthropogenic activities including i) Yangtze flow and sediment alterations by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) and ii) human water consumption in agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors throughout the downstream Yangtze Basin. Results suggest that climate variability is the dominant driver of this decadal lake decline, whereas studied human activities, despite varying seasonal impacts that peak in fall, contribute marginal fraction (~10-20% or less) to the interannual lake area decrease. Given that the TGD impacts on the total YP lake area and its seasonal variation are both under ~5%, we also dismiss the speculation that the TGD might be responsible for evident downstream climate change by altering lake surface extent and thus open water evaporation. Nevertheless, anthropogenic impacts exhibited a strengthening trend during the past decade. Although the TGD has reached its full-capacity water regulation, the negative impacts of human water consumption and TGD-related net channel erosion are already comparable to that of TGD's flow regulation, and may continue to grow as crucial anthropogenic factors to future YP lake conservation.
Project description:Bacteria play a vital role in various biogeochemical processes in lacustrine sediment ecosystems. This study is among the first to investigate the spatial distribution patterns of bacterial community composition in the sediments of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake of China. Sediment samples were collected from the main basins and mouths of major rivers that discharge into the Poyang Lake in May 2011. Quantitative PCR assay and pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that the bacteria community abundance and compositions of Poyang Lake sediment varied largely among sampling sites. A total of 25 phyla and 68 bacterial orders were distinguished. Burkholderiales, Gallionellales (Beta-proteobacteria), Myxococcales, Desulfuromonadales (Delta-proteobacteria), Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes), Nitrospirales (Nitrospirae), Xanthomonadales (Gamma-proteobacteria) were identified as the major taxa and collectively accounted for over half of annotated sequences. Moreover, correlation analyses suggested that higher loads of total phosphorus and heavy metals (copper, zinc and cadmium) could enhance bacterial abundance in the sediment.
Project description:Dams have well-documented ecological impacts on downstream river segments; however, long-term impacts of river impoundment have rarely been investigated in upstream reaches. Using data from long-term standardized surveys, we analyzed temporal changes in fish assemblages in the Yangtze River upstream of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) before, during and after its construction. Our analysis indicated fish assemblage regime shifts in the two closer reaches in 2008, in accordance with the filling to 172.5 m in 2008; and in the other reach, farthest from the TGD, in 2011, indicating timing of the effects being related to distance. These shifts were evident in relative abundance of native fish species rather than non-native species and have altered community structures and functional groups. Relative abundance of the lotic guilds declined in the two closer reaches, but increased in the farthest. Invertivores declined, but piscivores and opportunistic life-history strategists increased in all reaches. We conclude that construction of TGD had led to significant changes in species distributions influenced by species functional traits. Our findings emphasize the need for long-term monitoring of fish assemblages before and after dam construction in order to understand ecological responses to hydrological changes for effective resource management in regulated rivers.
Project description:We employed culture-dependent and -independent techniques to study microbial diversity in Lake Chaka, a unique hypersaline lake (32.5% salinity) in northwest China. It is situated at 3,214 m above sea level in a dry climate. The average water depth is 2 to 3 cm. Halophilic isolates were obtained from the lake water, and halotolerant isolates were obtained from the shallow sediment. The isolates exhibited resistance to UV and gamma radiation. Microbial abundance in the sediments ranged from 10(8) cells/g at the water-sediment interface to 10(7) cells/g at a sediment depth of 42 cm. A major change in the bacterial community composition was observed across the interface. In the lake water, clone sequences affiliated with the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant, whereas in the sediments, sequences related to low G+C gram-positive bacteria were predominant. A similar change was also present in the archaeal community. While all archaeal clone sequences in the lake water belonged to the Halobacteriales, the majority of the sequences in the sediments were related to those previously obtained from methanogenic soils and sediments. The observed changes in the microbial community structure across the water-sediment interface were correlated with a decrease in salinity from the lake water (32.5%) to the sediments (approximately 4%). Across the interface, the redox state also changed from oxic to anoxic and may also have contributed to the observed shift in the microbial community.
Project description:Sediment microbial communities play an important role in lake trophic status. This study determined millions of Illumina reads (16S rRNA gene amplicons) to compare the bacterial communities in moderately eutrophic, lightly eutrophic, and moderately trophic regions using a technically consistent approach. The results indicated that the sediments from moderately eutrophic and trophic lake had the higher bacterial diversity than lightly eutrophic lake. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum (22.7%-86.2%) across samples from three regions. The sediments from moderately eutrophic region were enriched with Chloroflexi and Nitrospirae. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were enriched in the sediments from lightly eutrophic lake. The sediments from moderately trophic lake contained a high abundance of Acidobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria because of the low pH of the sediments in this lake. In moderately eutrophic region, Nitrospira held an absolute predominance, while Lysobacter and Flavobacterium were the most predominant genera in lightly eutrophic region. Temperature was the main factor influencing the bacterial community in the three lakes. The bacterial communities in the sediment samples obtained from moderately eutrophic lake were associated with nutrient concentration, whereas organic matter and total nitrogen contents mainly influenced the bacterial communities in sediments obtained from lightly eutrophic lake and moderately trophic lake, respectively.
Project description:During the extreme dry year of 2006, abnormal salinity conditions in the Changjiang Estuary of the Yangtze River occurred in partial coincidence with the second impoundment phase of the TGD (Three Gorges Dam). Analysis of discharge observations in the upper reaches of the estuary and of salinity observations in the estuary as a whole reveals that in 2006 salinity was over 100 mg/l during 275 days, over 250 mg/l during 75 days and over 400 mg/l during 48 days. It is well known that this is due to extreme low discharges from the upper catchment area into the estuary. Moreover, large amounts of water consumed along the lower reaches of the Yangtze River can also aggravate the low discharges that lead to stronger saltwater intrusion in the estuary. Of the 75 days that salinity was over 250 mg/l, the low discharge was decreased further by 10 to 20% due to water consumption. The additional impact of the impoundment phase of the TGD (lasting 37 days in autumn) was noticeable only during 7 days in 2006. During that period, the relative contributions of the TGD and the water consumption in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River amounted to 70 and 30%, respectively. It may be concluded that the impact of the second impoundment phase of the TGD on salinity intrusion in the estuary was modest, while the extreme drought of 2006 was the dominant cause.