Efficacy and safety of palbociclib in combination with letrozole as first-line treatment of ER-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer: expanded analyses of subgroups from the randomized pivotal trial PALOMA-1/TRIO-18.
ABSTRACT: Palbociclib is an oral small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6. In the randomized, open-label, phase II PALOMA-1/TRIO-18 trial, palbociclib in combination with letrozole improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with letrozole alone as first-line treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, advanced breast cancer (20.2 months versus 10.2 months; hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.488, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.319-0.748; one-sided p?=?0.0004). Grade 3-4 neutropenia was the most common adverse event (AE) in the palbociclib?+?letrozole arm. We now present efficacy and safety analyses based on several specific patient and tumor characteristics, and present in detail the clinical patterns of neutropenia observed in the palbociclib?+?letrozole arm of the overall safety population.Postmenopausal women (n?=?165) with ER+, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer who had not received any systemic treatment for their advanced disease were randomized 1:1 to receive either palbociclib in combination with letrozole or letrozole alone. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, consent withdrawal, or death. The primary endpoint was PFS. We now analyze the difference in PFS for the treatment populations by subgroups, including age, histological type, history of prior neoadjuvant/adjuvant systemic treatment, and sites of distant metastasis, using the Kaplan-Meier method. HR and 95 % CI are derived from a Cox proportional hazards regression model.A clinically meaningful improvement in median PFS and clinical benefit response (CBR) rate was seen with palbociclib?+?letrozole in every subgroup evaluated. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was the most common AE with palbociclib?+?letrozole in all subgroups. Analysis of the frequency of neutropenia by grade during the first six cycles of treatment showed that there was a downward trend in Grade 3-4 neutropenia over time. Among those who experienced Grade 3-4 neutropenia, 71.7 % had no overlapping infections of any grade and none had overlapping Grade 3-4 infections.The magnitude of clinical benefit seen with the addition of palbociclib to letrozole in improving both median PFS and CBR rate is consistent in nearly all subgroups analyzed, and consistent with that seen in the overall study population. The safety profile of the combination treatment in all subgroups was also comparable to that in the overall safety population of the study.
Project description:PURPOSE:In PALOMA-2, palbociclib plus letrozole significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) as initial treatment of estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. We assessed the benefit of palbociclib plus letrozole in Asians. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Of 666 enrolled postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer (no prior treatment of advanced disease), 95 were Asian. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive palbociclib plus letrozole or placebo plus letrozole. The primary end point was investigator-assessed PFS. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response, patient-reported outcomes, pharmacokinetics, and safety. RESULTS:Median PFS was significantly longer in Asian patients who received palbociclib plus letrozole versus placebo plus letrozole (25.7 months [95% CI, 19.2 months to not estimable] v 13.9 months [95% CI, 7.4 to 22.0 months]; hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.87; P = .007). The most common toxicities with palbociclib were hematologic and more frequent among Asians versus non-Asians: neutropenia (any grade, 95.4% v 76.8%; grade 3/4, 89.2% v 62.5%), leukopenia (43.1% v 38.3%; 32.3% v 23.5%), and thrombocytopenia (27.7% v 13.5%; 4.6% v 1.1%). No Asians had febrile neutropenia. Discontinuation rates as a result of adverse events were similar among Asian and non-Asian patients who received palbociclib plus letrozole (10.8% and 9.5%). In Asians, quality of life (QOL) was maintained with no significant differences observed between treatments from baseline in breast cancer-specific QOL and general health status scores. Change from baseline in EuroQol five dimensions index scores was significantly higher with palbociclib plus letrozole (0.013 v -0.069; P = .0132). Geometric mean palbociclib trough concentration values were higher in Asians versus non-Asians (93.8 v 61.7 ng/mL). CONCLUSION:Consistent with the overall study population, the addition of palbociclib to letrozole significantly improved PFS in Asians. Hematologic toxicities were more frequent in Asians versus non-Asians but manageable with early dose modifications while maintaining QOL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In PALOMA-2, palbociclib-letrozole significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) vs placebo-letrozole in women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (ER+/HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC) in the first-line setting. We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of palbociclib in Japanese women in PALOMA-2. METHODS:In this phase 3 study, 666 postmenopausal women with ER+/HER2- ABC were randomized 2:1 to palbociclib (125 mg/day [3 weeks on/1 week off]) plus letrozole (2.5 mg daily) or placebo plus letrozole. A prespecified, exploratory, subgroup analysis of Japanese patients (n?=?46) was conducted to compare results with those of the overall population. RESULTS:At the February 26, 2016 cutoff, median PFS among the 46 Japanese patients was 22.2 months (95%CI, 13.6?not estimable) with palbociclib-letrozole vs 13.8 months (5.6?22.2) with placebo-letrozole (hazard ratio, 0.59 [95%CI, 0.26-1.34]). The most common adverse events (AEs) were hematologic and more frequent among Japanese patients than the overall population (neutropenia: 93.8% [87.5% grade 3/4] vs 79.5% [66.4%]; leukopenia: 62.5% [43.8%] vs 39.0% [24.8%]); no Japanese patients had febrile neutropenia. Palbociclib dose reductions due to toxicity (mainly neutropenia) were more common in Japanese patients (62.5% vs 36.0%); few permanently discontinued due to AEs. Although mean palbociclib trough concentration was higher in Japanese patients vs non-Asians (95.4 vs 61.7 ng/mL), the range of individual values of the Japanese patients was within that of non-Asians. CONCLUSIONS:These results from PALOMA-2 suggest that palbociclib-letrozole merits consideration as a first-line treatment option for postmenopausal Japanese patients with ER+/HER2? ABC. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01740427.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PALOMA-2 confirmed that first-line palbociclib + letrozole improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.72) in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC). This analysis evaluated palbociclib-associated hematologic adverse events (AEs) and provides insight on managing these AEs. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Postmenopausal women with ER+/HER2- ABC were randomly assigned 2:1 to letrozole (2.5 mg daily continuously) plus oral palbociclib (125 mg daily; 3 weeks on/1 week off) or placebo. Safety assessments were performed at baseline, days 1 and 15 (first two cycles) and day 1 of subsequent cycles, and included white blood cell, platelet, and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). RESULTS:PALOMA-2 randomized 666 women to palbociclib + letrozole (n = 444) or placebo + letrozole (n = 222). Neutropenia was the most common AE (95.3%) with palbociclib (grade 3, 55.6%; grade 4, 11.5%) and was managed by dose modifications; progression-free survival was similar between patients who experienced grade ? 3 neutropenia versus those who did not. Median (range) time to onset of neutropenia with palbociclib + letrozole was 15 (12-700) days (grade ? 3, 28.0 [12-854] days); median duration of each neutropenia episode grade ? 3 was 7.0 days. Asian ethnicity and low baseline ANC were associated with increased risk of grade 3/4 neutropenia with palbociclib (p < .001). CONCLUSION:Palbociclib + letrozole was generally well tolerated. Neutropenia, the most frequently reported AE in women with ER+/HER2- ABC, was mostly transient and manageable by dose modifications in patients who experienced grade ? 3 neutropenia, without appearing to compromise efficacy. (Pfizer; NCT01740427) IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Palbociclib demonstrated an acceptable safety profile in PALOMA-2 in women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC) receiving first-line palbociclib + letrozole. Although hematologic adverse events (AEs) are typically expected with anticancer therapies and are often clinically significant, palbociclib-related hematologic AEs, particularly neutropenia (most frequent AE), were transient/manageable by dose reduction, interruption, or cycle delay, which is in contrast to the more profound neutropenia associated with chemotherapy. Palbociclib dose adjustments decreased hematologic AE severity without appearing to compromise efficacy, supporting palbociclib + letrozole as a first-line treatment for ER+/HER2- ABC.
Project description:PURPOSE:In the initial PALOMA-2 (NCT01740427) analysis with median follow-up of 23 months, palbociclib plus letrozole significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC) [hazard ratio (HR) 0.58; P?<?0.001]. Herein, we report results overall and by subgroups with extended follow-up. METHODS:In this double-blind, phase 3 study, post-menopausal women with ER+/HER2- ABC who had not received prior systemic therapy for their advanced disease were randomized 2:1 to palbociclib-letrozole or placebo-letrozole. Endpoints include investigator-assessed PFS (primary), safety, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). RESULTS:After a median follow-up of approximately 38 months, median PFS was 27.6 months for palbociclib-letrozole (n?=?444) and 14.5 months for placebo-letrozole (n?=?222) (HR 0.563; 1-sided P?<?0.0001). All subgroups benefited from palbociclib treatment. The improvement of PFS with palbociclib-letrozole was maintained in the next 2 subsequent lines of therapy and delayed the use of chemotherapy (40.4 vs. 29.9 months for palbociclib-letrozole vs. placebo-letrozole). Safety data were consistent with the known profile. Patients' quality of life was maintained. CONCLUSIONS:With approximately 15 months of additional follow-up, palbociclib plus letrozole continued to demonstrate improved PFS compared with placebo plus letrozole in the overall population and across all patient subgroups, while the safety profile remained favorable and quality of life was maintained. These data confirm that palbociclib-letrozole should be considered the standard of care for first-line therapy in patients with ER+/HER2- ABC, including those with low disease burden or long disease-free interval. Sponsored by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01740427.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>In the PALOMA-2 trial, palbociclib in combination with letrozole prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and exhibited an acceptable safety profile in patients with estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). This post hoc analysis of PALOMA-2 evaluated the efficacy and safety of palbociclib plus letrozole in patients with preexisting conditions grouped by Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) System Organ Class (SOC).<h4>Methods</h4>Postmenopausal patients without prior treatment for ABC were randomized 2:1 to receive palbociclib (125 mg/d on a 3 weeks on/1 week off schedule) plus letrozole (2.5 mg/d, continuous) or placebo plus letrozole. Patients were grouped by the following MedDRA SOC preexisting conditions: gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and vascular/cardiac. Median PFS was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and treatment emergent adverse events (AEs) were compared between treatment arms within each preexisting condition subgroup.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, 276 (41.4 %) patients had preexisting gastrointestinal disorders, 390 (58.6 %) had musculoskeletal disorders, 259 (38.9 %) had metabolic disorders, and 382 (57.4 %) had vascular/cardiac disorders. Baseline characteristics were similar between subgroups and between each arm within subgroups. Regardless of baseline preexisting condition, palbociclib plus letrozole prolonged PFS compared with placebo plus letrozole. Treatment-emergent AEs associated with palbociclib plus letrozole and dose modifications due to AEs were similar across preexisting condition subgroups.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This post hoc analysis of PALOMA-2 demonstrated a favorable effect of palbociclib on PFS and a safety profile consistent with previous observations, regardless of underlying preexisting condition. Pfizer Inc (NCT01740427).
Project description:Purpose:To assess the efficacy and safety of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 inhibitors (CDKi) combined with endocrine therapy (ET) in women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) and compare the efficacy of different CDKi (palbociclib, ribociclib, or abemaciclib). Materials and Methods:This study based on randomized Phase 2 or 3 trials of CDKi plus ET compared with placebo plus ET for women with HR+/HER2-ABC and identify relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published prior to February 2020. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), the secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit response (CBR) and safety. The PROSPERO registry number is 42018081105. Results:The results from eight trials including 4580 participants were pooled. Evidence indicated that the PFS of CDKi group was significantly prolonged (hazard ratio [HR] 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.60, P < 0.01) compared with placebo group. The ORR and CBR were better (risk ratio [RR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.30-1.67, P < 0.01; 1.24, 95% CI 1.15-1.35, P < 0.01) in the CDKi group. The OS of CDKi group (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.67-0.85, P < 0.01) was significantly longer than ET alone. Subgroup analyses confirmed that the benefit was consistent across most subgroups. Subgroup analyses showed no statistically significant difference of PFS among three CDKi: palbociclib vs ribociclib (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.49-0.60, P = 0.34), palbociclib vs abemaciclib (HR 0.53, 95% CI, 0.47-0.59, P = 0.61), and ribociclib vs abemaciclib (HR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.51-0.62, P = 0.72). Treatment-related grade 3 or 4 hematologic adverse events (AEs) were more frequently in CDKi group. Conclusion:CDKi combined with ET can significantly prolong PFS and improve the ORR, CBR and OS in patients with HR+/HER2- ABC. However, the advantage of different CDKi has not been established.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Use of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors improved survival outcome of hormone receptor (HR) positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients, including Asian population. However, Asian real-world data of palbociclib is limited. We analyzed the real-world clinical practice patterns and outcome in HR-positive, MBC Asian patients treated with palbociclib.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Between April 2017 to November 2019, 169 HR-positive, human epidermal growth factor-2-negative MBC patients treated with letrozole or fulvestrant plus palbocilib were enrolled from eight institutions. Survival outcome (progression-free survival [PFS]), treatment response and toxicity profiles were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>Median age of letrozole plus palbociclib (145 patients, 85.8%) and fulvestrant plus palbociclib (24 patients, 14.2%) was 58 and 53.5 years, with median follow-up duration of 14.63 months (range 0.2 to 33.9 months). Median PFS (mPFS) of letrozole plus palbociclib and fulvestrant plus palbociclib was 25.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.1 to not reached) and 6.37 months (95% CI, 5.33 to not reached), comparable to previous phase 3 trials. In letrozole plus palbociclib arm, luminal A (hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.20 to 6.80; p=0.017) and patients with good performance (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0-1 [hazard ratio, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.70 to 7.96]) showed better mPFS. In fulvestrant plus palbociclib group, chemotherapy naïve patients showed better mPFS (hazard ratio, 12.51, 95% CI, 1.59 to 99.17; p=0.017). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse event was neutropenia (letrozole 86.3%, fulvestrant 88.3%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>To our knowledge, this is the first real-world data of palbociclib reported in Asia. Palbociclib showed comparable benefit to previous phase 3 trials in Asian patients during daily clinical practice.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess efficacy and safety of palbociclib plus fulvestrant in Asians with endocrine therapy-resistant metastatic breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The Palbociclib Ongoing Trials in the Management of Breast Cancer 3 (PALOMA-3) trial, a double-blind phase III study, included 521 patients with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer with disease progression on endocrine therapy. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed on study treatment and at the end of treatment. RESULTS:This preplanned subgroup analysis of the PALOMA-3 study included premenopausal and postmenopausal Asians taking palbociclib plus fulvestrant (n = 71) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 31). Palbociclib plus fulvestrant improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with fulvestrant alone. Median PFS was not reached with palbociclib plus fulvestrant (95% CI, 9.2 months to not reached) but was 5.8 months with placebo plus fulvestrant (95% CI, 3.5 to 9.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.485; 95% CI, 0.270 to 0.869; P = .0065). The most common all-cause grade 3 or 4 adverse events in the palbociclib arm were neutropenia (92%) and leukopenia (29%); febrile neutropenia occurred in 4.1% of patients. Within-patient mean trough concentration comparisons across subgroups indicated similar palbociclib exposure between Asians and non-Asians. Global quality of life was maintained; no statistically significant changes from baseline were observed for patient-reported outcome scores with palbociclib plus fulvestrant. CONCLUSION:This is the first report, to our knowledge, showing that palbociclib plus fulvestrant improves PFS in asian patients. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant was well tolerated in this study.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with endocrine therapy (ET) has proven to prolong progression-free survival (PFS) in women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Few data are available regarding the efficacy of such a regimen outside the clinical trials.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>This is a multicentre prospective real-world experience aimed at verifying the outcome of palbociclib plus ET in an unselected population of MBC patients. The primary aim was the clinical benefit rate (CBR); secondary aims were the median PFS, overall survival (OS) and safety. Patients received palbociclib plus letrozole 2.5 mg (cohort A) or fulvestrant 500 mg (cohort B).<h4>Results</h4>In total, 191 patients (92 in cohort A, 99 in cohort B) were enrolled and treated, and 182 were evaluable for the analysis. Median age was 62 years (range 47-79); 54% had visceral involvement; 28% of patients had previously performed one treatment line (including chemotherapy and ET), 22.6% two lines and 15.9% three. An overall response rate of 34.6% was observed with 11 (6.0%) complete responses and 52 (28.6%) partial responses. Stable disease was achieved by 78 patients (42.9%) with an overall CBR of 59.8%. At a median follow-up of 24 months (range 6-32), median PFS was 13 months without significant differences between the cohorts. When analysed according to treatment line, PFS values were significantly prolonged when palbociclib-based therapy was administered as first-line treatment (14.0 months), to decrease progressively in second and subsequent lines (11.7 and 6.7 months, respectively). Median OS was 25 months, ranging from 28.0 months in 1st line to 18.0 and 13.0 months in 2nd and subsequent lines, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data indicate that palbociclib plus ET is active and safe in HR+/HER2- MBC, also suggesting a better performance of the combinations in earlier treatment lines.
Project description:This single-arm, open-label, phase II study in 42 Japanese postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (ER+/HER2-) advanced breast cancer evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of first-line palbociclib (125 mg once daily, 3 weeks on/1 week off) coadministered with letrozole (2.5 mg once daily). Primary endpoint of investigator-assessed 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) probability was 75.0% (90% CI, 61.3%-84.4%), far surpassing the 40% lower limit of the 90% CI supporting efficacy. Median duration of treatment was 438 days. Among secondary efficacy measures, median PFS was not reached (95% CI, 16.7: not estimable), 17/42 patients (40.5%) had an objective response, 36/42 (85.7%) maintained disease control, and 27/42 (64.3%) remained in follow-up. Median overall survival was not reached, and 1-year survival probability was 92.9% (95% CI, 79.5%-97.6%). Results of intensive pharmacokinetics in a subset of 6 patients showed palbociclib steady-state mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the dosing interval [?] and mean maximum plasma concentration were 1979 ng·h/mL and 124.7 ng/mL, respectively. For day 15 plasma samples from cycles 1 and 2, geometric mean of the within-patient mean trough concentration was 90.1 ng/mL. The most common treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (100%) and stomatitis (73.8%). There was 1 case of treatment-related febrile neutropenia. Toxicities were generally tolerated and manageable by dose modifications and/or medical care. Efficacy and safety of first-line palbociclib plus letrozole therapy is supported in Japanese postmenopausal patients with treatment-naive ER+/HER2- advanced breast cancer.