Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion.
ABSTRACT: To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO).Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH) samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters) were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30) and compared with controls (n = 16). To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14) and control samples (n = 8).Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides) could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02). Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), Opticin and Vitronectin), remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO) to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed.The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO.
Project description:Opticin is a class III member of the extracellular matrix small leucine-rich repeat protein/proteoglycan (SLRP) family found in vitreous humour and cartilage. It was first identified associated with the surface of vitreous collagen fibrils and several other SLRPs are also known to bind collagen fibrils and it some cases alter fibril morphology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the binding of opticin to the collagen II-containing fibrils found in vitreous and cartilage. Electron microscopic studies using gold labelling demonstrated that opticin binds vitreous and thin cartilage collagen fibrils specifically at a single site in the gap region of the collagen D-period corresponding to the e2 stain band; this is the first demonstration of the binding site of a class III SLRP on collagen fibrils. Opticin did not bind thick cartilage collagen fibrils from cartilage or tactoids formed in vitro from collagen II, but shows high specificity for thin, heterotypic collagen fibrils containing collagens II, and XI or V/XI. Vitreous collagen fibrils from opticin null and wild-type mice were compared and no difference in fibril morphology or diameter was observed. Similarly, in vitro fibrillogenesis experiments showed that opticin did not affect fibril formation. We propose that when opticin is bound to collagen fibrils, rather than influencing their morphology it instead hinders the binding of other molecules to the fibril surfaces and/or act as an intermediary bridge linking the collagen fibrils to other non-collagenous molecules.
Project description:To examine the expression of pro-interleukin-1? (pro-IL-1?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in the vitreous body of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration(nAMD), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), retinal vein occlusion (RVO) or Eales' disease to further elucidate the role of IL-1? and inflammation in the pathogenesis of neovascular retinal disease.Prospective clinical laboratory investigation study.All patients enrolled had vitreous hemorrhage due to nAMD, PCV, PDR, RVO or Eales' disease that required vitrectomy. Patients were excluded for any history of active intraocular inflammation, or other ophthalmic surgery besides vitrectomy. Control samples were obtained from patients with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane. A total of fifty vitreous samples were collected from patient during vitrectomy. Pro-IL-1? and IL-1? expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were analyzed statistically using nonparametric tests.Expression of pro-IL-1? protein was increased by 2.83-fold and 9.19-fold in PCV and nAMD vitreous samples relative to control, respectively. Expression of IL-? protein was increased by 10-fold and 4.83-fold in PCV and nAMD vitreous samples relative to control, respectively.Our results demonstrate that expression of pro-IL-1? and IL-1? proteins is higher in PCV and nAMD. The roles of pro-IL-1? and IL-1? as inflammatory mediators in the development of PCV and nAMD may be associated with photoreceptor degeneration and neovascularization which necessitates further study.
Project description:The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa controls host innate immune and complement attack. Here we identify Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), a 57 kDa moonlighting protein, as the first P. aeruginosa protein that binds the two human terminal pathway inhibitors vitronectin and clusterin. Both human regulators when bound to the bacterium inhibited effector function of the terminal complement, blocked C5b-9 deposition and protected the bacterium from complement damage. P. aeruginosa when challenged with complement active human serum depleted from vitronectin was severely damaged and bacterial survival was reduced by over 50%. Similarly, when in human serum clusterin was blocked by a mAb, bacterial survival was reduced by 44%. Thus, demonstrating that Pseudomonas benefits from attachment of each human regulator and controls complement attack. The Lpd binding site in vitronectin was localized to the C-terminal region, i.e. to residues 354-363. Thus, Lpd of P. aeruginosa is a surface exposed moonlighting protein that binds two human terminal pathway inhibitors, vitronectin and clusterin and each human inhibitor when attached protected the bacterial pathogen from the action of the terminal complement pathway. Our results showed insights into the important function of Lpd as a complement regulator binding protein that might play an important role in virulence of P. aeruginosa.
Project description:Opticin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that we identified associated with the collagen network of the vitreous humor of the eye. Recently, we discovered that opticin possesses anti-angiogenic activity using a murine oxygen-induced retinopathy model: here, we investigate the underlying mechanism. Using an ex vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, we show that opticin inhibits angiogenesis when stimulated by a range of growth factors. We show that it suppresses capillary morphogenesis, inhibits endothelial invasion, and promotes capillary network regression in three-dimensional matrices of collagen and Matrigel(TM). We then show that opticin binds to collagen and thereby competitively inhibits endothelial cell interactions with collagen via ?(1)?(1) and ?(2)?(1) integrins, thereby preventing the strong adhesion that is required for proangiogenic signaling via these integrins.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The occurrence of intermediate uveitis, which is characterized by the presence of vitreous haze (VH), in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be a sign of coexistent inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disease activity. Using an automated algorithm to quantify VH on optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans, the aim was to investigate whether VH in MS patients is associated with signs of inflammatory CNS disease activity. METHODS:Vitreous haze was quantified on OCT macular volume scans of 290 MS patients and 85 healthy controls (HCs). The relationship between VH and clinical, retinal OCT and magnetic resonance imaging parameters of inflammatory disease activity was investigated using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS:Mean VH scores did not differ between patients and HCs (P = 0.629). Six patients (2.1%) showed values higher than the highest of the controls by HCs. VH scores did not differ between the different disease types or between eyes with and without a history of optic neuritis (P = 0.132). VH was not associated with inner nuclear layer volume on OCT (P = 0.233), cerebral T2 lesion load on magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.416) or the development of new relapses (P = 0.205). CONCLUSION:In this study, OCT-based automated VH estimation did not detect increased vitreous inflammation in MS patients compared to HCs and did not find an association with CNS inflammatory burden.
Project description:The zonule of Zinn (ciliary zonule) is a system of fibers that centers the crystalline lens on the optical axis of the eye. Mutations in zonule components underlie syndromic conditions associated with a broad range of ocular pathologies, including microspherophakia and ectopia lentis. Here, we used HPLC-mass spectrometry to determine the molecular composition of the zonule.Tryptic digests of human and bovine zonular samples were analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. The distribution of selected components was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In bovine samples, the composition of the equatorial zonule was compared to that of the hyaloid zonule and vitreous humor.The 52 proteins common to the zonules of both species accounted for >95% of the zonular protein. Glycoproteins constituted the main structural components, with two proteins, FBN1 and LTBP2, constituting 70%-80% of the protein. Other abundant components were MFAP2, EMILIN-1, and ADAMTSL-6. Lysyl oxidase-like 1, a crosslinking enzyme implicated in collagen and elastin biogenesis, was detected at significant levels. The equatorial and hyaloid zonular samples were compositionally similar to each other, although the hyaloid sample was relatively enriched in the proteoglycan opticin and the fibrillar collagens COL2A1, COL11A1, COL5A2, and COL5A3.The zonular proteome was surprisingly complex. In addition to structural components, it contained signaling proteins, protease inhibitors, and crosslinking enzymes. The equatorial and hyaloid zonules were similar in composition, but the latter may form part of a composite structure, the hyaloid membrane, that stabilizes the vitreous face.
Project description:The main objective of current study was to identify the fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) expressed in both adipocytes and macrophages in vitreous fluid from patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Patients with RVO (n = 14, CRVO; central RVO n = 5, BRVO; branch RVO n = 9) and non-RVO (macular hole or epiretinal membrane, n = 18) were surgically treated by a 25 or 27G vitrectomy. Undiluted vitreous fluid samples obtained as the result of surgery were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure the levels of FABP4 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA).Data including ocular blood flow by laser speckle flow graphy (LSFG), height and weight, systemic blood pressures and several blood biochemistry values were collected. Among the LSFG mean blur rate (MBR) values of the optic nerve head (ONH) at baseline, MA (MBR of all area), MV (MBR of the vascular area), and MV-MT (MBR of the tissue area) were significantly decreased in patients with CRVO. The levels of V-FABP4 and V-VEGFA were relatively or significantly (P< 0.05) higher in the BRVO or CRVO patients compared to the non-RVO patients, respectively. A positive correlation (r = 0.36, P = 0.045) or a negative correlation (r = -0.51, P = 0.006) was observed between Log V-FABP4 and Log V-VEGF, or Log V-FABP4 and MV-MT at post-operative 1-week, respectively. Furthermore, neither of these factors were affected with respect to sex, body mass index and several clinical parameters that were collected, except that a positive correlation was observed for Log V-FABP4 with blood urea nitrogen. Stepwise multivariable regression analyses indicated that MV-MT at post-operative 1week was independently associated with Log V-FABP4 after adjustment for age and gender, and gender and Log V-FABP4 were independently associated with Log V-VEGFA after adjustment for age. The findings reported herein suggest that an independent factor, FABP4 may be synergistically involved in the pathogenesis of RVO with VEGFA.
Project description:The small leucine-rich repeat proteins (SLRPs) are involved in organizing the collagen fibrils of the sclera and vitreous. The shape of the eyeball is determined by the sclera and vitreous, so defects in SLRP family members may contribute to myopia. The purpose of this study was to test whether mutations in the two members of the class III SLRPs, opticin (OPTC) and dermatan sulfate proteoglycan 3 (EPYC), are responsible for high myopia.DNA was prepared from venous leukocytes of 93 patients with high myopia (refraction of spherical equivalent <or=-6.00D) and 96 controls (refraction of spherical equivalent between -0.50D and +1.00D). The coding regions and adjacent intronic sequences of OPTC and EPYC were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the products were then analyzed by cycle sequencing. The detected variations were further evaluated in normal controls and available family members by a heteroduplex-single strand conformation polymorphism (heteroduplex-SSCP) analysis or sequencing.Two substitutions in OPTC, including c.491G>T and c.803T>C, were identified. The c.491G>T mutation (p.Arg164Leu), a novel heterozygous variation, was detected in one of the 93 patients but in none of the 96 controls. The c.803T>C mutation (p.Pro267Leu), a known polymorphism, was detected in 22 of the 93 patients and in 15 of 48 controls. No variation was observed in EPYC.Only one novel variation in OPTC was detected in a Chinese patient with high myopia. Our results imply that OPTC and EPYC are unlikely to play a major role in high myopia.
Project description:Like many cancers, an early diagnosis of melanoma is fundamental to ensure a good prognosis, although an important proportion of stage I-II patients may still develop metastasis during follow-up. The aim of this work was to discover serum biomarkers in patients diagnosed with primary melanoma that identify those at a high risk of developing metastasis during the follow-up period. Proteomic and mass spectrophotometry analysis was performed on serum obtained from patients who developed metastasis during the first years after surgery for primary tumors and compared with that from patients who remained disease-free for more than 10 years after surgery. Five proteins were selected for validation as prognostic factors in 348 melanoma patients and 100 controls by ELISA: serum amyloid A and clusterin; immune system proteins; the cell adhesion molecules plakoglobin and vitronectin and the antimicrobial protein dermcidin. Compared to healthy controls, melanoma patients have high serum levels of these proteins at the moment of melanoma diagnosis, although the specific values were not related to the histopathological stage of the tumors. However, an analysis based on classification together with multivariate statistics showed that tumor stage, vitronectin and dermcidin levels were associated with the metastatic progression of patients with early-stage melanoma. Although melanoma patients have increased serum dermcidin levels, the REPTree classifier showed that levels of dermcidin <2.98 ?g/ml predict metastasis in AJCC stage II patients. These data suggest that vitronectin and dermcidin are potent biomarkers of prognosis, which may help to improve the personalized medical care of melanoma patients and their survival.
Project description:Different anatomical regions have been defined in the vitreous humor including central vitreous, basal vitreous, vitreous cortex, vitreoretinal interface and zonule. In this study we sought to characterize changes in the proteome of vitreous humor (VH) related to compartments or age in New Zealand white rabbits (NZW). Vitreous humor was cryo-collected from young and mature New Zealand white rabbit eyes, and dissected into anterior and posterior compartments. All samples were divided into 4 groups: Young Anterior (YA), Young Posterior (YP), Mature Anterior (MA) and Mature Posterior (MP) vitreous. Tryptic digests of total proteins were analyzed by liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Spectral count was used to determine the relative protein abundances and identify proteins with statistical differences between compartment and age groups. Western blotting was performed to validate some of the differentially expressed proteins. Our results showed that 231, 375, 273 and 353 proteins were identified in the YA, YP, MA and MP respectively. Fifteen proteins were significantly differentially expressed between YA and YP, and 11 between MA and MP. Carbonic anhydrase III, lambda crystallin, alpha crystallin A and B, beta crystallin B1 and B2 were more abundant in the anterior region, whereas vimentin was less abundant in the anterior region. For comparisons between age groups, 4 proteins were differentially expressed in both YA relative to MA and YP relative to MP. Western blotting confirmed the differential expression of carbonic anhydrase III, alpha crystallin B and beta crystallin B2. The protein profiles of the vitreous humor showed age- and compartment-related differences. This differential protein profile provides a baseline for understanding the vitreous compartmentalization in the rabbit and suggests that further studies profiling proteins in different compartments of the vitreous in other species may be warranted.