Global proteomic profiling in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis and identification of PARP1 as a novel molecular marker in hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: The more accurate biomarkers have long been desired for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we characterized global large-scale proteomics of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis in an attempt to identify novel biomarkers for HCC. Quantitative data of 37874 sequences and 3017 proteins during hepatocarcinogenesis were obtained in cohort 1 of 75 samples (5 pooled groups: normal livers, hepatitis livers, cirrhotic livers, peritumoral livers, and HCC tissues) by iTRAQ 2D LC-MS/MS. The diagnostic performance of the top six most upregulated proteins in HCC group and HSP70 as reference were subsequently validated in cohort 2 of 114 samples (hepatocarcinogenesis from normal livers to HCC) using immunohistochemistry. Of seven candidate protein markers, PARP1, GS and NDRG1 showed the optimal diagnostic performance for HCC. PARP1, as a novel marker, showed comparable diagnostic performance to that of classic markers GS and NDRG1 in HCC (AUCs = 0.872, 0.856 and 0.792, respectively). A significant higher AUC of 0.945 was achieved when three markers combined. For diagnosis of HCC, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.2% and 81.0% when at least two of the markers were positive. Similar diagnostic values of PARP1, GS and NDRG1 were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in cohort 3 of 180 HCC patients. Further analysis indicated that PARP1 and NDRG1 were associated with some clinicopathological features, and the independent prognostic factors for HCC patients. Overall, global large-scale proteomics on spectrum of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis are obtained. PARP1 is a novel promising diagnostic/prognostic marker for HCC, and the three-marker panel (PARP1, GS and NDRG1) with excellent diagnostic performance for HCC was established.
Project description:Minichromosome Maintenance family (MCMs), as replication licensing factors, is involved in the pathogenesis of tumors. Here, we investigated the expression of MCMs and their values in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MCMs were analyzed in 105 samples including normal livers (n?=?15), cirrhotic livers (n?=?40), HCC (n?=?50) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (Cohort 1). Significantly up-regulated MCMs were verified in 102 HCC and matched peritumoral livers using PCR (Cohort 2), and the correlations with clinical features and outcomes were determined. In addition, the focused MCMs were analyzed in parallel immunohistochemistry of 345 samples on spectrum of hepatocarcinogenesis (Cohort 3) and queried for the potential specific role in cell cycle.MCM2-7, MCM8 and MCM10 was significantly up-regulated in HCC in Cohort 1. In Cohort 2, overexpression of MCM2-7, MCM8 and MCM10 was verified and significantly correlated with each other. Elevated MCM2, MCM6 and MCM7 were associated with adverse tumor features and poorer outcomes. In Cohort 3, MCM6 exhibited superior HCC diagnostic performance compared with MCM2 and MCM7 (AUC: 0.896 vs. 0.675 and 0.771, P?<?0.01). Additionally, MCM6 other than MCM2 and MCM7 independently predicted poorer survival in 175 HCC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of MCM6 caused a delay in S/G2-phase progression as evidenced by down-regulation of CDK2, CDK4, CyclinA, CyclinB1, CyclinD1, and CyclinE in HCC cells.We analyze MCMs mRNA and protein levels in tissue samples during hepatocarcinogenesis. MCM6 is identified as a driver of S/G2 cell cycle progression and a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in HCC.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most lethal malignancy worldwide with no curative therapies. To discover potentially novel therapeutic targets for HCC, we previously studied the gene expression profiles of HCC patients and identified that significant upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is associated with more aggressive phenotypes and poorer overall survival of HCC patients. In this study, we further used a loss-of-function approach (RNA interference) to understand the role of NDRG1 in hepatocarcinogenesis. We found that suppression of NDRG1 significantly impaired HCC cell growth through inducing extensive cellular senescence of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. The observed antitumor effects of NDRG1 suppression were correlated with activation of major senescence-associated signaling pathways, such as upregulation of tumor suppressors p53, p21 and p16, and decreased phosphorylated Rb. To obtain further insights into the clinical significance of NDRG1-modulated senescence in HCC patients, immunohistochemistry staining of 92 cases of HCC patients was done. We found that high NDRG1 expression (n = 66) is associated with low p21 (n = 82; P < 0.001) and low p16 (n = 86; P < 0.001) levels. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that NDRG1 is a potential therapeutic target for HCC because its suppression triggers senescence of HCC cells through activating glycogen synthase kinase-3?-p53 pathway, thereby inhibiting tumor progression.
Project description:The N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is significantly associated with advanced tumor stages and poor survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), thereby implicating it as a potential target for HCC treatment. We aim to further understand its biological roles in hepatocarcinogenesis, as a means to exploit it for therapeutic purposes. By screening using the ProtoArray® Human Protein Microarrays, we identified glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) and the orphan nuclear receptor (Nur77) as potential interaction partners of NDRG1. These interactions were confirmed in HCC cell lines in vitro by co-immunoprecipitation; and co-localizations of NDRG1 with GSK-3? and Nur77 were observed by immunofluorescence staining. Additionally, high levels of NDRG1 competitively bind to GSK-3? and Nur77 to allow ?-catenin to escape degradation, with consequent elevated levels of downstream oncogenic genes. In vivo, we consistently observed that NDRG1 suppression in HCC xenografts decreased ?-catenin levels and its downstream target Cyclin D1, with concomitant tumor growth inhibition. Clinically, the over-expression of NDRG1 in HCC patient samples is positively correlated with GSK-3?-9ser (|?? R | = 0.28, p = 0.01), Nur77 (|?? R | = 0.42, p < 0.001), and ?-catenin (| R |= 0.32, p = 0.003) expressions. In conclusion, we identified GSK-3? and Nur77 as novel interaction partners of NDRG1. These protein-protein interactions regulate the turnover of ?-catenin and subsequent downstream signaling mediated by ?-catenin in HCC cells, and provides potential targets for future therapeutic interventions.
Project description:NDRG1 has been reported to exert pivotal roles in tumor progression and metastasis via Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. However, little is known about the role of NDRG3 in hepatocarcinogenesis despite its classification in the same subfamily of NDRG1. The present study was aimed to characterize the expression pattern and understand the biological roles of NDRG3 in hepatocarcinogenesis, as a means to exploit its therapeutic potential. It was observed that NDRG3 was up-regulated in HCC tissues and higher NDRG3 expression was associated with significantly shorter overall survival. Furthermore, a lower level of NDRG3 exhibited marked positive correlation with metastasis-free survival. In vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that knock-down of NDRG3 inhibits HCC metastasis and angiogenesis. We further demonstrated that activation of WNT/?-catenin signaling and enhanced CSC-like properties were responsible for NDRG3- mediated promoting effect on HCC. In conclusion, the principal findings demonstrated that high NDRG3 expression facilitates HCC metastasis via regulating the turnover of ?-catenin, as well as provides a potential therapeutic target for future therapeutic interventions. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(7): 451-456].
Project description:Differential diagnosis of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (WD-HCC) and high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDNs) represents a challenge for pathologists. Several immunohistochemistry markers have been identified to distinguish hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from HGDNs. However, sensitivity or specificity of the individual marker is still limited. In this study, we analyzed dynamic alteration of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) and CD34 during hepatocarcinogenesis from dysplastic nodules to small HCC. The diagnostic performance of LIFR and CD34 combination in WD-HCC and HGDNs was investigated by logistic regression models and validated in an independent validation cohort. LIFR was decreased and CD34 was increased along with stepwise progression of hepatocarcinogenesis from low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs) to small HCC. The sensitivity and specificity of the LIFR and CD34 combination for WD-HCC detection were 93.5% and 90.5%, respectively. In addition, colony formation assay was used to explore the role of LIFR in tumorigenesis. Silencing of LIFR could significantly promote colony formation of HCC cells, whereas ectopic overexpression of LIFR resulted in impaired ability of colony formation of HCC cells. These findings indicate that LIFR and CD34 combination may be used as an available differential diagnostic model for WD-HCC from HGDNs in clinical practice.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subset of tumor cells, contribute to an aggressive biological behavior, which is also affected by the tumor stroma. Despite the role of CSCs and the tumor stroma in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), features of stemness have not yet been studied in relation to tumor stromal alterations in multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated the expression status of stemness markers and tumor stromal changes in B viral carcinogenesis, which is the main etiology of HCC in Asia. Stemness features of tumoral hepatocytes (EpCAM, K19, Oct3/4, c-KIT, c-MET, and CD133), and tumor stromal cells expressing ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), CD68, CD163, and IL-6 were analyzed in 36 low grade dysplastic nodules (DNs), 48 high grade DNs, 30 early HCCs (eHCCs), and 51 progressed HCCs (pHCCs) by immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR. Stemness features (EpCAM and K19 in particular) were progressively acquired during hepatocarcinogenesis in combination with enrichment of stromal cells (CAFs, TAMs, IL-6+ cells). Stemness features were seen sporadically in DNs, more consistent in eHCCs, and peaked in pHCCs. Likewise, stromal cells were discernable in DNs, showed up as consistent cell densities in eHCCs and peaked in pHCCs. The stemness features and tumor stromal alterations also peaked in less differentiated or larger HCCs. In conclusion, progression of B viral multistep hepatocarcinogenesis is characterized by an enrichment of stemness features of neoplastic hepatocytes and a parallel alteration of the tumor stroma. The modulation of neoplastic hepatocytes and stromal cells was at low levels in precancerous lesions (DNs), consistently increased in incipient cancer (eHCCs) and peaked in pHCCs. Thus, in B viral hepatocarcinogenesis, interactions between CSCs and the tumor stroma, although starting early, seem to play a major role in tumor progression.
Project description:Liver tumor, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is closely associated with chronic inflammation. We previously showed that farnesoid X receptor knockout (FXR(-)(/)(-)) mice displayed chronic inflammation and developed spontaneous liver tumors when they aged. However, the mechanism by which inflammation leads to HCC in the absence of FXR is unclear. Because IFN? is one of the most upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in FXR(-)(/)(-) livers, we generated IFN?(-)(/)(-)FXR(-)(/)(-) double knockout mice to determine IFN?'s roles in hepatocarcinogenesis.IFN?(-)(/)(-) mice were crossed with an FXR(-)(/)(-) C57BL/6 background or injected i.p. with the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Hepatocarcinogenesis was analyzed with biochemical and histological methods.IFN? deletion accelerated spontaneous hepatocarcinogenesis in FXR(-)(/)(-) mice and increased the susceptibility to DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. IFN? deletion enhanced activation of HCC promoters STAT3 and JNK/c-Jun, but abolished induction of p53 in IFN?(-)(/)(-) livers after acute DEN-induced injury. Furthermore, hepatic p53 expression increased in aged wild type mice but not in aged IFN?(-)(/)(-) and IFN?(-)(/)(-)FXR(-)(/)(-) mice, while activation of STAT3 and JNK/c-Jun was enhanced in aged IFN?(-)(/)(-) and IFN?(-)(/)(-)FXR(-)(/)(-) mice. In addition, IFN? inhibited liver cancer xenograft growth and impaired IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation by inducing SOCS1/3 expression.Increased IFN? expression in FXR(-)(/)(-) livers represents a protective response of the liver against chronic injury and tumorigenesis. IFN? suppresses hepatocarcinogenesis by inducing p53 expression and preventing STAT3 activation.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths and commonly develops in inflammatory environments. The IGF2 mRNA-binding protein IMP2-2/IGF2BP2-2/p62 was originally identified as an autoantigen in HCC. Aim of this study was to investigate a potential pathophysiological role of p62 in hepatocarcinogenesis. Human HCC tissue showed overexpression of IMP2, which strongly correlated with the fetal markers AFP and DLK1/Pref-1/FA-1 and was particularly elevated in tumors with stem-like features and hypervascularization. Molecular classification of IMP2-overexpressing tumors revealed an aggressive phenotype. Livers of mice overexpressing the IMP2 splice variant p62 highly expressed the stem cell marker DLK1 and secreted DLK1 into the blood. p62 was oncogenic: diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated p62 transgenic mice exhibited a higher tumor incidence and multiplicity than wild types. Tumors of transgenics showed a more aggressive and stem-like phenotype and displayed more oncogenic chromosomal aberrations determined with aCGH analysis. DEN-treated p62 transgenic mice exhibited distinct signs of inflammation, such as inflammatory cytokine expression and oxidative stress markers, that is, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was elevated in HepG2 cells, which either overexpressed p62 or were treated with DLK1. p62 induced this ROS production by a DLK1-dependent induction and activation of the small Rho-GTPase RAC1, activating NADPH oxidase and being overexpressed in human HCC. Our data indicate that p62/IMP2 promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by an amplification of inflammation.
Project description:Increased translocation of intestinal bacteria is a hallmark of chronic liver disease and contributes to hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Here we tested the hypothesis that the intestinal microbiota and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) promote hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a long-term consequence of chronic liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Hepatocarcinogenesis in chronically injured livers depended on the intestinal microbiota and TLR4 activation in non-bone-marrow-derived resident liver cells. TLR4 and the intestinal microbiota were not required for HCC initiation but for HCC promotion, mediating increased proliferation, expression of the hepatomitogen epiregulin, and prevention of apoptosis. Gut sterilization restricted to late stages of hepatocarcinogenesis reduced HCC, suggesting that the intestinal microbiota and TLR4 represent therapeutic targets for HCC prevention in advanced liver disease.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a major health problem worldwide, and HCC patients have a poor prognostic outcome. In this study, we systematically disclose mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis, and also effectively identify and validate novel anticancer targets in HCCs. Keywords: disease state analysis total 58 cDNA microarrays, all experiment samples are hepatocellular carcinoma. RNAs from 33 corresponding noncancerous livers and 5 normal livers were used as the reference, respectively. The tumor samples were labeled with Cy5-dUTP.The nontumor samples were labeled with Cy3-dUTP.