The chemomodulatory effects of glufosfamide on docetaxel cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Background. Glufosfamide (GLU) is a glucose conjugate of ifosfamide in which isophosphoramide mustard is glycosidically linked to the ?-D-glucose molecule. Based on GLU structure, it is considered a targeted chemotherapy with fewer side effects. The main objective of the current study is to assess the cytotoxic potential of GLU for the first time in prostate cancer (PC) cells representing different stages of the tumor. Furthermore, this study examined the potential synergistic activity of GLU in combination with docetaxel (DOC). Methods. Two different cell lines were used, LNCaP and PC-3. Concentration-response curves were assessed. The tested groups per cell line were, control, GLU, DOC and combination. Treatment duration was 72 h. Cytotoxicity was assessed using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was calculated. Synergy analyses were performed using Calcusyn(®)software. Subsequent mechanistic studies included ?-glucosidase activity assay, glucose uptake and apoptosis studies, namely annexin V-FITC assay and the protein expression of mitochondrial pathway signals including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase 9 and 3 were assessed. Data are presented as mean ± SD; comparisons were carried out using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey-Kramer's test for post hoc analysis. Results. GLU induced cytotoxicity in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 in PC-3 cells was significantly lower by 19% when compared to that of LNCaP cells. The IC50 of combining both drugs showed comparable effect to DOC in PC-3 but was tremendously lowered by 49% compared to the same group in LNCaP cell line. ?-glucosidase activity was higher in LNCaP by about 67% compared to that determined in PC-3 cells while the glucose uptake in PC-3 cells was almost 2 folds that found in LNCaP cells. These results were directly correlated to the efficacy of GLU in each cell line. Treatment of PC cells with GLU as single agent or in combination with DOC induced significantly higher apoptosis as evidenced by Annexin V-staining. Apoptosis was significantly increased in combination group by 4.9 folds and by 2.1 Folds when compared to control in LNCaP cells and PC-3 cells; respectively. Similarly, the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly decreased while Bax, caspase 9 and 3 were significantly increased in the combined treatment groups compared to the control. Conclusion. GLU has a synergistic effect in combination with DOC as it increases the cell kill which can be attributed at least partially to apoptosis in both the tested cell lines and it is suggested as a new combination regimen to be considered in the treatment of the prostate cancer. Further experiments and clinical investigations are needed for assessment of that regimen.
Project description:Various 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been synthesized and their antiproliferative properties have been studied. The in vitro screening was performed against androgen dependent (LNCaP) and androgen independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines. Most of the compounds showed promising activity. Among them, compounds 2d (IC50=0.22 and 1.3?M) and 2a (IC50=8.34 and 2,5?M) have shown significant activities on PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cell death we performed cell apoptosis staining and cell cycle arrest assay on more sensitive PC-3 cell lines on 2d. The results demonstrated that 2d induced apoptosis and shifted the cells to the sub G0/G1 and S phase. Our study evidently identified the potency of compound 2d as potential anti-prostate cancer agent.
Project description:Clinical applications of camptothecin (CPT) have been heavily hindered due to its non-targeted toxicity, active lactone ring instability, and poor water solubility. Targeted drug delivery systems may offer the possibility to overcome the above issues as reported. In this research, a series of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-activated CPT prodrugs were designed and synthesized by coupling water-soluble pentapeptide, a PSMA hydrolyzing substrate, to CPT through an appropriate linker. The cytotoxicity of CPT prodrugs was masked temporarily until they were hydrolyzed by the PSMA present within the tumor sites, which restored cytotoxicity. The in vitro selective cytotoxic activities of the prodrugs were evaluated against PSMA-expressing human prostate cancer cells LNCaP-FGC and non-PSMA-expressing cancer cells HepG2, Hela, MCF-7, DU145, PC-3 and normal cells MDCK, LO2 by standard methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Most of the newly synthesized CPT prodrugs showed excellent selective toxicity to PSMA-producing prostate cancer cells LNCaP-FGC with improved water solubility. From among the library, CPT-HT-J-ZL12 showed the best cytotoxic selectivity between the PSMA-expressing and the non-PSMA-expressing cancer cells. For example, the cytotoxicity of CPT-HT-J-ZL12 (IC50 = 1.00 ± 0.20 µM) against LNCaP-FGC (PSMA?) was 40-fold, 40-fold, 21-fold, 5-fold and 40-fold, respectively, higher than that against the non-PSMA-expressing cells HepG2 (IC50 > 40.00 µM), Hela (IC50 > 40.00 µM), MCF-7 (IC50 = 21.68 ± 4.96 µM), DU145 (IC50 = 5.40 ± 1.22 µM), PC-3 (IC50 = 42.96 ± 3.69 µM) cells. Moreover, CPT-HT-J-ZL12 exhibited low cytotoxicity (IC50 > 40 ?M) towards MDCK and LO2 cells. The cellular uptake experiment demonstrated the superior PSMA-targeting ability of the CPT-HT-J-ZL12, which was significantly accumulated in LNCaP-FGC (PSMA?), while it was minimized in HepG2 (PSMA-) cells. Further cell apoptosis analyses indicated that it showed a dramatically higher apoptosis-inducing activity in LNCaP-FGC (PSMA?) cells than in HepG2 (PSMA-) cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that CPT-HT-J-ZL12 could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase.
Project description:Chemotherapy and anti-hormonal therapies are the most common treatments for non-organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa). However, the effectiveness of these therapies is limited, thus necessitating the development of alternative approaches. The present study focused on analyzing the role of pterostilbene (PTER)-isothiocyanate (ITC) conjugate--a novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by appending an ITC moiety on PTER backbone--in regulating the functions of androgen receptor (AR), thereby causing apoptosis of PCa cells. The conjugate molecule caused 50% growth inhibition (IC50) at 40 ± 1.12 and 45 ± 1.50 ?M in AR positive (LNCaP) and negative (PC-3) cells, respectively. The reduced proliferation of PC-3 as well as LNCaP cells by conjugate correlated with accumulation of cells in G2/M phase and induction of caspase dependent apoptosis. Both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways played an important and differential role in conjugate-induced apoptosis of these PCa cells. While the inhibitor of Akt (A6730) or Akt-specific small interference RNA (siRNA) greatly sensitized PC-3 cells to conjugate-induced apoptosis, on the contrary, apoptosis was accelerated by inhibition of ERK (by PD98059 or ERK siRNA) in case of LNCaP cells, both ultimately culminating in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. Moreover, anti-androgenic activity of the conjugate was mediated by decreased expression of AR and its co-activators (SRC-1, GRIP-1), thus interfering in their interactions with AR. All these data suggests that conjugate-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis are partly mediated by the down regulation of AR, Akt, and ERK signaling. These observations provide a rationale for devising novel therapeutic approaches for treating PCa by using conjugate alone or in combination with other therapeutics.
Project description:Kaempferol is a well-known natural flavonol reported to be a potential treatment for multiple cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that cell growth of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells could be inhibited 33% by 5??M kaempferol, around 60% by 10??M kaempferol, and almost 100% by 15??M kaempferol. Also, kaempferol showed relatively limited effect on PC-3 cells and nonmalignant RWPE-1 cells. In the presence of DHT, the IC50 for kaempferol was 28.8 ± 1.5??M in LNCaP cells, 58.3 ± 3.5??M in PC-3 cells, and 69.1 ± 1.2??M in RWPE-1 cells, respectively. Kaempferol promotes apoptosis of LNCaP cells in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Then, luciferase assay data showed that kaempferol could inhibit the activation of androgen receptors induced by DHT significantly. The downstream targets of androgen receptors, such as PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1, were found decreased in the presence of kaempferol in qPCR data. It was then confirmed that the protein level of PSA was decreased. Kaempferol inhibits AR protein expression and nuclear accumulation. Kaempferol suppressed vasculogenic mimicry of PC-3 cells in an in vitro study. In conclusion, kaempferol is a promising therapeutic candidate for treatment of prostate cancer, where the androgen signaling pathway as well as vasculogenic mimicry are involved.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that 50% of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was present in methylated form (4?-MeEGCG) in human prostate tissue, which is less bioactive. We therefore investigated whether quercetin, a natural inhibitor of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), will inhibit EGCG methylation leading to enhanced antiproliferative activity of EGCG in prostate cancer cells. Incubation with both quercetin and EGCG for 2 h increased the cellular concentrations of EGCG by 4- to 8-fold and 6- to 10-fold in androgen-independent PC-3 cells and androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, respectively. Concurrently, the percent of 4?-MeEGCG in the total EGCG was decreased from 39% to 15% in PC-3 cells and from 61% to 38% in LNCaP cells. Quercetin and EGCG in combination synergistically inhibited cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest, and induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. In LNCaP cells, EGCG and quercetin exhibited a stronger antiproliferative activity leading to an additive effect. The synergistic effect of these 2 agents in PC-3 cells could be based on the fact that EGCG primarily inhibited COMT activity, whereas quercetin reduced the amount of COMT protein. In summary, quercetin combined with EGCG in vitro demonstrated enhanced inhibition of cell proliferation by increasing the intracellular concentration of EGCG and decreasing EGCG methylation.
Project description:Physiological and pathophysiological functions of the phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1) are still not completely understood. To elucidate PLA2R1's function in prostate carcinoma, the receptor was ectopically overexpressed in LNCaP with silenced PLA2R1, and diminished in PC-3 cells with constitutively increased PLA2R1 expression relative to normal prostate epithelial cells. LNCaP cells were transfected to overexpress PLA2R1 (LNCaP-PLA2R1) and compared to control vector transfected cells (LNCaP-Ctrl). Alternatively, a CRISPR/Cas9-knockdown of PLA2R1 was achieved in PC-3 cells (PC-3 KD) and compared to the corresponding control-transfected cells (PC-3 Ctrl). The impact of PLA2R1 expression on proliferative and metastatic parameters was analysed in vitro. A pilot in vivo study addressed the effects of PLA2R1 in mice xenografted with transfected LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Cell viability/proliferation and motility were significantly increased in LNCaP-PLA2R1 and PC-3 Ctrl compared to LNCaP-Ctrl and PC-3 KD cells, respectively. However, levels of apoptosis, clonogenicity and cell invasion were reduced in LNCaP-PLA2R1 and PC-3 Ctrl cells. Gene expression analysis revealed an up-regulation of fibronectin 1 (FN1), TWIST homolog 1 (TWIST1), and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) in LNCaP-PLA2R1. In LNCaP xenografts, PLA2R1-dependent regulation of clonogenicity appeared to outweigh the receptor's pro-oncogenic properties, resulting in decreased tumour growth, supporting the tumour-suppressive role of PLA2R1. Alternatively, PC-3 Ctrl xenografts exhibited faster tumour growth compared to PC-3 KD cells, suggesting a pro-oncogenic effect of endogenous PLA2R1 expression. The differential growth-regulatory effects of PLA2R1 may be mediated by FN1, TWIST1, and CDK6 expression, although further investigation is required.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK, TNFSF12) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. TWEAK activates the Fn14 receptor, and may regulate cell death, survival and proliferation in tumor cells. However, there is little information on the function and regulation of this system in prostate cancer. Fn14 expression and TWEAK actions were studied in two human prostate cancer cell lines, the androgen-independent PC-3 cell line and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Additionally, the expression of Fn14 was analyzed in human biopsies of prostate cancer. Fn14 expression is increased in histological sections of human prostate adenocarcinoma. Both prostate cancer cell lines express constitutively Fn14, but, the androgen-independent cell line PC-3 showed higher levels of Fn14 that the LNCaP cells. Fn14 expression was up-regulated in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in presence of inflammatory cytokines (TNF?/IFN?) as well as in presence of bovine fetal serum. TWEAK induced apoptotic cell death in PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. Moreover, in PC-3 cells, co-stimulation with TNF?/IFN?/TWEAK induced a higher rate of apoptosis. However, TWEAK or TWEAK/TNF?/IFN? did not induce apoptosis in presence of bovine fetal serum. TWEAK induced cell death through activation of the Fn14 receptor. Apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-3, release of mitochondrial cytochrome C and an increased Bax/BclxL ratio. TWEAK/Fn14 pathway activation promotes apoptosis in androgen-independent PC-3 cells under certain culture conditions. Further characterization of the therapeutic target potential of TWEAK/Fn14 for human prostate cancer is warranted.
Project description:Tripartite motif 36 (TRIM36) belongs to the TRIM family, most members of which are involved in ubiquitination and degradation of target proteins by functioning as E3 ubiquitin ligases. The function of TRIM36 has not been well documented, therefore, we investigated the clinical significance and function of TRIM36 in human prostate cancer (PC). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that TRIM36 immunoreactivity was an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival of PC patients. Gain-of-function study revealed that overexpression of TRIM36 suppressed cell proliferation and migration of LNCaP, 22Rv1, and DU145 cells. Moreover, TRIM36 knockdown using siRNA suppressed apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation and migration in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. Furthermore, our microarray analysis revealed that the apoptosis-related pathway was significantly upregulated by TRIM36 overexpression. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis promoted by docetaxel treatment was alleviated in siTRIM36-treated LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that high expression of TRIM36 is associated with favorable prognosis and that TRIM36 plays a tumor-suppressive role by inhibiting cell proliferation and migration as well as promoting apoptosis in PC.
Project description:Present study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of cellular responses to D,L-sulforaphane (SFN), a highly promising cancer chemopreventive agent.Mitochondrial DNA deficient Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were generated by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide. Apoptosis was assessed by analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase-3. Immunoblotting was performed to determine the expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle-regulating proteins. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and cell cycle distribution were measured by flow cytometry.The Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were significantly more resistant to SFN-induced ROS generation, apoptotic DNA fragmentation, disruption of MMP, cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest compared with corresponding wild-type cells. SFN-induced autophagy, which serves to protect against apoptotic cell death in PC-3 and LNCaP cells, was also partially but markedly suppressed in Rho-0 variants compared with wild-type cells. SFN statistically significantly inhibited activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes in LNCaP and PC-3 cells.These results indicate, for the first time, that mitochondria-derived ROS serve to initiate diverse cellular responses to SFN exposure in human prostate cancer cells.
Project description:Naturally occurring phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) selectively inhibits growth of cancer cells by causing apoptosis, but the mechanism of cell death induction is not fully understood. We now show, for the first time, that growth factor adapter protein p66(Shc) is indispensable for PEITC-induced apoptosis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from p66(Shc) knockout mice were significantly more resistant to PEITC-mediated growth inhibition, cytoplasmic histone-associated apoptotic DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activation compared with wild-type fibroblasts. The PEITC treatment resulted in induction as well as increased Ser(36) phosphorylation of p66(Shc) in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of p66(Shc) protein conferred significant protection against PEITC-mediated cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation as well as production of reactive oxygen species in both PC-3 and LNCaP cells. The PEITC-treated PC-3 and LNCaP cells exhibited increased binding of p66(Shc) with prolyl isomerase Pin1, a protein implicated in translocation of p66(Shc) to mitochondria. Consistent with these results, treatment of PC-3 cells with PEITC resulted in translocation of p66(Shc) to the mitochondria as judged by immunoblotting using cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions and immunofluorescence microscopy. Growth suppression and apoptosis induction in tumor xenografts in vivo by oral administration of PEITC to the PC-3 tumor-bearing male athymic mice were accompanied by statistically significant increase in the level of Ser(36)-phosphorylated p66(Shc). Collectively, these results provide novel insight into the critical role of p66(Shc) in regulation of PEITC-induced apoptotic cell death in human prostate cancer cells.