The chemical, mechanical, and physical properties of 3D printed materials composed of TiO2-ABS nanocomposites.
ABSTRACT: To expand the chemical capabilities of 3D printed structures generated from commercial thermoplastic printers, we have produced and printed polymer filaments that contain inorganic nanoparticles. TiO2 was dispersed into acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and extruded into filaments with 1.75 mm diameters. We produced filaments with TiO2 compositions of 1%, 5%, and 10% (kg/kg) and printed structures using a commercial 3D printer. Our experiments suggest that ABS undergoes minor degradation in the presence of TiO2 during the different processing steps. The measured mechanical properties (strain and Young's modulus) for all of the composites are similar to those of structures printed from the pure polymer. TiO2 incorporation at 1% negatively affects the stress at breaking point and the flexural stress. Structures produced from the 5 and 10% nanocomposites display a higher breaking point stress than those printed from the pure polymer. TiO2 within the printed matrix was able to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the polymer. TiO2 was also able to photocatalyze the degradation of a rhodamine 6G in solution. These experiments display chemical reactivity in nanocomposites that are printed using commercial 3D printers, and we expect that our methodology will help to inform others who seek to incorporate catalytic nanoparticles in 3D printed structures.
Project description:In order to enhance the mechanical performance of three-dimensional (3D) printed structures fabricated via commercially available fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printers, novel nanocomposite filaments were produced herein following a melt mixing process, and further 3D printed and characterized. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and Antimony (Sb) doped Tin Oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs), hereafter denoted as ATO, were selected as fillers for a polymeric acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic matrix at various weight % (wt%) concentrations. Tensile and flexural test specimens were 3D printed, according to international standards. It was proven that TiO2 filler enhanced the overall tensile strength by 7%, the flexure strength by 12%, and the micro-hardness by 6%, while for the ATO filler, the corresponding values were 9%, 13%, and 6% respectively, compared to unfilled ABS. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the size of TiO2 (40 ± 10 nm) and ATO (52 ± 11 nm) NPs. Raman spectroscopy was performed for the TiO2 and ATO NPs as well as for the 3D printed nanocomposites to verify the polymer structure and the incorporated TiO2 and ATO nanocrystallites in the polymer matrix. The scope of this work was to fabricate novel nanocomposite filaments using commercially available materials with enhanced overall mechanical properties that industry can benefit from.
Project description:Additive manufacturing with fused deposition modeling (FDM) is currently optimized for a wide range of research and commercial applications. The major disadvantage of FDM-created products is their low quality and structural defects (porosity), which impose an obstacle to utilizing them in functional prototyping and direct digital manufacturing of objects intended to contact with gases and liquids. This article describes a simple and efficient approach for assessing the quality of 3D printed objects. Using this approach it was shown that the wall permeability of a printed object depends on its geometric shape and is gradually reduced in a following series: cylinder > cube > pyramid > sphere > cone. Filament feed rate, wall geometry and G-code-defined wall structure were found as primary parameters that influence the quality of 3D-printed products. Optimization of these parameters led to an overall increase in quality and improvement of sealing properties. It was demonstrated that high quality of 3D printed objects can be achieved using routinely available printers and standard filaments.
Project description:Composite acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)/carbon nanotubes (CNT) filaments at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt %, suitable for fused deposition modelling (FDM) were obtained by using a completely solvent-free process based on direct melt compounding and extrusion. The optimal CNT content in the filaments for FDM was found to be 6 wt %; for this composite, a detailed investigation of the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties was performed. Presence of CNT in ABS filaments and 3D-printed parts resulted in a significant enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength, accompanied by a reduction of the elongation at break. As documented by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, the stiffening effect of CNTs in ABS is particularly pronounced at high temperatures. Besides, the presence of CNT in 3D-printed parts accounts for better creep and thermal dimensional stabilities of 3D-printed parts, accompanied by a reduction of the coefficient of thermal expansion). 3D-printed nanocomposite samples with 6 wt % of CNT exhibited a good electrical conductivity, even if lower than pristine composite filaments.
Project description:The utilization of polymer-based materials is quickly expanding. The enterprises of today are progressively seeking techniques to supplant metal parts with polymer-based materials as a result of their light weight, simple support and modest costs. The ceaselessly developing requirement for composite materials with new or enhanced properties brings about the preparation of different polymer mixes with various arrangements, morphologies and properties. Fused filament fabrication processes such as 3D-printing are nowadays shaping the actual pathway to a full pallet of materials, from art-craft to biomaterials. In this study, the structural and mechanical behavior of three types of commercially available filaments comprised of synthetic poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene) (ABS), poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic acid)/polyhydroxyalkanoate reinforced with bamboo wood flour composite (PLA/PHA BambooFill) were assessed through mechanical testing and optical microscopy, aiming to understand how the modifications that occur in the printed models with internal architecture are influencing the mechanical properties of the 3D-printed material. It has been determined that the material printed from PLA presents the highest compression strength, three-point bending and shock resistance, while the ABS shows the best tensile strength performance. A probability plot was used to verify the normality hypothesis of data for the tensile strength, in conjunction with the Anderson-Darling statistic test. The results of the statistic indicated that the data were normally distributed and that there is a marked influence of the internal architecture of the 3D-printed models on the mechanical properties of the printed material.
Project description:Polymer nanocomposites have always attracted the interest of researchers and industry because of their potential combination of properties from both the nanofillers and the hosting matrix. Gathering nanomaterials and 3D printing could offer clear advantages and numerous new opportunities in several application fields. Embedding nanofillers in a polymeric matrix could improve the final material properties but usually the printing process gets more difficult. Considering this drawback, in this paper we propose a method to obtain polymer nanocomposites by in situ generation of nanoparticles after the printing process. 3D structures were fabricated through a Digital Light Processing (DLP) system by disolving metal salts in the starting liquid formulation. The 3D fabrication is followed by a thermal treatment in order to induce in situ generation of metal nanoparticles (NPs) in the polymer matrix. Comprehensive studies were systematically performed on the thermo-mechanical characteristics, morphology and electrical properties of the 3D printed nanocomposites.
Project description:Highly fluorinated perfluoropolyether (PFPE) methacrylates are of great interest for transparent and chemically resistant microfluidic chips. However, so far only a few examples of material formulations for three-dimensional (3D) printing of these polymers have been demonstrated. In this paper we show that microfluidic chips can be printed using these highly fluorinated polymers by 3D stereolithography printing. We developed photocurable resin formulations that can be printed in commercial benchtop stereolithography printers. We demonstrate that the developed formulations can be printed with minimal cross-sectional area of 600 µm for monolithic embedded microfluidic channels and 200 µm for open structures. The printed and polymerized PFPE methacrylates show a good transmittance above 70% at wavelengths between 520?900 nm and a high chemical resistance when being exposed to organic solvents. Microfluidic mixers were printed to demonstrate the great variability of different designs that can be printed using stereolithography.
Project description:Purpose Many commonly used mask designs are secured by elastic straps looping around the posterior auricular region. This constant pressure and friction against the skin may contribute to increased wearer pain, irritation, and discomfort. The purpose of this work is to report a modified 3D printed mask extender to alleviate discomfort and increase mask wearability by relieving posterior auricular pressure from isolation masks. Methods Our institutional review board designated this project as non-human research and exempt. As part of resourcing 3D printing laboratories along with individual 3D printers to provide resources to healthcare workers, mask extenders were printed to relieve posterior auricular pressure from individuals wearing isolation masks. The authors modifed an existing mask extender, increasing its length with accompanying peripheral rungs for isolation mask securement. 3D printing was performed with Ultimaker S5 (Ultimaker B.V.; Geldermalsen, Netherlands) and CR-10 (Creality3D; Shenzhen, China) 3D printers using polylactic acid filaments. The author’s modified extended mask extenders were printed and freely delivered to healthcare workers (physicians, nurses, technologists, and other personnel) at the authors’ institution. Results The final mask extender design was printed with the two 3D printers with a maximum 7 straps printed simultaneously on each 3D printer. Mean print times ranges from 105?min for the Ultimaker S5 printer and 150?min for the CR-10. Four hundred seventy-five mask extenders were delivered to healthcare workers at the authors’ institution, with the demand far exceeding the available supply. Conclusion We offer a modification of a 3D printed mask extender design that decreases discomfort and increases the wearability of isolation mask designs with ear loops thought to relieve posterior auricular skin pressure and ability to control strap tension. The design is simple, produced with inexpensive material (polylactic acid), and have been well-received by healthcare providers at our institution.
Project description:3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.
Project description:We present the synthesis of nylon-12 scaffolds by 3D printing and demonstrate their versatility as matrices for cell growth, differentiation, and biomineral formation. We demonstrate that the porous nature of the printed parts makes them ideal for the direct incorporation of preformed nanomaterials or material precursors, leading to nanocomposites with very different properties and environments for cell growth. Additives such as those derived from sources such as tetraethyl orthosilicate applied at a low temperature promote successful cell growth, due partly to the high surface area of the porous matrix. The incorporation of presynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles led to a material that showed rapid heating in response to an applied ac magnetic field, an excellent property for use in gene expression and, with further improvement, chemical-free sterilization. These methods also avoid changing polymer feedstocks and contaminating or even damaging commonly used selective laser sintering printers. The chemically treated 3D printed matrices presented herein have great potential for use in addressing current issues surrounding bone grafting, implants, and skeletal repair, and a wide variety of possible incorporated material combinations could impact many other areas.
Project description:High-dielectric-constant polymer nanocomposites are demonstrated to show great promise as energy storage materials. However, the large electrical mismatch and incompatibility between nanofillers and polymer matrix usually give rise to significantly reduced breakdown strength and weak energy storage capability. Therefore, rational selection and elaborate functionalization of nanofillers to optimize the performance of polymer nanocomposites are vital. Herein, inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, a facile modification by fluoro-polydopamine is employed to reinforce the compatibility of TiO2 nanowires in the fluoropolymer matrix. The loading of 2.5 vol % f-DOPA@TiO2 NWs leads to an ultrahigh discharged energy density of 11.48?J cm-3 at 530?MV m-1, more than three times of commercial biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 3.56?J cm-3 at 600?MV m-1). A gratifying high energy density of 9.12?J cm-3 has also been obtained with nanofiller loading as high as 15 vol % at 360?MV m-1, which is nearly double to that of pure P(VDF-HFP) (4.76?J cm-3 at 360?MV m-1). This splendid energy storage capability seems to rival or exceed most of previously reported nano-TiO2 based nanocomposites. The methods presented here provide deep insights into the design of polymer nanocomposites for energy storage applications.