MiR-34 miRNAs Regulate Cellular Senescence in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
ABSTRACT: Pathologic features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include genetic predisposition, activation of the unfolded protein response, telomere attrition, and cellular senescence. The mechanisms leading to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) senescence are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as regulators of cellular senescence. Senescence markers including p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?gal) activity were measured in type II AECs from IPF lungs and unused donor lungs. miRNAs were quantified in type II AECs using gene expression arrays and quantitative RT-PCR. Molecular markers of senescence (p16, p21, and p53) were elevated in IPF type II AECs. SA-?gal activity was detected in a greater percentage in type II AECs isolated from IPF patients (23.1%) compared to patients with other interstitial lung diseases (1.2%) or normal controls (0.8%). The relative levels of senescence-associated miRNAs miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c, but not miR-20a, miR-29c, or miR-let-7f were significantly higher in type II AECs from IPF patients. Overexpression of miR-34a, miR-34b, or miR-34c in lung epithelial cells was associated with higher SA-?gal activity (27.8%, 35.1%, and 38.2%, respectively) relative to control treated cells (8.8%). Targets of miR-34 miRNAs, including E2F1, c-Myc, and cyclin E2, were lower in IPF type II AECs. These results show that markers of senescence are uniquely elevated in IPF type II AECs and suggest that the miR-34 family of miRNAs regulate senescence in IPF type II AECs.
Project description:Telomeres are short in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Whether dysfunctional telomeres contribute directly to development of lung fibrosis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate whether telomere dysfunction in type II AECs, mediated by deletion of the telomere shelterin protein TRF1, leads to pulmonary fibrosis in mice (SPC-Cre TRF1fl/fl mice). Deletion of TRF1 in type II AECs for 2 weeks increased ?H2AX DNA damage foci, but not histopathologic changes in the lung. Deletion of TRF1 in type II AECs for up to 9 months resulted in short telomeres and lung remodeling characterized by increased numbers of type II AECs, ?-smooth muscle actin+ mesenchymal cells, collagen deposition, and accumulation of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase+ lung epithelial cells. Deletion of TRF1 in collagen-expressing cells caused pulmonary edema, but not fibrosis. These results demonstrate that prolonged telomere dysfunction in type II AECs, but not collagen-expressing cells, leads to age-dependent lung remodeling and fibrosis. We conclude that telomere dysfunction in type II AECs is sufficient to cause lung fibrosis, and may be a dominant molecular defect causing IPF. SPC-Cre TRF1fl/fl mice will be useful for assessing cellular and molecular mechanisms of lung fibrosis mediated by telomere dysfunction.
Project description:Aging impairs the functions of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thereby severely reducing their beneficial effects on myocardial infarction (MI). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in regulating the senescence of MSCs; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the significance of miR-155-5p in regulating MSC senescence and whether inhibition of miR-155-5p could rejuvenate aged MSCs (AMSCs) to enhance their therapeutic efficacy for MI. Young MSCs (YMSCs) and AMSCs were isolated from young and aged donors, respectively. The cellular senescence of MSCs was evaluated by senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) staining. Compared with YMSCs, AMSCs exhibited increased cellular senescence as evidenced by increased SA-?-gal activity and decreased proliferative capacity and paracrine effects. The expression of miR-155-5p was much higher in both serum and MSCs from aged donors than young donors. Upregulation of miR-155-5p in YMSCs led to increased cellular senescence, whereas downregulation of miR-155-5p decreased AMSC senescence. Mechanistically, miR-155-5p inhibited mitochondrial fission and increased mitochondrial fusion in MSCs via the AMPK signaling pathway, thereby resulting in cellular senescence by repressing the expression of Cab39. These effects were partially reversed by treatment with AMPK activator or mitofusin2-specific siRNA (Mfn2-siRNA). By enhancing angiogenesis and promoting cell survival, transplantation of anti-miR-155-5p-AMSCs led to improved cardiac function in an aged mouse model of MI compared with transplantation of AMSCs. In summary, our study shows that miR-155-5p mediates MSC senescence by regulating the Cab39/AMPK signaling pathway and miR-155-5p is a novel target to rejuvenate AMSCs and enhance their cardioprotective effects.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been suggested to accelerate vascular senescence, however the molecular mechanism(s) remain unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>We cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCSMCs) and treated Ang II and/or fimasartan. Or we transfected adenoviral vectors expressing CYR61 (Ad-CYR61) or antisense CYR61 (Ad-As-CYR61). Cellular senescence was evaluated senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) assay. The molecular mechanisms were investigated real-time PCR and western blots.<h4>Results</h4>SA-?-gal-positive cells significantly increased in Ang II-treated hCSMCs (5.77±1.43-fold compared with the control). The effect of Ang II was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, fimasartan (2.00±0.92-fold). The expression of both p53 and p16 senescence regulators was significantly increased by Ang II (p53: 1.39±0.17, p16: 1.19±0.10-fold vs. the control), and inhibited by fimasartan. Cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (CYR61) was rapidly induced by Ang II. Compared with the control, Ad-CYR61-transfected hCSMCs showed significantly increased SA-?-gal-positive cells (3.47±0.65-fold). Upon transfecting Ad-AS-CYR61, Ang II-induced senescence (3.74±0.23-fold) was significantly decreased (1.77±0.60-fold). p53 expression by Ang II was significantly attenuated by Ad-AS-CYR61, whereas p16 expression was not regulated. Ang II activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, which was significantly blocked by fimasartan. ERK and p38 inhibition both regulated Ang II-induced CYR61 expression. However, p53 expression was only regulated by ERK1/2, whereas p16 expression was only attenuated by p38 MAPK.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Ang II induced vascular senescence by the ERK/p38 MAPK-CYR61 pathway and ARB, fimasartan, protected against Ang II-induced vascular senescence.
Project description:Aberrant DNA methylation is widely observed in various types of cancer, and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) is suppressed by DNA methylation. The present study explored tumor suppressor miRNAs downregulated by DNA methylation in endometrial cancer cells, as the basis of a novel therapeutic approach for endometrial cancer. Among 821 candidate miRNAs, miR-34b was identified as an upregulated miRNA after demethylation treatment in all four endometrial cancer cell lines (HEC-108, SNG-II, Ishikawa and HHUA) examined. miR-34b expression with or without demethylation treatment in cancer cells was confirmed by TaqMan quantitative PCR. MYC and MET, the predicted target genes of miR-34b, were downregulated at both the RNA and protein levels following miR-34b overexpression. Following miR-34b treatment, inhibition of cell growth and invasion, and cell cycle arrest were observed in HEC-108 cells. Sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased in cancer cells with miR-34b overexpression, compared with untreated cancer cells, but this difference was not identified for cisplatin or doxorubicin. In vivo, combination treatment with miR-34b and paclitaxel markedly reduced tumor growth compared with treatment with negative control miRNA and paclitaxel. These data suggest that miR-34b enhances paclitaxel sensitivity in endometrial cancer cells, and that miR-34b and MET are key targets for treatment of endometrial cancer. The present results may contribute to the development of combination treatment with a demethylation agent, miR-34b mimic or MET inhibitor and an anticancer drug.
Project description:Emerging evidences highlight the implication of microRNAs as a posttranscriptional regulator in aging. Several senescence-associated microRNAs (SA-miRNAs) are found to be differentially expressed during cellular senescence. However, the role of dietary compounds on SA-miRNAs remains elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the modulatory role of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on SA-miRNAs (miR-20a, miR-24, miR-34a, miR-106a, and miR-449a) and established target genes of miR-34a (CCND1, CDK4, and SIRT1) during replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). Primary cultures of HDFs at young and senescent were incubated with TRF at 0.5?mg/mL. Taqman microRNA assay showed significant upregulation of miR-24 and miR-34a and downregulation of miR-20a and miR-449a in senescent HDFs (P < 0.05). TRF reduced miR-34a expression in senescent HDFs and increased miR-20a expression in young HDFs and increased miR-449a expression in both young and senescent HDFs. Our results also demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-34a reduced the expression of CDK4 significantly (P < 0.05). TRF inhibited miR-34a expression thus relieved its inhibition on CDK4 gene expression. No significant change was observed on the expression of CCND1, SIRT1, and miR-34a upstream transcriptional regulator, TP53. In conclusion tocotrienol-rich fraction prevented cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts via modulation of SA-miRNAs and target genes expression.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) constitute an important repair system, but may be impaired by exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Consequently, adipose tissue-derived MSCs from pigs with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) show decreased vitality. A growing number of microRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as key modulators of senescence, but their role in regulating senescence in MSC in MetS is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that MetS upregulates in MSC expression of miRNAs that can serve as post-transcriptional regulators of senescence-associated (SA) genes. MSCs were collected from swine abdominal adipose tissue after 16 weeks of Lean or Obese diet ( n = 6 each). Next-generation miRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq) was performed to identify miRNAs up-or down-regulated in MetS-MSCs compared with Lean-MSCs. Functional pathways of SA genes targeted by miRNAs were analyzed using gene ontology. MSC senescence was evaluated by p16 and p21 immunoreactivity, H2AX protein expression, and SA-?-Galactosidase activity. In addition, gene expression of p16, p21, MAPK3 (ERK1) and MAPK14, and MSC migration were studied after inhibition of SA-miR-27b. Senescence biomarkers were significantly elevated in MetS-MSCs. We found seven upregulated miRNAs, including miR-27b, and three downregulated miRNAs in MetS-MSCs, which regulate 35 SA genes, particularly MAPK signaling. Inhibition of miR-27b in cultured MSCs downregulated p16 and MARP3 genes, and increased MSC migration. MetS modulates MSC expression of SA-miRNAs that may regulate their senescence, and the p16 pathway seems to play an important role in MetS-induced MSC senescence.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of joint pain and disability, and chondrocyte senescence is a key pathological process in OA and may be a target of new therapeutics. MicroRNA-140 (miR-140) plays a protective role in OA, but little is known about its epigenetic effect on chondrocyte senescence. In this study, we first validated the features of chondrocyte senescence characterized by increased cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and the expression of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?Gal), p16INK4a, p21, p53, and ?H2AX in human knee OA. Then, we revealed in interleukin 1? (IL-1?)-induced OA chondrocytes in vitro that pretransfection with miR-140 effectively inhibited the expression of SA-?Gal, p16INK4a, p21, p53, and ?H2AX. Furthermore, in vivo results from trauma-induced early-stage OA rats showed that intra-articularly injected miR-140 could rapidly reach the chondrocyte cytoplasm and induce molecular changes similar to the in vitro results, resulting in a noticeable alleviation of OA progression. Finally, bioinformatics analysis predicted the potential targets of miR-140 and a mechanistic network by which miR-140 regulates chondrocyte senescence. Collectively, miR-140 can effectively attenuate the progression of early-stage OA by retarding chondrocyte senescence, contributing new evidence of the involvement of miR-mediated epigenetic regulation of chondrocyte senescence in OA pathogenesis.
Project description:Excessive extracellular matrix production by fibroblasts in response to tissue injury contributes to fibrotic diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, involving transition of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to pulmonary fibroblasts, appears to be an important contributory process to lung fibrosis. Although aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRs) is involved in a variety of pathophysiologic processes, the role of miRs in fibrotic lung diseases is less well understood. In the present study, we found that miR-200a, miR-200b, and miR-200c are significantly down-regulated in the lungs of mice with experimental lung fibrosis. Levels of miR-200a and miR-200c were reduced in the lungs of patients with IPF. miR-200 had greater expression in AECs than in lung fibroblasts, and AECs from mice with experimental pulmonary fibrosis had diminished expression of miR-200. We found that the miR-200 family members inhibit transforming growth factor-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of AECs. miR-200 family members can reverse the fibrogenic activity of pulmonary fibroblasts from mice with experimental pulmonary fibrosis and from patients with IPF. Indeed, the introduction of miR-200c diminishes experimental pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Thus, the miR-200 family members participate importantly in fibrotic lung diseases and suggest that restoring miR-200 expression in the lungs may represent a novel therapeutic approach in treating pulmonary fibrotic diseases.
Project description:ER stress in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) is common in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but the contribution of ER stress to lung fibrosis is poorly understood. We found that mice deficient in C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), an ER stress-regulated transcription factor, were protected from lung fibrosis and AEC apoptosis in 3 separate models where substantial ER stress was identified. In mice treated with repetitive intratracheal bleomycin, we identified localized hypoxia in type II AECs as a potential mechanism explaining ER stress. To test the role of hypoxia in lung fibrosis, we treated mice with bleomycin, followed by exposure to 14% O2, which exacerbated ER stress and lung fibrosis. Under these experimental conditions, CHOP-/- mice, but not mice with epithelial HIF (HIF1/HIF2) deletion, were protected from AEC apoptosis and fibrosis. In vitro studies revealed that CHOP regulates hypoxia-induced apoptosis in AECs via the inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?) and the PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) pathways. In human IPF lungs, CHOP and hypoxia markers were both upregulated in type II AECs, supporting a conclusion that localized hypoxia results in ER stress-induced CHOP expression, thereby augmenting type II AEC apoptosis and potentiating lung fibrosis.
Project description:Previously, we have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-endosulfatase 1 (Sulf1) is a transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-responsive gene in normal human lung fibroblasts and functions as a negative feedback regulator of TGF-?1 and that TGF-?1 induces the expression of Sulf1 as well as that of the closely related Sulf2 in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we focused on the role of Sulf2 in modulating TGF-?1 function and the development of pulmonary fibrosis. We found that Sulf2 mRNA was overexpressed in lung samples from human patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and Sulf2 protein was specifically localized to the hyperplastic type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). In vitro, TGF-?1 induced the expression of Sulf2 with accompanied HS 6-O-desulfation in A549 cells, adenocarcinoma cells derived from the type II alveolar epithelium. Using small interference RNA to block Sulf2 expression, we observed a biphasic TGF-?1 response with early enhanced Smad activation, but eventually reduced TGF-?1 target gene expression in Sulf2 knockdown A549 cells compared with the control cells. To study the role of Sulf2 in normal type II AECs, we isolated primary type II cells from wild-type and Sulf2 knockout mice. We observed enhanced Smad activation as well as enhanced TGF-?1 target gene expression in Sulf2 knockout type II AECs compared with wild-type type II AECs. In conclusion, Sulf2 is overexpressed in IPF and may play a role in regulating TGF-?1 signaling in type II AECs.