A potential mechanism underlying atypical antipsychotics-induced lipid disturbances.
ABSTRACT: Previous findings suggested that a four-protein complex, including sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), SREBP-cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), insulin-induced gene (INSIG) and progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), within the endoplasmic reticulum appears to be an important regulator responsible for atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD)-induced lipid disturbances. In the present study, effects of typical antipsychotic drug and AAPDs as well as treatment outcome of steroid antagonist mifepristone (MIF) on the PGRMC1/INSIG/SCAP/SREBP pathway were investigated in rat liver using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis. In addition, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, free fatty acids and various hormones including progesterone, corticosterone and insulin were measured simultaneously. Following treatment with clozapine or risperidone, both lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis were enhanced via inhibition of PGRMC1/INSIG-2 and activation of SCAP/SREBP expressions. Such metabolic disturbances, however, were not demonstrated in rats treated with aripiprazole (ARI) or haloperidol (HAL). Moreover, the add-on treatment of MIF was effective in reversing the AAPD-induced lipid disturbances by upregulating the expression of PGRMC1/INSIG-2 and subsequent downregulation of SCAP/SREBP. Taken together, our findings suggest that disturbances in lipid metabolism can occur at an early stage of AAPD treatment before the presence of weight gain. Such metabolic defects can be modified by an add-on treatment of steroid antagonist MIF enhancing the PGRMC1 pathway. Thus, it is likely that PGRMC1/INSIG-2 signaling may be a therapeutic target for AAPD-induced weight gain.
Project description:Newly emerging evidence has implicated that progesterone receptor component 1 (PGRMC1) plays a novel role not only in the lipid disturbance induced by atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPD) but also in the deterioration of glucose homoeostasis induced by clozapine (CLZ) treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the role of PGRMC1 signaling on hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis in male rats following CLZ treatment (20 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks). Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) were constructed for the knockdown or overexpression of hepatic PGRMC1. Meanwhile, AG205, the specific inhibitor of PGRMC1 was also used for functional validation of PGRMC1. Hepatic protein expressions were measured by western blotting. Meanwhile, plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon, HbA1c and hepatic glycogen were also determined by assay kits. Additionally, concentrations of progesterone (PROG) in plasma, liver and adrenal gland were measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Our study demonstrated that CLZ promoted the process of gluconeogenesis and repressed glycogenesis, respectively mediated by PI3K-Akt-FOXO1 and GSK3β signaling <i>via</i> inhibition of PGRMC1-EGFR/GLP1R in rat liver, along with an increase in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c levels and a decrease in insulin and hepatic glycogen levels. Furthermore, through PGRMC1-EGFR/GLP1R-PI3K-Akt pathway, knockdown or inhibition (by AG205) of PGRMC1 mimics, whereas its overexpression moderately alleviates CLZ-induced glucose disturbances. Potentially, the PGRMC1 target may be regarded as a novel therapeutic strategy for AAPD-induced hepatic glucose metabolism disorder.
Project description:Sterols mediate feedback inhibition of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway by preventing movement of the SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP)/SREBP complex from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi, where proteolytic cleavage of SREBPs releases the transcription factor domain that activates genes for lipid biosynthesis. Our laboratory previously used a trypsin cleavage assay to show that the conformation of SCAP is altered in vitro by addition of cholesterol to ER membranes. More recently, Insig-1 and Insig-2 were identified as ER resident proteins that bind the SCAP/SREBP complex and promote its ER retention when cells are treated with sterols. Here, we use the trypsin assay to show that Insig proteins reduce the concentration of cholesterol needed in vitro to produce the conformational change in SCAP. Insig-1 and Insig-2 also enhance the conformational change in SCAP that occurs upon addition of certain cationic amphiphiles, such as chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, and imipramine, which mimic the effect of cholesterol. The effects of cationic amphiphiles raise the possibility that SCAP may monitor specifically the composition of the cytoplasmic leaflet of the ER membrane.
Project description:Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are considered to possess superior efficacy for treating both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia; however, AAP use often causes excessive weight gain and metabolic abnormalities. Recently, several reports have demonstrated that AAPs activate sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). SREBP, SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and insulin-induced gene (Insig) regulate downstream cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we explored the effects of clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone on SREBP signaling and downstream lipid biosynthesis genes in the early events of adipogenic differentiation in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). After the induction of adipogenic differentiation for 2 days, all AAPs, notably clozapine treatment for 3 and 7 days, enhanced the expression of SREBP-1 and its downstream lipid biosynthesis genes without dexamethasone and insulin supplementation. Simultaneously, protein level of SREBP-1 was significantly enhanced via inhibition of Insig-2 expression. By contrast, SREBP-1 activation was suppressed when Insig-2 expression was upregulated by transfection with Insig-2 plasmid DNA. In summary, our results indicate that AAP treatment, notably clozapine treatment, induces early-stage lipid biosynthesis in ASCs. Such abnormal lipogenesis can be reversed when Insig-2 expression was increased, suggesting that Insig/SCAP/SREBP signaling may be a therapeutic target for AAP-induced weight gain and metabolic abnormalities.
Project description:SREBPs are master regulators of lipid homeostasis and undergo sterol-regulated export from ER to Golgi apparatus for processing and activation via COPII-coated vesicles. While COPII recognizes SREBP through its escort protein SCAP, factor(s) specifically promoting SREBP/SCAP loading to the COPII machinery remains unknown. Here, we show that the ER/lipid droplet associated protein Cideb selectively promotes the loading of SREBP/SCAP into COPII vesicles. Sterol deprivation releases SCAP from Insig and enhances ER export of SREBP/SCAP by inducing SCAP-Cideb interaction, thereby modulating sterol sensitivity. Moreover, Cideb binds to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec12 to enrich SCAP/SREBP at ER exit sites, where assembling of COPII complex initiates. Loss of Cideb inhibits the cargo loading of SREBP/SCAP, reduces SREBP activation, and alleviates diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Our data point to a linchpin role of Cideb in regulated ER export of SREBP and lipid homeostasis.
Project description:SREBPs are master regulators of lipid homeostasis and undergo sterol-regulated export from ER to Golgi apparatus for processing and activation via COPII-coated vesicles. While COPII recognizes SREBP through its escort protein SCAP, factor(s) specifically promoting SREBP/SCAP loading to the COPII machinery remains unknown. Here, we show that the ER/lipid droplet-associated protein Cideb selectively promotes the loading of SREBP/SCAP into COPII vesicles. Sterol deprivation releases SCAP from Insig and enhances ER export of SREBP/SCAP by inducing SCAP-Cideb interaction, thereby modulating sterol sensitivity. Moreover, Cideb binds to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec12 to enrich SCAP/SREBP at ER exit sites, where assembling of COPII complex initiates. Loss of Cideb inhibits the cargo loading of SREBP/SCAP, reduces SREBP activation, and alleviates diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Our data point to a linchpin role of Cideb in regulated ER export of SREBP and lipid homeostasis.
Project description:Cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by transcription factors SREBPs and their escort protein Scap. On sterol depletion, Scap/SREBP complex is transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where SREBP is activated. Under cholesterol sufficient condition, Insigs act as anchor proteins to retain Scap/SREBP in the ER. However, the anchor protein of Scap/SREBP in the Golgi is unknown. Here we report that a Golgi-localized membrane protein progestin and adipoQ receptors 3 (PAQR3) interacts with Scap and SREBP and tethers them to the Golgi. PAQR3 promotes Scap/SREBP complex formation, potentiates SREBP processing and enhances lipid synthesis. The mutually exclusive interaction between Scap and PAQR3 or Insig-1 is regulated by cholesterol level. PAQR3 knockdown in liver blunts SREBP pathway and decreases hepatic cholesterol content. Disrupting the interaction of PAQR3 with Scap/SREBP by a synthetic peptide inhibits SREBP processing and activation. Thus, PAQR3 regulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP to the Golgi and disruption of such function reduces cholesterol biosynthesis.
Project description:Pulmonary surfactant is required for lung function at birth and throughout postnatal life. Defects in the surfactant system are associated with common pulmonary disorders including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults. Lipogenesis is essential for the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant by type II epithelial cells lining the alveoli. This study sought to identify the role of pulmonary epithelial SREBP, a transcriptional regulator of cellular lipid homeostasis, during a critical time period of perinatal lung maturation in the mouse. Genome wide mRNA expression profiling of lung tissue from transgenic mice with epithelial-specific deletions of Scap (Scap(?/?), resulting in inactivation of SREBP signaling) or Insig1 and Insig2 (Insig1/2(?/?), resulting in activation of SREBP signaling) was assessed. Differentially expressed genes responding to SREBP perturbations were identified and subjected to functional enrichment analysis, pathway mapping and literature mining to predict upstream regulators and transcriptional networks regulating surfactant lipid homeostasis. Through comprehensive data analysis and integration, time dependent effects of epithelial SCAP/INSIG/SREBP deletion and defined SCAP/INSIG/SREBP-associated genes, bioprocesses and downstream pathways were identified. SREBP signaling influences epithelial development, cell death and cell proliferation at E17.5, while primarily influencing surfactant physiology, lipid/sterol synthesis, and phospholipid transport after birth. SREBP signaling integrated with the Wnt/?-catenin and glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathways during perinatal lung maturation. SREBP regulates perinatal lung lipogenesis and maturation through multiple mechanisms by interactions with distinct sets of regulatory partners.
Project description:Tumorigenesis is associated with increased glucose consumption and lipogenesis, but how these pathways are interlinked is unclear. Here, we delineate a pathway in which EGFR signaling, by increasing glucose uptake, promotes N-glycosylation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and consequent activation of SREBP-1, an ER-bound transcription factor with central roles in lipid metabolism. Glycosylation stabilizes SCAP and reduces its association with Insig-1, allowing movement of SCAP/SREBP to the Golgi and consequent proteolytic activation of SREBP. Xenograft studies reveal that blocking SCAP N-glycosylation ameliorates EGFRvIII-driven glioblastoma growth. Thus, SCAP acts as key glucose-responsive protein linking oncogenic signaling and fuel availability to SREBP-dependent lipogenesis. Targeting SCAP N-glycosylation may provide a promising means of treating malignancies and metabolic diseases.
Project description:In this study, we studied the genomic responses of the Insig and Scap deletion from perinatal lung. Through comprehensive data analysis and integration, time dependent effects of epithelial SCAP/INSIG/SREBP deletion and defined SCAP/INSIG/SREBP-associated genes, bioprocesses and downstream pathways were identified. Total lung RNA was isolated from Scapdelata/delta, Insig1/2delta/delta, and respective control littermates at E17.5, E18.5 and PN1 were used for mRNA expression profiling analysis (n=3 for each condition)
Project description:In the current studies we generated transgenic mice that overexpress human Insig-1 in the liver under a constitutive promoter. In cultured cells Insig-1 and Insig-2 have been shown to block lipid synthesis in a cholesterol-dependent fashion by inhibiting proteolytic processing of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), membrane-bound transcription factors that activate lipid synthesis. Insig's exert this action in the ER by binding SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and preventing it from escorting SREBPs to the Golgi apparatus where the SREBPs are processed to their active forms. In the livers of Insig-1 transgenic mice, the content of all nuclear SREBPs (nSREBPs) was reduced and declined further upon feeding of dietary cholesterol. The nuclear content of the insulin-induced SREBP isoform, SREBP-1c, failed to increase to a normal extent upon refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet. The nSREBP deficiency produced a marked reduction in the levels of mRNAs encoding enzymes required for synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides. Plasma cholesterol levels were strongly reduced, and plasma triglycerides did not exhibit their normal rise after refeeding. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that nSREBPs are essential for high levels of lipid synthesis in the liver and indicate that Insig's modulate nSREBP levels by binding and retaining SCAP in the ER.