Smoke-free homes, smoking susceptibility and familial smoking among never-smoking high school students: a cross-sectional analysis.
ABSTRACT: Research has shown that living in a smoke-free home has a positive effect on adolescents' perceived acceptance of smoking. However, the relationship between smoke-free homes and adolescent smoking behaviours remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between smoke-free homes and smoking susceptibility among high school students, and to determine whether these associations persist when analyses are stratified by familial smoking status.We conducted a random cross-sectional survey (2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey) of primary, junior and high school students in Canada (n = 47?203). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between smoke-free homes and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking high school students, with and without stratification by familial smoking.Analyses showed that adolescents living in a smoke-free home had reduced odds of being susceptible to smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.582, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.428-0.791) compared with their peers living in households where smoking was permitted. When adolescents had other family members who were smokers, having a smoke-free home was not significantly associated with reduced smoking susceptibility (OR 0.878, 95% CI 0.721-1.071).Our results suggest that smoke-free homes may influence future smoking initiation. Optimal success in preventing youth smoking uptake necessitates having a coherent antismoking message between the home smoking environment and familial smoking behaviour.
Project description:The present study reports on the prevalence of smoke-free homes, the characteristics of participants who adopted a smoke-free home policy, and the association between smoke-free homes and subsequent predictors of smoking cessation.Data are reported on 4,963 individuals who originally participated in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation between 1988 and 1993 and completed follow-up surveys in 2001 and 2005. The relationship between home smoking policy and smoking behavior was examined with a multivariate regression model.Among those who were smokers at the 2001 follow-up, the percentage reporting that no smoking was allowed in their home increased from 29% in 2001 to 38% in 2005. Smokers most likely to adopt smoke-free home policies between 2001 and 2005 were males, former smokers, and those who had lower levels of daily cigarette consumption (among those who continued to smoke), those with higher annual household incomes, and those with no other smokers in the household. Some 28% of smokers with smoke-free homes in 2001 reported that they had quit smoking by 2005 compared with 16% of those who allowed smoking in their homes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.2), and baseline quitters with smoke-free homes also were less likely to relapse (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.8).Smoke-free homes are becoming more prevalent, and they are a powerful tool not only to help smokers stop smoking but also to help keep those who quit from relapsing back to smoking.
Project description:The increasing denormalization of smoking by tobacco control policies and a normative smoke-free climate may shift power towards adolescent non-smokers. It is unclear, however, how common stigmatization of smokers is among adolescents or how stigmatization relates to the denormalization of smoking in their school and social environment. This paper aims to measure (1) whether stigmatization among European adolescents varies according to smoking status and socioeconomic position (SES), and (2) whether stigmatization is greater in school environments in which smoking is denormalized (i.e. those with low smoking rates and strong school tobacco policies). Data on 12,991 adolescents were collected in 55 schools in seven European countries (SILNE R-survey, 2016/17). We applied Stuber's adapted scale of perceived stereotyping and discrimination towards smokers to smoking status and five variables indicating a power shift towards non-smokers: the school's tobacco control policy (STP) score, the percentage of adolescents in the school who smoke, parents' level of education, students' academic performance, and the percentage of their friends who smoke. Multilevel regressions were applied to the global score for perceived stigmatization. Discrimination against smokers and stereotyping of smokers were frequently reported. Smokers reported less 'perceived stigmatization of smoking' than non-smokers (Beta = -0.146, p < 0.001). High-SES students reported stereotyping and discrimination more frequently than lower-SES students. The perception of stigmatization was lower among students whose academic performance was poor (Beta = -0.070, p < 0.001) and among those who had friends who smoked (Beta = -0.141, p < 0.001). Stigmatization was lower in schools with greater exposure to smoking and was not associated with the school's STP score. Perceived stigmatization of smoking is common among European adolescents. Smokers themselves, however, perceive stigmatization less often than non-smokers. Strong school tobacco policies do not increase stigmatization, but a social environment that is permissive of smoking decreases perceived stigmatization.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine how smoke-free and vape-free home and car policies differ for parents who are dual users of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), who only smoke cigarettes, or who only use e-cigarettes. To identify factors associated with not having smoke-free or vape-free policies and how often smoke-free advice is offered at pediatric offices. METHODS:Secondary analysis of 2017 parental interview data collected after their children's visit in 5 control practices participating in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure trial. RESULTS:Most dual users had smoke-free home policies, yet fewer had a vape-free home policies (63.8% vs 26.3%; P < .01). Dual users were less likely than cigarette users to have smoke-free car (P < .01), vape-free home (P < .001), or vape-free car (P < .001) policies. Inside cars, dual users were more likely than cigarette users to report smoking (P < .001), e-cigarette use (P < .001), and e-cigarette use with children present (P < .001). Parental characteristics associated with not having smoke-free or vape-free home and car policies include smoking ?10 cigarettes per day, using e-cigarettes, and having a youngest child >10 years old. Smoke-free home and car advice was infrequently delivered. CONCLUSIONS:Parents may perceive e-cigarette aerosol as safe for children. Dual users more often had smoke-free policies than vape-free policies for the home. Dual users were less likely than cigarette-only smokers to report various child-protective measures inside homes and cars. These findings reveal important opportunities for intervention with parents about smoking and vaping in homes and cars.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In vocational high schools, the prevalence of smoking is high (nearly 40% daily smoking in Danish vocational high schools). Schools are increasingly adopting school tobacco policies (STPs) and a national law on smoke-free school grounds has been implemented. Our objective was to explore the extent of STPs in vocational schools and examine the association of STPs and smoke-free school grounds legislation with student smoking. METHODS:We used data from the cross-sectional Danish National Youth Study 2014, including 5013 vocational high school students (76% male) at 40 campuses. Implementation of STPs was measured by questionnaires to principals and field observations of smoking practices were conducted. Logistic regression models assessed whether STP characteristics were associated with students' current smoking (ie, daily and occasional) compared with non-current smoking. Negative binominal regression models assessed cigarettes per day among daily smokers. RESULTS:Schools covered by the national law on smoke-free school ground had more comprehensive STPs than schools not covered by the law. Student smoking was observed on 78% of campuses, with less visibility of smoking in schools covered by the national law (69% vs 83%). Current smoking was lower for students attending a school covered by the national law (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.97). Students who attended schools that allowed teacher-student smoking were more likely to smoke (OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.27). CONCLUSIONS:A law on smoke-free school grounds was associated with less current smoking in vocational high schools, while school norms that are supportive of teacher-student smoking were associated with greater odds of current smoking. Visibility of student smoking was less prevalent at schools covered by the law on smoke-free school grounds; nevertheless, the visibility of smoking was high. Better enforcement or an extension of the current law on smoke-free school grounds is recommended.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine adolescent-reported visibility of smoking in different public and private spaces in Europe and associations between smoking visibility and beliefs about the benefits of smoking. METHODS:We used SILNE-R cross-sectional survey data (2016/2017) of 10,798 14-16-year-old students from 55 secondary schools in seven European cities. Respondents reported for private and public spaces whether they had seen others smoke there in the last 6 months. Beliefs about the benefits of smoking were measured on a 7-item scale; higher scores indicated more positive beliefs. Multilevel linear regression analyses determined associations while controlling for potential confounders and stratifying by smoking status. RESULTS:Most students reported observing others smoke in public spaces, especially at train/bus stations (84%). Positive beliefs about smoking of never smokers were positively associated with seeing others smoke in train/bus stations and leisure/sports facilities, but not at home, a friend's home, restaurants or bars, when fully adjusted. Associations were of similar magnitude for ever smokers. CONCLUSIONS:Smoking in several public places is highly visible to adolescents. Reducing this visibility might weaken positive beliefs that adolescents have about smoking.
Project description:The likelihood of an adolescent taking up smoking may be influenced by his or her society, school and family. Thus, changes in the immediate environment may alter a young person's perception of smoking.The proposed multi-center, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be stratified by the baseline prevalence of smoking in schools. Municipalities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants will be randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. One secondary school will be randomly selected from each municipality. These schools will be randomized to two groups: the students of one will receive any existing educational course regarding smoking, while those of the other school will receive a four-year, class-based curriculum intervention (22 classroom lessons) aimed at reinforcing a smoke-free school policy and encouraging smoking cessation in parents, pupils, and teachers. The intervention will also include annual meetings with parents and efforts to empower adolescents to change the smoking-related attitudes and behaviors in their homes, classrooms and communities.We will enroll children aged 12-13 years as they enter secondary school during two consecutive school years (to obtain sufficient enrolled subjects). We will follow them for five years, until two years after they leave secondary school. All external evaluators and analysts will be blinded to school allocation.The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the third year of compulsory secondary education (ESO) and two years after secondary school, when the participants are 14-15 and 17-18 years old, respectively.Most interventions aimed at preventing smoking among adolescents yield little to no positive long-term effects. This clinical trial will analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking in this vulnerable age group.Current Controlled Trials: NCT01602796.
Project description:Smoke-free homes reduce exposure to secondhand smoke, contribute to lower levels of consumption, and help smokers to quit. Even when home smoking rules are established however, they may not be consistently enforced.This study uses data from a randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention to create smoke-free homes among callers to the United Way of Greater Atlanta 2-1-1. Participants with partial or full home smoking bans at 6-month follow-up were asked about enforcement challenges, rooms where smoking occurred, and exceptions to the rules. Air nicotine monitors were placed in a subset of homes.Participants (n = 286) were mostly female (84.6%) and African American (84.9%). Most were smokers (79.0%) and reported at least half of their friends and relatives smoked (63.3%). Among those with a full ban, 4.3% reported their rules were broken very often whereas 52.6% stated they were never broken. Bad weather and parties were the most common exceptions to rules. Among nonsmokers with full bans, 16% reported exposure to secondhand smoke in the home 1-3 days in the past week. In multivariate analyses, having a partial ban, being a nonsmoker, and living with three or more smokers predicted higher levels of enforcement challenges.Findings suggest the majority of households with newly adopted smoke-free rules had no or rare enforcement challenges, but about one-fifth reported their rules were broken sometimes or very often. Interventions to create smoke-free homes should address enforcement challenges as newly adopted rules may be fragile in some households.Interventions that promote smoke-free homes should address enforcement challenges.
Project description:<h4>INTRODUCTION</h4> Adolescents are at increased risk of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) due to the limited control that they have over social and physical environments. Yet, knowledge regarding determinants of SHS among non-smoking adolescents is limited. This study identifies social and environmental factors associated with SHS among non-smoking adolescents. <h4>METHODS</h4> To be included, parents and adolescents (aged 11–17 years) of the Adolescents, Place, and Behavior Study had to have completed surveys between March 2019 and May 2020. Adolescents had to have not reported smoking within the past 30 days and provided a saliva sample assayed for cotinine (?3 ng/mL). A series of stepwise linear regression models were fit to the data to identify social and environmental determinants of SHS, using log-transformed salivary cotinine. <h4>RESULTS</h4> Of the 105 adolescent and parent dyads included, 90.3% were African American, 26.9% of parents reported smoking, 33.3% resided in multi-unit housing, and 67.7% lived in homes where smoking was not permitted. Significant associations were found between parent tobacco use (?=2.56, SE=0.98, p=0.0082) and residing in multi-unit housing (?=1.72, SE=0.86, p=0.0460) with increased log-transformed cotinine levels among non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent age, gender, and race/ ethnicity, parental education, peer tobacco use, the number of adults and children in the home, average number of days of self-reported SHS within public spaces outside of the home, and home smoking policies were not significantly associated with cotinine. <h4>CONCLUSIONS</h4> Results emphasize the importance of reducing secondhand smoke exposure by reducing parental smoking and altering exposures within social and home environments. Parental tobacco use and residential setting should be considered when developing interventions to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among non-smoking adolescents.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The identification of susceptible non-smoking adolescents is an essential step in reducing smoking initiation among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with smoking susceptibility among non-smoking school-going adolescents in Malaysia. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Primary and secondary schools in Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS:11?246 non-smoking school-going adolescents. OUTCOME MEASURES:The prevalence and factors associated with smoking susceptibility among non-smoking school-going adolescents in Malaysia. RESULTS:Approximately 14% of non-smokers were susceptible to smoking, and the prevalence of susceptibility was significantly higher among males, ever-smokers and e-cigarette users. The odds of susceptibility to smoking were higher among males, e-cigarette users, those aged 12 years and under and those who had ever smoked or tried cigarettes. Students from schools with educational programmes on the health effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) and who perceived smoking to be harmful were less likely to be susceptible to smoking. CONCLUSION:Smoking susceptibility is prevalent among school-going adolescents. A comprehensive approach that enhances or reinforces health education programmes on the adverse health effects of smoking and SHS among school children, that considers multiple factors and that involves all stakeholders is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of smoking susceptibility among vulnerable subgroups, as identified from the present findings.
Project description:In this study, we report the prevalence of self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in homes and vehicles among US middle and high school students in 2019 and changes in SHS exposure over time. Data were from 7 years of the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS; 2011, 2013, and 2015-2019). In 2019, 25.3% (an estimated 6.7 million) of students reported home SHS exposure and 23.3% (6.1 million) reported vehicle SHS exposure. Home and vehicle SHS exposure significantly declined during 2011 through 2018, except for home exposure among non-Hispanic black students. Implementation of smoke-free policies in public and private settings can reduce SHS exposure.