Visuomotor Function in School-Age Children with Single-Suture Craniosynostosis.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that infants and young children with single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC) perform more poorly on tests of visuomotor function than children without SSC. However, previous studies are limited by small sample sizes and little is known about the persistence of visuomotor problems into the school-age years. The aim of this study was to compare visuomotor function in children with and without SSC at the beginning of elementary school.The study included 179 children with SSC (cases) and 183 children without SSC (controls). Visuomotor function was measured by the NEPSY-II Arrows, the Purdue Pegboard Test, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of visual-motor integration. Case-control differences were estimated using linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal IQ.Cases scored more poorly on all measures of visuomotor function, although the magnitude of case-control differences varied across measures. The greatest differences were observed for the Purdue Pegboard Test, with an average adjusted difference of -0.2 to -0.4 SD points (p-values ranged from .008 to .05). Case-control differences were small in magnitude for other measures of visuomotor function, ranging from -0.01 to -0.1 SD points (p-values ranged from .22 to .88).Children with SSC experienced deficits in manual dexterity into the school-age years but were similar to children without SSC on measures of visual processing. These findings advocate for the assessment of fine-motor function as part of school readiness evaluations in children with SSC.
Project description:How music training and expertise influence non-musical abilities is a widely researched topic. Most studies focus on the differences between adult professional musicians and non-musicians, or examine the effects of intensive instrumental training in childhood. However, the impact of music programs developed in regular school contexts for children from low-income communities is poorly explored. We conducted a longitudinal training study in such communities to examine if collective (Orff-based) music training enhances fine motor abilities, when compared to a homologous training program in sports (basketball), and to no specific training. The training programs in music and sports had the same duration, 24 weeks, and were homologous in structure. A pre-test, training, post-test and follow-up design was adopted. Children attending the 3rd grade (n = 74, 40 girls; mean age 8.31 years) were pseudorandomly divided into three groups, music, sports and control that were matched on demographic and intellectual characteristics. Fine motor abilities were assessed with the Purdue pegboard test (eye-hand coordination and motor speed, both subsumed under manual dexterity, and bimanual coordination) and with the Grooved pegboard (manipulative dexterity) test. All groups improved in manipulative dexterity that was not affected by type of training. On bimanual coordination and manual dexterity, however, a robust and stable advantage of music training emerged. At the end of training (post-test), children from the music group significantly outperformed children from the sports and control groups, an advantage that persisted at follow-up 4 months after training at the start of the following school year. Also, at follow-up none of the children from the music group were performing below the 20th percentile in the Purdue pegboard subtests and more than half were performing at the high end level (>80th percentile). Children from the sports group also improved significantly from pre- to post-test but their performance was not significantly different from that of the control group. These results show that an affordable, collective-based music practice impacts positively on fine-motor abilities, a finding that is relevant for a better understanding of the impact of music in childhood development, and that may have implications for education at the primary grade.
Project description:Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well understood because of small sample sizes and lack of adequate control conditions. We examined neuropsychological functioning in relatively large and well-characterized samples of children categorized as TS, TS-plus-ADHD, ADHD, and unaffected controls.A total of 56 children with TS-only, 45 with TS-plus-ADHD, 64 with ADHD, and 71 healthy community control subjects were assessed on a battery of neuropsychological measures including the Connors' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (Stroop), the Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test (VMI), and the Purdue Pegboard Test.There were no differences between children with TS-only and unaffected controls on the measures of response inhibition and visual-motor integration. Boys with TS-only but not girls with TS-only were impaired in the dominant hand Purdue performance. Children with ADHD were impaired on all study measures. Children with TS-plus-ADHD revealed no deficits on the Stroop, VMI, and Purdue tests but were impaired on the sustained attention portion of the CPT.These results indicate that co-occurring ADHD may be responsible for the neuropsychological deficits, or at least those assessed in the present study, in children with TS. Explanations in terms of neurobiological mechanisms of co-occurring TS and ADHD, as well as possible compensatory mechanisms in children with TS, are discussed.
Project description:Movement atypicalities in speed, coordination, posture, and gait have been observed across the autism spectrum (AS) and atypicalities in coordination are more commonly observed in AS individuals without delayed speech (DSM-IV Asperger) than in those with atypical or delayed speech onset. However, few studies have provided quantitative data to support these mostly clinical observations. Here, we compared perceptual and motor performance between 30 typically developing and AS individuals (21 with speech delay and 18 without speech delay) to examine the associations between limb movement control and atypical speech development. Groups were matched for age, intelligence, and sex. The experimental design included: an inspection time task, which measures visual processing speed; the Purdue Pegboard, which measures finger dexterity, bimanual performance, and hand-eye coordination; the Annett Peg Moving Task, which measures unimanual goal-directed arm movement; and a simple reaction time task. We used analysis of covariance to investigate group differences in task performance and linear regression models to explore potential associations between intelligence, language skills, simple reaction time, and visually guided movement performance. AS participants without speech delay performed slower than typical participants in the Purdue Pegboard subtests. AS participants without speech delay showed poorer bimanual coordination than those with speech delay. Visual processing speed was slightly faster in both AS groups than in the typical group. Altogether, these results suggest that AS individuals with and without speech delay differ in visually guided and visually triggered behavior and show that early language skills are associated with slower movement in simple and complex motor tasks.
Project description:Objective The objective of this article is to obtain detailed quantitative assessment of cerebellar function and structure in unselected migraine patients and controls from the general population. Methods A total of 282 clinically well-defined participants (migraine with aura n?=?111; migraine without aura n?=?89; non-migraine controls n?=?82; age range 43-72; 72% female) from a population-based study were subjected to a range of sensitive and validated cerebellar tests that cover functions of all main parts of the cerebellar cortex, including cerebrocerebellum, spinocerebellum, and vestibulocerebellum. In addition, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to screen for cerebellar lesions. As a positive control, the same cerebellar tests were conducted in 13 patients with familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1; age range 19-64; 69% female) all carrying a CACNA1A mutation known to affect cerebellar function. Results MRI revealed cerebellar ischemic lesions in 17/196 (8.5%) migraine patients and 3/79 (4%) controls, which were always located in the posterior lobe except for one control. With regard to the cerebellar tests, there were no differences between migraine patients with aura, migraine patients without aura, and controls for the: (i) Purdue-pegboard test for fine motor skills (assembly scores p?=?0.1); (ii) block-design test for visuospatial ability (mean scaled scores p?=?0.2); (iii) prism-adaptation task for limb learning (shift scores p?=?0.8); (iv) eyeblink-conditioning task for learning-dependent timing (peak-time p?=?0.1); and (v) body-sway test for balance capabilities (pitch velocity score under two-legs stance condition p?=?0.5). Among migraine patients, those with cerebellar ischaemic lesions performed worse than those without lesions on the assembly scores of the pegboard task ( p?<?0.005), but not on the primary outcome measures of the other tasks. Compared with controls and non-hemiplegic migraine patients, FHM1 patients showed substantially more deficits on all primary outcomes, including Purdue-peg assembly ( p?<?0.05), block-design scaled score ( p?<?0.001), shift in prism-adaptation ( p?<?0.001), peak-time of conditioned eyeblink responses ( p?<?0.05) and pitch-velocity score during stance-sway test ( p?<?0.001). Conclusions Unselected migraine patients from the general population show normal cerebellar functions despite having increased prevalence of ischaemic lesions in the cerebellar posterior lobe. Except for an impaired pegboard test revealing deficits in fine motor skills, these lesions appear to have little functional impact. In contrast, all cerebellar functions were significantly impaired in participants with FHM1.
Project description:The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100) performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the Purdue Pegboard test. Motor timing performance was significantly related (mean r = .3) to cognitive measures, and explained both unique and shared variance with information-processing speed of Raven's scores. No significant relations were found between motor timing measures and fine motor skills. These results show that individual differences in cognitive and motor timing performance is to some extent dependent upon shared processing not associated with individual differences in manual dexterity.
Project description:The aims of this study were twofold: first, to develop and validate a timed test of unimanual and bimanual dexterity suitable for those with disability affecting hand function; second, to explore relationships between unimanual and bimanual completion times.We developed the Tyneside Pegboard Test (TPT), an electronically timed test with three peg sizes, incorporating an asymmetrical bimanual task. Nine hundred and seventy-four participants (455 males, 519 females; age range 4-80y) provided normative data. Test-retest reliability and construct validity were assessed (50 adults: 14 males, 36 females; 15-73y) on two occasions 2 weeks apart. Bimanual and unimanual completion times were measured in 87 children (51 males, 36 females) with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) and 498 individuals in a comparison group (238 males, 260 females; 5-15y).The comparison group showed an asymmetrical U-shaped relationship between completion times and age. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.74 to 0.91, indicating moderate test-retest reliability. There was a negative relationship between average TPT bimanual times and Purdue pegboard bimanual scores (Spearman's rho -0.611, degrees of freedom 44, p<0.001). Children with unilateral CP had greater prolongation of bimanual than unimanual completion times compared with the comparison group (mean difference 20.31s, 95% confidence interval 18.13-22.49, p<0.001).The TPT is accessible for those with impaired hand function. Children with unilateral CP demonstrated disproportionate bimanual deficits, even allowing for unimanual dexterity: this has implications for therapy.We developed an adapted, electronically timed 9-hole pegboard test. Our modifications facilitate use by those with disability affecting hand function. The test incorporates an asymmetrical bimanual task. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy showed disproportionate bimanual dexterity deficits even allowing for unimanual dexterity.
Project description:We previously reported similar AIDS-free survival at 3 years in children who were >1 year old initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and randomized to early versus deferred ART in the Pediatric Randomized to Early versus Deferred Initiation in Cambodia and Thailand (PREDICT) study. We now report neurodevelopmental outcomes.Two hundred eighty-four HIV-infected Thai and Cambodian children aged 1-12 years with CD4 counts between 15% and 24% and no AIDS-defining illness were randomized to initiate ART at enrollment ("early," n = 139) or when CD4 count became <15% or a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) category C event developed ("deferred," n = 145). All underwent age-appropriate neurodevelopment testing including Beery Visual Motor Integration, Purdue Pegboard, Color Trails and Child Behavioral Checklist. Thai children (n = 170) also completed Wechsler Intelligence Scale (intelligence quotient) and Stanford Binet Memory test. We compared week 144 measures by randomized group and to HIV-uninfected children (n = 319).At week 144, the median age was 9 years and 69 (48%) of the deferred arm children had initiated ART. The early arm had a higher CD4 (33% versus 24%, P < 0.001) and a greater percentage of children with viral suppression (91% versus 40%, P < 0.001). Neurodevelopmental scores did not differ by arm, and there were no differences in changes between arms across repeated assessments in time-varying multivariate models. HIV-infected children performed worse than uninfected children on intelligence quotient, Beery Visual Motor Integration, Binet memory and Child Behavioral Checklist.In HIV-infected children surviving beyond 1 year of age without ART, neurodevelopmental outcomes were similar with ART initiation at CD4 15%-24% versus <15%, but both groups performed worse than HIV-uninfected children. The window of opportunity for a positive effect of ART initiation on neurodevelopment may remain in infancy.
Project description:The manifestation of cognitive and physical impairment in stroke patients before the acute event suggests accumulating subclinical vascular pathology in the brain. We investigated whether impairments in cognitive and physical functioning were associated with an increased stroke risk. Between 2002 and 2008, 8,519 stroke-free non-demented participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study underwent cognition and physical assessments including Mini-Mental State Examination, 15-word learning test, Stroop test, letter-digit substitution test, verbal fluency test, Purdue pegboard test and questionnaires on basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL; IADL). Principal component analysis was used to derive global cognition (G-factor). Incident stroke was assessed through continuous monitoring of medical records until 2016. Among 8,519 persons (mean age 66.0 years; 57.8% women), 489 suffered a stroke during mean follow-up of 8.7 years (SD: 2.9). Worse G-factor was associated with higher stroke risk (Hazard Ratio 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.38), largely driven by unspecified stroke. Likewise, worse scores on 15-word learning test, Stroop test, Purdue pegboard test, IADL, and BADL were associated with higher risk of stroke. Thus both worse cognitive and physical functioning were associated with a higher stroke risk, in particular unspecified stroke and persons with worse memory, information processing, executive function, and motor function.
Project description:Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD.We examined the effect of these two risk factors on measures of attentional control, motor inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine motor coordination in a group of 81 children with ADHD, aged from 8 to 18 years. The neuropsychological battery included the Connors' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test, the Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test, and the Purdue Pegboard Test.Heavy maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with slower reaction times (p < .002), and reaction time variability (p < .007) on the CPT.This study suggests a persistent negative effect of heavy prenatal maternal smoking on attentional control in children with ADHD. Future studies should examine the neurobiological basis and determine the degree to which inherited genetic susceptibility factors contribute to this finding.
Project description:To investigate the relationship between vestibular loss associated with aging and age-related decline in visuospatial function.Cross-sectional analysis within a prospective cohort study.Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA).Community-dwelling BLSA participants with a mean age of 72 (range 26-91) (N = 183).Vestibular function was measured using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. Visuospatial cognitive tests included Card Rotations, Purdue Pegboard, Benton Visual Retention Test, and Trail-Making Test Parts A and B. Tests of executive function, memory, and attention were also considered.Participants underwent vestibular and cognitive function testing. In multiple linear regression analyses, poorer vestibular function was associated with poorer performance on Card Rotations (P = .001), Purdue Pegboard (P = .005), Benton Visual Retention Test (P = 0.008), and Trail-Making Test Part B (P = .04). Performance on tests of executive function and verbal memory were not significantly associated with vestibular function. Exploratory factor analyses in a subgroup of participants who underwent all cognitive tests identified three latent cognitive abilities: visuospatial ability, verbal memory, and working memory and attention. Vestibular loss was significantly associated with lower visuospatial and working memory and attention factor scores.Significant consistent associations between vestibular function and tests of visuospatial ability were observed in a sample of community-dwelling adults. Impairment in visuospatial skills is often one of the first signs of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Further longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether the relationship between vestibular function and visuospatial ability is causal.