ABSTRACT: Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos.
Project description:A detailed transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound examination, performed by an expert examiner, could render a similar diagnostic performance to computed tomography for assessing pelvic/abdominal tumor spread disease in women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This study aimed to describe and assess the feasibility of lung and intercostal upper abdomen ultrasonography as pretreatment imaging of EOC metastases of supradiaphragmatic and subdiaphragmatic areas. A preoperative ultrasound examination of consecutive patients suspected of having EOC was prospectively performed using transvaginal, transabdominal, and intercostal lung and upper abdomen ultrasonography. A surgical-pathological examination was the reference standard to ultrasonography. Among 77 patients with histologically proven EOC, supradiaphragmatic disease was detected in 13 cases: pleural effusions on the right (n = 12) and left (n = 8) sides, nodular lesions on diaphragmatic pleura (n = 9), focal lesion in lung parenchyma (n = 1), and enlarged cardiophrenic lymph nodes (n = 1). Performance (described with area under the curve) of combined transabdominal and intercostal upper abdomen ultrasonography for subdiaphragmatic areas (n = 77) included the right and left diaphragm peritoneum (0.754 and 0.575 respectively), spleen hilum (0.924), hepatic hilum (0.701), and liver and spleen parenchyma (0.993 and 1.0 respectively). It was not possible to evaluate the performance of lung ultrasonography for supradiaphragmatic disease because only some patients had this region surgically explored. Preoperative lung and intercostal upper abdomen ultrasonography performed in patients with EOC can add valuable information for supradiaphragmatic and subdiaphragmatic regions. A reliable reference standard to test method performance is an area of future research. A multidisciplinary approach to ovarian cancer utilizing lung ultrasonography may assist in clinical decision-making.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pleural effusions may be aspirated manually or via vacuum during thoracentesis. This study compares the safety, pain level, and time involved in these techniques. METHODS:We randomized 100 patients receiving ultrasound-guided unilateral thoracentesis in an academic medical center from December 2015 through September 2017 to either vacuum or manual drainage. Without using pleural manometry, the effusion was drained completely or until the development of refractory symptoms. Measurements included self-reported pain before and during the procedure (from 0 to 10), time for completion of drainage, and volume removed. Primary outcomes were rates of all-cause complications and of early termination of the procedure with secondary outcomes of change in pain score, drainage time, volume removed, and inverse rate of removal. RESULTS:Patient characteristics in the manual (n=49) and vacuum (n=51) groups were similar. Rate of all-cause complications was higher in the vacuum group (5 vs. 0; P=0.03): pneumothorax (n=3), surgically treated hemothorax with subsequent death (n=1) and reexpansion pulmonary edema causing respiratory failure (n=1), as was rate of early termination (8 vs. 1; P=0.018). The vacuum group exhibited greater pain during drainage (P<0.05), shorter drainage time (P<0.01), no association with volume removed (P>0.05), and lower inverse rate of removal (P?0.01). CONCLUSION:Despite requiring less time, vacuum aspiration during thoracentesis was associated with higher rates of complication and of early termination of the procedure and greater pain. Although larger studies are needed, this pilot study suggests that manual aspiration provides greater safety and patient comfort.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This study assesses the potential of lung ultrasonography to diagnose acute respiratory failure. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in university-affiliated teaching-hospital ICUs. We performed ultrasonography on consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure, comparing lung ultrasonography results on initial presentation with the final diagnosis by the ICU team. Uncertain diagnoses and rare causes (frequency<2%) were excluded. We included 260 dyspneic patients with a definite diagnosis. Three items were assessed: artifacts (horizontal A lines or vertical B lines indicating interstitial syndrome), lung sliding, and alveolar consolidation and/or pleural effusion. Combined with venous analysis, these items were grouped to assess ultrasound profiles. RESULTS: Predominant A lines plus lung sliding indicated asthma (n=34) or COPD (n=49) with 89% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Multiple anterior diffuse B lines with lung sliding indicated pulmonary edema (n=64) with 97% sensitivity and 95% specificity. A normal anterior profile plus deep venous thrombosis indicated pulmonary embolism (n=21) with 81% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Anterior absent lung sliding plus A lines plus lung point indicated pneumothorax (n=9) with 81% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Anterior alveolar consolidations, anterior diffuse B lines with abolished lung sliding, anterior asymmetric interstitial patterns, posterior consolidations or effusions without anterior diffuse B lines indicated pneumonia (n=83) with 89% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The use of these profiles would have provided correct diagnoses in 90.5% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Lung ultrasound can help the clinician make a rapid diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure, thus meeting the priority objective of saving time.
Project description:This report presents a 20-week pregnant 38-year-old woman with right-sided pneumothorax due to pulmonary deciduosis. Initial pleural drainage was ineffective. Video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed areas of consolidation within the lung parenchyma. A wedge resection with partial pleurectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed subpleural decidual implants. The patient made a full recovery and was discharged on day 5. Videoscopic inspection of the lung parenchyma and pleura with resection of decidual foci is the recommended treatment for pneumothorax in pregnant women with pleuropulmonary deciduosis in whom classical pleural drainage is ineffective.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Several key policy documents have advocated 24-hour consultant obstetrician presence on the labour ward as a means of improving the safety of birth. However, it is unclear what published evidence exists comparing the outcomes of intrapartum care with 24-hour consultant labour ward presence and other models of consultant cover.<h4>Objectives</h4>To collate and critically appraise evidence of the effect of continuous resident consultant obstetrician cover on the labour ward on outcomes of intrapartum care compared with other models of consultant cover.<h4>Search strategy</h4>Studies were included which quantitatively compared intrapartum outcomes for women and babies where continuous resident consultant obstetric cover was provided with other models of consultant cover.<h4>Selection criteria</h4>Quantitative studies within healthcare systems with mixed obstetric-midwifery models of care.<h4>Data collection and analysis</h4>Two researchers independently screened titles and full-text publications, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3.<h4>Main results</h4>About 1508 publications were screened resulting in two papers, three conference abstracts and one letter being included. All were single-site time-period comparison studies. The quality of studies overall was poor with significant risk of bias. The only significant finding in meta-analysis related to instrumental deliveries, which occurred more frequently when there was on-call consultant cover (unadjusted risk ratio 1.14; 95% CI 1.04-1.24).<h4>Conclusion</h4>No reliable evidence of the effects of 24-hour resident consultant presence on the labour ward on intrapartum outcomes was identified.<h4>Tweetable abstract</h4>More robust research is needed to assess intrapartum outcomes with resident consultant labour ward presence.
Project description:Pleural and pericardial effusions are extremely rare complications of umbilical venous catheterization in newborns. A preterm male infant weighing 850g, with insertion of an umbilical venous catheter (UVC) developed massive right pleural and pericardial effusions. The position of catheter tip was verified by chest radiography and echocardiography. The effusions were drained by thoracentesis and pericardiocentesis without complication, and were biochemically similar as total parenteral infusion which infused through catheter.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diaphragmatic dysfunction remains the main cause of weaning difficulty or failure. Ultrasonographic measurement of diaphragmatic function can be used to predict the outcomes of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Our primary objective was to investigate the performance of various sonographic parameters of diaphragmatic function for predicting the success of weaning from mechanical ventilation. METHODS:We prospectively enrolled 68 adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation who were admitted to the intensive care unit from June 2013 to November 2013. The diaphragmatic inspiratory excursion, time to peak inspiratory amplitude of the diaphragm (TPIAdia), diaphragmatic thickness (DT), DT difference (DTD), and diaphragm thickening fraction (TFdi) were determined by bedside ultrasonography performed at the end of a spontaneous breathing trial. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used for analysis. RESULTS:In total, 62 patients were analyzed. The mean TPIAdia was significantly higher in the weaning success group (right, 1.27?±?0.38?s; left, 1.14?±?0.37?s) than in the weaning failure group (right, 0.97?±?0.43?s; left, 0.85?±?0.39?s) (P?<? 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of a TPIAdia of >?0.8?s in predicting weaning success were 92, 46, 89, and 56%, respectively. The diaphragmatic inspiratory excursion, DTD, and TFdi were associated with reintubation within 48?h. The P values were 0.047, 0.021, and 0.028, and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.716, 0.805, and 0.784, respectively. CONCLUSION:Among diaphragmatic parameters, TPIAdia exhibits good performance in predicting the success of weaning from mechanical ventilation. This study demonstrated a trend toward successful use of TPIAdia rather than diaphragmatic inspiratory excursion as a predictor of weaning from mechanical ventilation.
Project description:The relationship between psychiatric consultation and antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes (NH) is unknown.To identify the association between psychiatric consultant groups and NH-level antipsychotic prescribing after adjustment for resident case-mix and facility characteristics.Nested cross-sectional study of 60 NHs in a cluster randomized trial. We linked facility leadership surveys to October 2009-September 2010 Minimum Data Set, Nursing Home Compare, the US Census, and pharmacy dispensing data.The main exposure is the psychiatric consultant group and the main outcome is NH-level prevalence of atypical antipsychotic use. We calculated annual means and interquartile ranges of NH-level antipsychotic use for each consultant group and arrayed consultant groups from lowest to highest prevalence. Generalized linear models were used to predict antipsychotic prescribing adjusting for resident case-mix and facility characteristics. Observed versus predicted antipsychotic prescribing levels were compared for each consultant group.Seven psychiatric consultant groups served a range of 3-27 study facilities. Overall mean facility-level antipsychotic prescribing was 19.2%. Mean prevalence of antipsychotic prescribing ranged from 12.2% (SD, 5.8) in the lowest consultant group to 26.4% (SD, 3.6) in the highest group. All facilities served by the highest-ranked consultant group had observed antipsychotic levels exceeding the overall study mean with half exceeding predictions for on-label indications, whereas most facilities served by the lowest-ranked consultant group had observed levels below the overall study and predicted means.Preliminary evidence suggests that psychiatric consultant groups affect NH antipsychotic prescribing independent of resident case-mix and facility characteristics.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Pulmonary disease is common in HIV-infected patients. Diagnostic means, however, are often scarce in areas where most HIV patients are living. Chest ultrasonography has recently evolved as a highly sensitive and specific imaging tool for diagnosing chest conditions such as pneumothorax, pneumonia and pulmonary edema in critically ill patients. This article addresses the issue of imaging and differentiating common pulmonary conditions in HIV-infected patients by chest ultrasonography.<h4>Methods</h4>We report chest ultrasound features of five different common pulmonary diseases in HIV-infected patients (bacterial pneumonia, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus pneumonia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and review the respective literature.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We observed characteristic ultrasound patterns especially in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and pulmonary lymphoma. Further exploration of chest ultrasonography in HIV-infected patients appears promising and may translate into new diagnostic approaches for pulmonary conditions in patients living with HIV.
Project description:During laparoscopic mobilisation of the oesophagus around hiatus in transhiatal oesophagectomy; commonly the pleura is breached causing iatrogenic pneumothorax. Often small breaches in pleura goes unnoticed till the attention is drawn by anaesthetist when pressures drop with building up of end-tidal CO2(etCO2) and other haemodynamic changes occur. We describe the flickering movements of the diaphragm associated with the pleural breach, a useful sign to alert the surgeon and anaesthetist to detect pneumothorax earlier than it is clinically evident.