Migration of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stably Expressing Chondroitinase ABC In vitro.
ABSTRACT: Several studies have revealed that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be used as seed cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) decomposes chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the glial scar that forms following SCI, allowing stem cells to penetrate through the scar and promote recovery of nerve function. This study aimed to establish ADSCs that stably express ChABC (ChABC-ADSCs) and evaluate the migratory capability of ChABC-ADSCs in vitro.ADSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using secondary collagenase digestion. Their phenotypes were characterized using flow cytometry detection of cell surface antigens and their stem cell properties were confirmed by induction of differentiation. After successful culture, ADSCs were transfected with lentiviral vectors and ChABC-ADSCs were obtained. Proliferation curves of ChABC-ADSCs were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 method, ChABC expression was verified using Western blotting, and the migration of ChABC-ADSCs was analyzed using the transwell assay.Secondary collagenase digestion increased the isolation efficiency of primary ADSCs. Following transfection using lentiviral vectors, the proliferation of ChABC-ADSCs was reduced in comparison with control ADSCs at 48 h (P < 0.05). And the level of ChABC expression in the ChABC-ADSC group was significantly higher than that of the ADSC group (P < 0.05). Moreover, ChABC-ADSC migration in matrigel was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control (P < 0.05).Secondary collagenase digestion can be used to effectively isolate ADSCs. ChABC-ADSCs constructed using lentiviral vector transfection stably express ChABC, and ChABC expression significantly enhances the migratory capacity of ADSCs.
Project description:Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are glial scar-associated molecules considered axonal regeneration inhibitors and can be digested by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to promote axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). We previously demonstrated that intrathecal delivery of low-dose ChABC (1 U) in the acute stage of SCI promoted axonal regrowth and functional recovery. In this study, high-dose ChABC (50 U) introduced via intrathecal delivery induced subarachnoid hemorrhage and death within 48 h. However, most SCI patients are treated in the sub-acute or chronic stages, when the dense glial scar has formed and is minimally digested by intrathecal delivery of ChABC at the injury site. The present study investigated whether intraparenchymal delivery of ChABC in the sub-acute stage of complete spinal cord transection would promote axonal outgrowth and improve functional recovery. We observed no functional recovery following the low-dose ChABC (1 U or 5 U) treatments. Furthermore, animals treated with high-dose ChABC (50 U or 100 U) showed decreased CSPGs levels. The extent and area of the lesion were also dramatically decreased after ChABC treatment. The outgrowth of the regenerating axons was significantly increased, and some partially crossed the lesion site in the ChABC-treated groups. In addition, retrograde Fluoro-Gold (FG) labeling showed that the outgrowing axons could cross the lesion site and reach several brain stem nuclei involved in sensory and motor functions. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) open field locomotor scores revealed that the ChABC treatment significantly improved functional recovery compared to the control group at eight weeks after treatment. Our study demonstrates that high-dose ChABC treatment in the sub-acute stage of SCI effectively improves glial scar digestion by reducing the lesion size and increasing axonal regrowth to the related functional nuclei, which promotes locomotor recovery. Thus, our results will aid in the treatment of spinal cord injury.
Project description:Functional and neural tissue recovery has been reported in many animal studies conducted with stem cells. However, the combined effect of cytokines and stem cells has not yet been adequately researched. Here, we analyzed the additive effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) infusion in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats.Four days after intrathecal infusion tubes implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats, SCI was induced with an infinite horizon impactor. In the Sham group (n=5), phosphate-buffered saline was injected 3, 7, and 14 days after SCI. GCSF, ADSCs, and ADSCs with GCSF were injected at the same time in the GCSF (n=8), ADSC (n=8), and ADSC+GCSF groups (n=7), respectively.The ADSC and ADSC+GCSF groups, but not the GCSF group, showed significantly higher Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores than the Sham group during 8 weeks (p<0.01), but no significant difference between the ADSC and ADSC+GCSF groups. In the ladder rung test, all four groups were significantly different from each other, with the ADSC+GCSF group showing the best improvement (p<0.01). On immunofluorescent staining (GAP43, MAP2), western blotting (GAP43), and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (GAP43, nerve growth factor), the ADSC and ADSC+GCSF groups showed higher levels than the Sham and GCSF groups.Our analyses suggest that the combination of GCSF and ADSCs infusions in acute SCI in the rat does not have a significant additive effect. Hence, when combination agents for SCI stem cell therapy are considered, molecules other than GCSF, or modifications to the methodology, should be investigated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The therapeutic effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) transplantation have been demonstrated in several models of central nervous system (CNS) injury and are thought to involve the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Activation of the Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway is thought to involve inflammatory and gliotic events in the CNS. Here, we elucidated the effect of ADSC transplantation on the inflammatory reaction after spinal cord injury (SCI) and the potential mechanism mediated by Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway suppression. METHODS:To evaluate the therapeutic effects of ADSC treatment and the potential inhibitory effects of ADSCs on Notch signaling, mice were subjected to contusion SCI, and GFP-labeled ADSCs were injected into the lesion site immediately after the injury. Locomotor function, spinal cord tissue morphology, and the levels of Notch-related proteins and proinflammatory transcripts were compared between groups. To validate the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of ADSCs are partly due to Notch1 signaling inhibition, a Jagged1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was injected into the spinal cord to knock down Jagged1/Notch signaling. Neuronal staining and analyses of microglia/macrophage activation and signaling pathways were performed. RESULTS:We demonstrated that ADSCs survived in the injured spinal cord for at least 28?days without differentiating into glial or neuronal elements. ADSC treatment resulted in significant downregulation of proinflammatory mediator expression and reduced ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA1) and ED-1 staining in the injured spinal cord, eventually improving functional recovery. The augmentation of the Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway after SCI was suppressed by ADSC transplantation. The inhibition of the Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway by Jagged1 siRNA resulted in decreases in SCI-induced proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of microglia and an increase in the survival of neurons. Furthermore, Jagged1 knockdown suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK/STAT3 in astrocytes following SCI. CONCLUSION:The results of this study demonstrated that the therapeutic effects of ADSCs in SCI mice were partly due to Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway inhibition and a subsequent reduction in JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation in astrocytes.
Project description:Treatment of chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) is challenging due to cell loss, cyst formation, and the glial scar. Previously, we reported on the therapeutic potential of a neural progenitor cell (NPC) and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) combinatorial therapy for chronic SCI. However, the source of NPCs and delivery system required for ChABC remained barriers to clinical application. Here, we investigated directly reprogrammed human NPCs biased toward an oligodendrogenic fate (oNPCs) in combination with sustained delivery of ChABC using an innovative affinity release strategy in a crosslinked methylcellulose biomaterial for the treatment of chronic SCI in an immunodeficient rat model. This combinatorial therapy increased long-term survival of oNPCs around the lesion epicenter, facilitated greater oligodendrocyte differentiation, remyelination of the spared axons by engrafted oNPCs, enhanced synaptic connectivity with anterior horn cells and neurobehavioral recovery. This combinatorial therapy is a promising strategy to regenerate the chronically injured spinal cord.
Project description:AIMS:Usually, spinal cord injury (SCI) develops into a glial scar containing extracellular matrix molecules including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), from Proteus vulgaris degrading the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of CSPGs, offers the opportunity to improve the final outcome of SCI. However, ChABC usage is limited by its thermal instability, requiring protein structure modifications, consecutive injections at the lesion site, or implantation of infusion pumps. METHODS:Aiming at more feasible strategy to preserve ChABC catalytic activity, we assessed various stabilizing agents in different solutions and demonstrated, via a spectrophotometric protocol, that the 2.5 mol/L Sucrose solution best stabilized ChABC as far as 14 days in vitro. RESULTS:ChABC activity was improved in both stabilizing and diluted solutions at +37°C, that is, mimicking their usage in vivo. We also verified the safety of the proposed aqueous sucrose solution in terms of viability/cytotoxicity of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) in both proliferating and differentiating conditions in vitro. Furthermore, we showed that a single intraspinal treatment with ChABC and sucrose reduced reactive gliosis at the injury site in chronic contusive SCI in rats and slightly enhanced their locomotor recovery. CONCLUSION:Usage of aqueous sucrose solutions may be a feasible strategy, in combination with rehabilitation, to ameliorate ChABC-based treatments to promote the regeneration of central nervous system injuries.
Project description:After spinal cord injury (SCI), re-establishing functional circuitry in the damaged central nervous system (CNS) faces multiple challenges including lost tissue volume, insufficient intrinsic growth capacity of adult neurons, and the inhibitory environment in the damaged CNS. Several treatment strategies have been developed over the past three decades, but successful restoration of sensory and motor functions will probably require a combination of approaches to address different aspects of the problem. Degradation of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans with the chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme removes a regeneration barrier from the glial scar and increases plasticity in the CNS by removing perineuronal nets. its mechanism of action does not clash or overlap with most of the other treatment strategies, making ChABC an attractive candidate as a combinational partner with other methods. in this article, we review studies in rat SCI models using ChABC combined with other treatments including cell implantation, growth factors, myelin-inhibitory molecule blockers, and ion channel expression. We discuss possible ways to optimize treatment protocols for future combinational studies. To date, combinational therapies with ChABC have shown synergistic effects with several other strategies in enhancing functional recovery after SCI. These combinatorial approaches can now be developed for clinical application.
Project description:Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a major class of axon growth inhibitors that are up-regulated after spinal cord injury (SCI) and contribute to regenerative failure. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC) digests glycosaminoglycan chains on CSPGs and can thereby overcome CSPG-mediated inhibition. But chABC loses its enzymatic activity rapidly at 37 degrees C, necessitating the use of repeated injections or local infusions for a period of days to weeks. These infusion systems are invasive, infection-prone, and clinically problematic. To overcome this limitation, we have thermostabilized chABC and developed a system for its sustained local delivery in vivo, obviating the need for chronically implanted catheters and pumps. Thermostabilized chABC remained active at 37 degrees C in vitro for up to 4 weeks. CSPG levels remained low in vivo up to 6 weeks post-SCI when thermostabilized chABC was delivered by a hydrogel-microtube scaffold system. Axonal growth and functional recovery following the sustained local release of thermostabilized chABC versus a single treatment of unstabilized chABC demonstrated significant differences in CSPG digestion. Animals treated with thermostabilized chABC in combination with sustained neurotrophin-3 delivery showed significant improvement in locomotor function and enhanced growth of cholera toxin B subunit-positive sensory axons and sprouting of serotonergic fibers. Therefore, improving chABC thermostability facilitates minimally invasive, sustained, local delivery of chABC that is potentially effective in overcoming CSPG-mediated regenerative failure. Combination therapy with thermostabilized chABC with neurotrophic factors enhances axonal regrowth, sprouting, and functional recovery after SCI.
Project description:The adult spinal cord harbours a population of multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) with the ability to replace oligodendrocytes. However, despite this capacity, proliferation and endogenous remyelination is severely limited after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the post-traumatic microenvironment following SCI, endogenous spinal NPCs mainly differentiate into astrocytes which could contribute to astrogliosis that exacerbate the outcomes of SCI. These findings emphasize a key role for the post-SCI niche in modulating the behaviour of spinal NPCs after SCI. We recently reported that chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the glial scar restrict the outcomes of NPC transplantation in SCI by reducing the survival, migration and integration of engrafted NPCs within the injured spinal cord. These inhibitory effects were attenuated by administration of chondroitinase (ChABC) prior to NPC transplantation. Here, in a rat model of compressive SCI, we show that perturbing CSPGs by ChABC in combination with sustained infusion of growth factors (EGF, bFGF and PDGF-AA) optimize the activation and oligodendroglial differentiation of spinal NPCs after injury. Four days following SCI, we intrathecally delivered ChABC and/or GFs for seven days. We performed BrdU incorporation to label proliferating cells during the treatment period after SCI. This strategy increased the proliferation of spinal NPCs, reduced the generation of new astrocytes and promoted their differentiation along an oligodendroglial lineage, a prerequisite for remyelination. Furthermore, ChABC and GF treatments enhanced the response of non-neural cells by increasing the generation of new vascular endothelial cells and decreasing the number of proliferating macrophages/microglia after SCI. In conclusions, our data strongly suggest that optimization of the behaviour of endogenous spinal NPCs after SCI is critical not only to promote endogenous oligodendrocyte replacement, but also to reverse the otherwise detrimental effects of their activation into astrocytes which could negatively influence the repair process after SCI.
Project description:Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered as one of the most problematic neurological conditions requiring specialized clinical intervention. Taking into account that SCI is characterized by extensive loss of nerve cells, stem cell-based therapy seems to be a reasonable modern strategy to the treatment of SCI. The presented case report describes for the first time experimental treatment with the use of autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) of the chronic posttraumatic SCI in a domestic ferret patient with paresis of back legs. It should be noted that most reports in the available literature concern ADSC-based therapies for acute or subacute SCI treatment in other species. Application of ADSC-based therapy did not cause any adverse reactions and resulted in significant improvement of neurological and motor functions. Based on these outcomes, it may be concluded that this form of therapy is promising and may be potentially translated into clinical veterinary practice.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-based therapy is promising for critical limb ischemia (CLI) treatment, especially in patients with diabetes. However, the therapeutic effects of diabetic ADSCs (D-ADSCs) are impaired by the diabetes, possibly through intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The objective of the present study was to detect whether overexpression of methylglyoxal-metabolizing enzyme glyoxalase-1 (GLO1), which reduces ROS in D-ADSCs, can restore their proangiogenic function in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model of CLI. GLO1 overexpression in D-ADSCs (G-D-ADSCs) was achieved using the lentivirus method. G-D-ADSCs showed a significant decrease in intracellular ROS accumulation, increase in cell viability, and resistance to apoptosis under high-glucose conditions compared with D-ADSCs. G-D-ADSCs also performed better in terms of migration, differentiation, and proangiogenic capacity than D-ADSCs in a high-glucose environment. Notably, these properties were restored to the same level as that of nondiabetic ADSCs under high-glucose conditions. G-D-ADSC transplantation induced improved reperfusion and an increased limb salvage rate compared D-ADSCs in a diabetic mice model of CLI. Histological analysis revealed higher microvessel densities and more G-D-ADSC-incorporated microvessels in the G-D-ADSC group than in the D-ADSC group, which was comparable to the nondiabetic ADSC group. Higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A and stromal cell-derived factor-1? and lower expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1? were also detected in the ischemic muscles from the G-D-ADSC group than that of the D-ADSC group. The results of the present study have demonstrated that protection from ROS accumulation by GLO1 overexpression is effective in reversing the impaired biological function of D-ADSCs in promoting neovascularization of diabetic CLI mice model and warrants the future clinical application of D-ADSC-based therapy in diabetic patients. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:261-271.