Targeting DNA Damage Response in the Radio(Chemo)therapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide due to its high incidence and mortality. As the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a terrible threat to human health. Despite improvements in diagnosis and combined treatments including surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the overall survival for NSCLC patients still remains poor. DNA damage is considered to be the primary cause of lung cancer development and is normally recognized and repaired by the intrinsic DNA damage response machinery. The role of DNA repair pathways in radio(chemo)therapy-resistant cancers has become an area of significant interest in the clinical setting. Meanwhile, some studies have proved that genetic and epigenetic factors can alter the DNA damage response and repair, which results in changes of the radiation and chemotherapy curative effect in NSCLC. In this review, we focus on the effect of genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic factors such as miRNA regulation and lncRNA regulation participating in DNA damage repair in response to radio(chemo)therapy in NSCLC. These may provide novel information on the radio(chemo)therapy of NSCLC based on the individual DNA damage response.
Project description:The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is the major mechanism to maintain genomic stability in response to irradiation. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in DSB repair genes may affect clinical outcomes among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. We genotyped six potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (i.e., RAD51 -135G>C/rs1801320 and -172G>T/rs1801321, XRCC2 4234G>C/rs3218384 and R188H/rs3218536 G>A, XRCC3 T241M/rs861539 and NBN E185Q/rs1805794) and estimated their associations with overall survival (OS) and radiation pneumonitis (RP) in 228 NSCLC patients. We found a predictive role of RAD51 -135G>C SNP in RP development (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.86, P?=?0.010 for CG/CC vs. GG). We also found that RAD51 -135G>C and XRCC2 R188H SNPs were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (adjusted HR?=?1.70, 95% CI, 1.14-2.62, P?=?0.009 for CG/CC vs. GG; and adjusted HR?=?1.70; 95% CI, 1.02-2.85, P?=?0.043 for AG vs. GG, respectively) and that the SNP-survival association was most pronounced in the presence of RP. Our study suggests that HR genetic polymorphisms, particularly RAD51 -135G>C, may influence overall survival and radiation pneumonitis in NSCLC patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. Large studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Project description:Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to maintain genomic stability in response to irradiation. The authors hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NHEJ repair genes may affect clinical outcomes in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who receive definitive radio(chemo)therapy.The authors genotyped 5 potentially functional SNPs-x-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 4 (XRCC4) reference SNP (rs) number rs6869366 (-1394 guanine to thymine [-1394G?T] change) and rs28360071 (intron 3, deletion/insertion), XRCC5 rs3835 (guanine to adenine [G?A] change at nucleotide 2408), XRCC6 rs2267437 (-1310 cytosine to guanine [C?G) change], and DNA ligase IV (LIG4) rs1805388 (threonine-to-isoleucine change at codon 9 [T9I])-and estimated their associations with severe radiation pneumonitis (RP) (grade ?3) in 195 patients with NSCLC.A predictive role in radiation pneumonitis (RP) development was observed for the LIG4 SNP rs1805388 (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.12; P = .037 for the CT/TT genotype vs the CC genotype). In addition, men with the TT genotype of the XRCC4 rs6869366 SNP and women with AG + AA genotypes of the XRCC5 rs3835 SNP also were at increased risk of developing severe RP.The current results indicated that NHEJ genetic polymorphisms, particularly LIG4 rs1805388, may modulate the risk of RP in patients with NSCLC who receive definitive radio(chemo)therapy. Large studies will be needed to confirm these findings.
Project description:Radio- and chemo-resistance represent major obstacles in the therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. In the present study, during induction of radio- or chemo-resistance in NSCLC cells, dynamic analyses revealed that decreased expression of let-7 induced by irradiation or cisplatin resulted in increased expression of its target gene LIN28, and increased expression of LIN28 then contributed to further decreased expression of let-7 by inhibiting its maturation and biogenesis. Moreover, we showed that down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of LIN28 expression promoted resistance to irradiation or cisplatin by regulating the single-cell proliferative capability of NSCLC cells. Consequently, in NSCLC cells, let-7 and LIN28 can form a double-negative feedback loop through mutual inhibition, and disturbance of the let-7/LIN28 double-negative feedback loop induced by irradiation or chemotherapeutic drugs can result in radio- and chemo-resistance. In addition, low expression of let-7 and high expression of LIN28 in NSCLC patients was associated significantly with resistance to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Therefore, our study demonstrated that disturbance of the let-7/LIN28 double-negative feedback loop is involved in the regulation of radio- and chemo-resistance, and that let-7 and LIN28 could be employed as predictive biomarkers of response to radiotherapy or chemotherapy in NSCLC patients.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells, are partly responsible for resistance to DNA-damaging treatment. Here we addressed if such a phenotype may contribute to radio- and cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We showed that four out of eight NSCLC cell lines (H125, A549, H1299 and H23) possess sphere-forming capacity when cultured in stem cell media and three of these display elevated levels of CD133. Indeed, sphere-forming NSCLC cells, hereafter called TICs, showed a reduced apoptotic response and increased survival after irradiation (IR), as compared with the corresponding bulk cell population. Decreased cytotoxicity and apoptotic signaling manifested by diminished poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase 3 activity was also evident in TICs after cisplatin treatment. Neither radiation nor cisplatin resistance was due to quiescence as H125 TICs proliferated at a rate comparable to bulk cells. However, TICs displayed less pronounced G2 cell cycle arrest and S/G2-phase block after IR and cisplatin, respectively. Additionally, we confirmed a cisplatin-refractory phenotype of H125 TICs in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. We further examined TICs for altered expression or activation of DNA damage repair proteins as a way to explain their increased radio- and/or chemotherapy resistance. Indeed, we found that TICs exhibited increased basal γH2AX (H2A histone family, member X) expression and diminished DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), Krüppel-associated protein 1 (KAP1) and monoubiquitination of Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2 (FANCD2). As a proof of principle, ATM inhibition in bulk cells increased their cisplatin resistance, as demonstrated by reduced PARP cleavage. In conclusion, we show that reduced apoptotic response, altered DNA repair signaling and cell cycle perturbations in NSCLC TICs are possible factors contributing to their therapy resistance, which may be exploited for DNA damage-sensitizing purposes.
Project description:In search of reliable biologic markers to predict the risk of normal tissue damage by radio(chemo)therapy before treatment, we investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transforming growth factor 1 (TGFbeta1) gene and risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Using 164 available genomic DNA samples from patients with NSCLC treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy, we genotyped three SNPs of the TGFbeta1 gene (rs1800469:C-509T, rs1800471:G915C, and rs1982073:T869C) by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We used Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability to assess the risk of grade > or = 3 RP and Cox proportional hazards analyses to evaluate the effect of TGFbeta1 genotypes on such risk.There were 90 men and 74 women in the study, with median age of 63 years. Radiation doses ranging from 60 to 70 Gy (median = 63 Gy) in 30 to 58 fractions were given to 158 patients (96.3%) and platinum-based chemotherapy to 147 (89.6%). Grade > or = 2 and grade > or = 3 RP were observed in 74 (45.1%) and 36 patients (22.0%), respectively. Multivariate analysis found CT/CC genotypes of TGFbeta1 rs1982073:T869C to be associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of RP grades > or = 2 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.489; 95% CI, 0.227 to 0.861; P = .013) and grades > or = 3 (HR = 0.390; 95% CI, 0.197 to .774; P = 0.007), respectively, compared with the TT genotype, after adjustment for Karnofsky performance status, smoking status, pulmonary function, and dosimetric parameters.Our results showed that CT/CC genotypes of TGFbeta1 rs1982073:T869C gene were associated with lower risk of RP in patients with NSCLC treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy and thus may serve as a reliable predictor of RP.
Project description:Standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with no known driver mutation is platinum-based chemotherapy, which has a response rate of only 30-33%. Through an siRNA screen, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) synthase 1 (PAPSS1), an enzyme that synthesizes the biologically active form of sulfate PAPS, was identified as a novel platinum-sensitizing target in NSCLC cells. PAPSS1 knockdown in combination with low-dose (IC10) cisplatin reduces clonogenicity of NSCLC cells by 98.7% (p < 0.001), increases DNA damage, and induces G1/S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PAPSS1 silencing also sensitized NSCLC cells to other DNA crosslinking agents, radiation, and topoisomerase I inhibitors, but not topoisomerase II inhibitors. Chemo-sensitization was not observed in normal epithelial cells. Knocking out the PAPSS1 homolog did not sensitize yeast to cisplatin, suggesting that sulfate bioavailability for amino acid synthesis is not the cause of sensitization to DNA damaging agents. Rather, sensitization may be due to sulfation reactions involved in blocking the action of DNA damaging agents, facilitating DNA repair, promoting cancer cell survival under therapeutic stress or reducing the bioavailability of DNA damaging agents. Our study demonstrates for the first time that PAPSS1 could be targeted to improve the activity of multiple anticancer agents used to treat NSCLC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: CHK2 kinase is a tumor suppressor that plays important role in DNA damage signaling, cell cycle regulation and DNA damage induced apoptosis. CHK2 kinase expression was known to be ubiquitous in mammalian cells. CHK2-/- cells were remarkably resistant to DNA damage induced apoptosis, mimicking the clinical behavior of non-small cell lung cancer to conventional chemo and radiation therapy. RESULT: We reported that the CHK2 expression is diminished or absent in both non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and clinical lung cancer tumor specimens. The absent CHK2 expression in NSCLC was due to hypermethylation of the CHK2 gene promoter, preventing from binding of a transcriptional factor, leading to silence of the CHK2 gene transcription. CONCLUSION: Since the CHK2 null mice showed a remarkable radioresistance, which bear significant similarity to clinical behavior of NSCLC, down-regulation of CHK2 kinase expression by CHK2 gene silencing and methylation in non-small cell lung cancer suggest a critical role of CHK2 kinase in DNA damage induced apoptosis and a novel mechanism of the resistance of NSCLC to DNA damage based therapy.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to be resistant against radiotherapy in certain types of cancers. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical application of miRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sixty NSCLC tissue samples and adjacent histologically normal tissues were obtained for miRNAs microarray analysis and validated by RT-qPCR. Correlation between miRNA expression level and clinicopathological features was evaluated. Our study examined the influence of changed miRNA expression on the damaged DNA and its associated radio sensitivity. Luciferase assay was performed to determine potential effects on the targeted gene. Our study identified fifteen altered miRNAs in which miR-328-3p was down regulated in NSCLC tumour tissue as compared to normal tissues. Down-expression of miR-328-3p was positively associated with an enhanced lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage and a shortened survival rate. miR-328-3p expression was decreased in A549 cells compared to other NSCLC cell lines. Up-regulation of miR-328-3p demonstrated a survival inhibition effect in A549 and restored NSCLC cells' sensitivity to radio therapy. An increased miR-328-3p expression promoted irradiation-induced DNA damage in cells. ?-H2AX was identified as the direct target of miR-328-3p. Over-expressed miR-328-3p can improve the radiosensitvity of cells by altering the DNA damage/repair signalling pathways in NSCLC.
Project description:Radiation therapy plays a major role in the treatment of lung cancer patients. However, cancer cells develop resistance to radiation. Tumor radioresistance is a complex multifactorial mechanism which may be dependent on DNA damage and repair, hypoxic conditions inside tumor microenvironment, and the clonal selection of radioresistant cells from the heterogeneous tumor site, and it is a major cause of treatment failure in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present investigation caveolin-1 (CAV-1) has been observed to be highly expressed in radiation resistant A549 lung cancer cells. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of CAV-1 reverted the cells to a radio sensitive phenotype. In addition, CAV-1 overexpression in parental A549 cells, led to radiation resistance. Further, gene expression analysis of A549 parental, radiation resistant, and caveolin-1 overexpressed cells, exhibited overexpression of DNA repair genes RAD51B, RAD18, SOX2 cancer stem cell marker, MMPs, mucins and cytoskeleton proteins in resistant and caveolin-1 over expressed A549 cells, as compared to parental A549 cells. Bioinformatic analysis shows upregulation of BRCA1, Nuclear Excision DNA repair, TGFB and JAK/STAT signaling pathways in radioresistant and caveolin-1 overexpressed cells, which may functionally mediate radiation resistance. Immunohistochemistry data demonstrated heterogeneous expression of CAV-1 gene in human lung cancer tissues, which was analogous to its enhanced expression in human lung cancer cell line model and mouse orthotopic xenograft lung cancer model. Also, TCGA PanCancer clinical studies have demonstrated amplification, deletions and missense mutation in CAV-1 gene in lung cancer patients, and that CAV-1 alteration has been linked to poor prognosis, and poor survival in lung cancer patients. Interestingly, we have also optimized ELISA assay to measure caveolin-1 protein in the blood of A549 radiation resistant human xenograft preclinical mouse model and discovered higher level of caveolin-1 (950 pg/ml) in tumor bearing animals treated with radiation, as compared to xenograft with radiosensitive lung cancer cells (450 pg/ml). Thus, we conclude that caveolin-1 is involved in radio-resistance and contributes to tumor aggression, and it has potential to be used as prognostic biomarker for radiation treatment response, and tumor progression for precision medicine in lung cancer patients.