Soy Isoflavone Genistein-Mediated Downregulation of miR-155 Contributes to the Anticancer Effects of Genistein.
ABSTRACT: We previously reported that dietary genistein inhibits mammary tumor growth and metastasis of the highly metastatic MDA-MB-435 cancer cells in immunocompromised mice. The purpose herein was to characterize the role of the novel oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) miR-155 in the anticancer effects of genistein in metastatic breast cancer. The effect of genistein was determined on breast cancer cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of miR-155 and its targets. At low physiologically relevant concentrations, genistein inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis in metastatic MDA-MB-435 and Hs578t breast cancer cells, without affecting the viability of nonmetastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In parallel with reduced cell viability, miR-155 is downregulated, whereas proapoptotic and anticell proliferative miR-155 targets FOXO3, PTEN, casein kinase, and p27 are upregulated in MDA-MB-435 and Hs578t cells in response to genistein treatment. However, miR-155 levels remain unchanged in response to genistein in the MCF-7 cells. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in MDA-MB-435 and Hs578t cells decreases the effects of genistein on cell viability and abrogates the effects of genistein on apoptosis and expression of proapoptotic genes. Therefore, genistein-mediated downregulation of miR-155 contributes to the anticancer effects of genistein in metastatic breast cancer.
Project description:Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a predominantly nuclear protein that differentially regulates expression of multiple genes, leading to suppression of metastasis without blocking orthotopic tumor growth in multiple human and murine cancer cells of diverse origins. We hypothesized that miR-146 may be involved in the ability of BRMS1 to supress metastasis because miR-146 expression is altered by BRMS1 and because BRMS1 and miR-146 are both associated with decreased signaling through the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway. BRMS1 significantly up-regulates miR-146a by 6- to 60-fold in metastatic MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells, respectively, and miR-146b by 40-fold in MDA-MB-435 as measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Transduction of miR-146a or miR-146b into MDA-MB-231 down-regulated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibited invasion and migration in vitro, and suppressed experimental lung metastasis by 69% and 84%, respectively (mean +/- SE: empty vector = 39 +/- 6, miR-146a = 12 +/- 1, miR-146b = 6 +/- 1). These results further support the recent notion that modulating the levels of miR-146a or miR-146b could have a therapeutic potential to suppress breast cancer metastasis.
Project description:It has become increasingly clear that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recently, miR-203 was reported as a suppressor microRNA often silenced in different malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate cancer, oral cancer, and hematopoietic malignancy, but little is known about its potential role in breast carcinogenesis. In this study, we found that in breast cancer, miR-203 was upregulated in primary tumors and some nonmetastatic cell lines but was significantly downregulated in metastatic cell lines including BT549, Hs578T, and MDA-MB-231, as measured by regular and real-time PCR. Downregulation of miR-203 in metastatic breast cancer cells appeared to be caused by hypermethylation of its promoter. Functionally, ectopic expression of miR-203 in BT549 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and inhibited cell invasion and migration in vitro. Bioinformatic analysis predicted the snail homolog 2 (SNAI2 or SLUG), a transcription factor that promotes cell invasion and tumor metastasis, as a target of miR-203, and the prediction was validated by expression analysis and luciferase reporter assay of the 3' untranslated region of SNAI2 that contains the miR-203 target sequences. These results suggest that in malignant breast cancer cells, miR-203 is epigenetically silenced, and the silencing promotes tumor cell growth and invasion at least in part by upregulating the SNAI2 transcription factor.
Project description:The Rho GTPase Rac regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization to form cell surface extensions (lamellipodia) required for cell migration/invasion during cancer metastasis. Rac hyperactivation and overexpression are associated with aggressive cancers; thus, interference of the interaction of Rac with its direct upstream activators, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), is a viable strategy for inhibiting Rac activity. We synthesized EHop-016, a novel inhibitor of Rac activity, based on the structure of the established Rac/Rac GEF inhibitor NSC23766. Herein, we demonstrate that EHop-016 inhibits Rac activity in the MDA-MB-435 metastatic cancer cells that overexpress Rac and exhibits high endogenous Rac activity. The IC(50) of 1.1 ?M for Rac inhibition by EHop-016 is ?100-fold lower than for NSC23766. EHop-016 is specific for Rac1 and Rac3 at concentrations of ?5 ?M. At higher concentrations, EHop-016 inhibits the close homolog Cdc42. In MDA-MB-435 cells that demonstrate high active levels of the Rac GEF Vav2, EHop-016 inhibits the association of Vav2 with a nucleotide-free Rac1(G15A), which has a high affinity for activated GEFs. EHop-016 also inhibits the Rac activity of MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cells and reduces Rac-directed lamellipodia formation in both cell lines. EHop-016 decreases Rac downstream effects of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) activity and directed migration of metastatic cancer cells. Moreover, at effective concentrations (<5 ?M), EHop-016 does not affect the viability of transformed mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and reduces viability of MDA-MB-435 cells by only 20%. Therefore, EHop-016 holds promise as a targeted therapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic cancers with high Rac activity.
Project description:Recently the concept that gap junctions play a role in cancer cell metastasis has emerged. However, the mechanism by which this might occur is unknown. To examine this issue a metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-435, was stably transfected with human Cx43 cDNA. Four clones of 435 transfectants (435/Cx43(+) c1, c6, c8, c14) and two clones of plasmid control (435/hy) were isolated and examined in this study. We found that expressing Cx43 in MDA-MB-435 cells decreased their expression of Cx32 but did not affect gap junctional intercellular communication, migration or invasion through Matrigel((R)). However, forced expression of Cx43 decreased the growth of MDA-MB-435 cells, decreased expression of N-cadherin, which is frequently associated with an aggressive phenotype, and increased MDA-MB-435 sensitivity to apoptosis. More importantly, there were fewer lung metastases in mice injected with 435/Cx43(+) cells relative to mice injected with 435/hy. These results suggest that expressing Cx43 in breast cancer cells decreases their metastatic potential through a mechanism independent of gap junctional communication but, rather, related to N-cadherin expression and apoptosis.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is a lymphangiogenic factor over-expressed in highly metastatic, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressing breast cancer cells. We tested the hypothesis that tumour-derived VEGF-C may play an autocrine role in metastasis by promoting cellular motility through one or more VEGF-C-binding receptors VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, neuropilin (NRP)-1, NRP-2, and integrin alpha9beta1. We investigated the expression of these receptors in several breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, SK-BR-3, T-47D, and MCF7) and their possible requirement in migration of two VEGF-C-secreting, highly metastatic lines MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T. While cell lines varied significantly in their expression of above VEGF-C receptors, migratory activity of MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells was linked to one or more of these receptors. Depletion of endogenous VEGF-C by treatments with a neutralising antibody, VEGF-C siRNA or inhibitors of Src, EGFR/Her2/neu and p38 MAP kinases which inhibited VEGF-C production, inhibited cellular migration, indicating the requirement of VEGF-C for migratory function. Migration was differentially attenuated by blocking or downregulation of different VEGF-C receptors, for example treatment with a VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, NRP-1 and NRP-2 siRNA or alpha9beta1 integrin antibody, indicating the participation of one or more of the receptors in cell motility. This novel role of tumour-derived VEGF-C indicates that breast cancer metastasis can be promoted by coordinated stimulation of lymphangiogenesis and enhanced migratory activity of breast cancer cells.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms involved in breast cancer metastasis still remain unclear to date. In our previous study, differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 was found between the highly metastatic MDA-MB-435HM cells and their parental counterparts, MDA-MB-435 cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of peroxiredoxin 6 on the proliferation and metastatic potential of human breast cancer cells and their potential mechanism.Expression of peroxiredoxin 6 in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231HM cells was investigated by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and western blot. A recombinant expression plasmid of the human peroxiredoxin 6 gene was constructed and transfected into MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells. The effects of peroxiredoxin 6 on the proliferation and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells were investigated by the Cell Counting Kit-8 method, colony-formation assay, adhesion assay, flow cytometry and invasion assay in vitro. miRNA was used to downregulate the expression of peroxiredoxin 6. Genes related to the invasion and metastasis of cancer were determined by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and western blot. The tumorigenicity and spontaneously metastatic capability regulated by peroxiredoxin 6 were determined using an orthotopic xenograft tumor model in athymic mice.Overexpression of peroxiredoxin 6 in MDA-MB-231HM cells compared with their parental counterparts was confirmed. Upregulation of peroxiredoxin 6 enhanced the in vitro proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. The enhancement was associated with decreasing levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and increasing levels of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), Ets-1 (E26 transformation-specific-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and RhoC (ras homolog gene family, member C) expression. The results were further demonstrated by RNA interference experiments in vitro. In an in vivo study, we also demonstrated that peroxiredoxin 6-transfected breast cancer cells grew much faster and had more pulmonary metastases than control cells. By contrast, peroxiredoxin 6 knockdown breast cancer cells grew more slowly and had fewer pulmonary metastases. Effects similar to those of peroxiredoxin 6 on the uPAR, Ets-1, MMP-9, RhoC and TIMP-2 expression observed in in vitro studies were found in the in vivo study.Overexpression of peroxiredoxin 6 leads to a more invasive phenotype and metastatic potential in human breast cancer, at least in part, through regulation of the levels of uPAR, Ets-1, MMP-9, RhoC and TIMP-2 expression.
Project description:We used Affymetrix microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of the metastatic parental breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 (435) and the non-metastatic daughter cell line created by the stable expression of the BReast cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 (BRMS1) gene in 435 cells, MDA-MB-435-BRMS1 (435/BRMS1). Analysis of microarray data provided insight into some of the potential mechanisms by which BRMS1 inhibits tumor formation at secondary sites. Furthermore, due to the importance of the microenvironment, we also examined gene expression under different growth conditions (i.e., plus or minus serum). Expression of 565 genes was significantly (adjusted P-value <0.05) altered regardless of in vitro growth conditions. BRMS1 expression significantly increased multiple major histocompatability complex (MHC) genes and significantly decreased expression of several genes associated with protein localization and secretion. The pattern of gene expression associated with BRMS1 expression suggests that metastasis suppression may be mediated by enhanced immune recognition, altered transport, and/or secretion of metastasis-associated proteins.
Project description:Ttriple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and highly metastatic breast cancer subtype. Enhanced TNBC cell motility is a prerequisite of TNBC cell dissemination. Here, we apply an imaging-based RNAi phenotypic cell migration screen using two highly motile TNBC cell lines (Hs578T and MDA-MB-231) to provide a repository of signaling determinants that functionally drive TNBC cell motility. We have screened ~4,200 target genes individually and discovered 133 and 113 migratory modulators of Hs578T and MDA-MB-231, respectively, which are linked to signaling networks predictive for breast cancer progression. The splicing factors PRPF4B and BUD31 and the transcription factor BPTF are essential for cancer cell migration, amplified in human primary breast tumors and associated with metastasis-free survival. Depletion of PRPF4B, BUD31 and BPTF causes primarily down regulation of genes involved in focal adhesion and ECM-interaction pathways. PRPF4B is essential for TNBC metastasis formation in vivo, making PRPF4B a candidate for further drug development.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The elevated production of interleukin (IL)-8 is critically associated with invasiveness and metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathway responsible for up-regulation of IL-8 production in breast cancer cells has remained unclear.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In this study, we report that the expression of BLT2 is markedly up-regulated in the highly aggressive human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 compared with MCF-10A immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, as determined by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and FACS analysis. Blockade of BLT2 with BLT2 siRNA knockdown or BLT2 inhibitor treatment downregulated IL-8 production and thereby diminished the invasiveness of aggressive breast cancer cells, analyzed by Matrigel invasion chamber assays. We further characterized the downstream signaling mechanism by which BLT2 stimulates IL-8 production and identified critical mediatory roles for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the consequent activation of the transcription factor NF-?B. Moreover, blockade of BLT2 suppressed the formation of metastatic lung nodules by MDA-MB-231 cells in both experimental and orthotopic metastasis models.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Taken together, our study demonstrates that a BLT2-ROS-NF-?B pathway up-regulates IL-8 production in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells, thereby contributing to the invasiveness of these aggressive breast cancer cells. Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism of invasiveness in breast cancer.
Project description:We have previously reported that infection with the non-pathogenic, tumor suppressive, wild-type adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) inhibited proliferation of breast cancer-derived lines representing both weakly invasive (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468), as well as aggressive (MDA-MB-231) cancer types. AAV2-induced death occurred via targeting pathways of apoptosis and necrosis. In contrast, normal human mammary epithelial cells were unaffected upon AAV2 infection. The current study characterizes AAV2 infection and subsequent death of the highly aggressive, triple-negative (ER(-)/PR(-)/HER2(-)) MDA-MB-435 cell line derived from metastatic human breast carcinoma. Monolayer MDA-MB-435 cultures infected with AAV2 underwent complete apoptotic cell death characterized by activation of caspases -7, -8, and -9 and PARP cleavage. Death was further correlated with active AAV2 genome replication and differential expression of viral non-structural proteins Rep78 and Rep52. Cell death coincided with increased entry into S and G 2 phases, upregulated expression of the proliferation markers Ki-67 and the monomeric form of c-Myc. Expression of the p16(INK4), p27(KIP1), p21(WAF1), and p53 tumor suppressors was downregulated, indicating marked S phase progression, but sharply contrasted with hypo-phosphorylated pRb. In parallel, MDA-MB-435 breast tumor xenografts which received intratumoral injections of AAV2 were growth retarded, displayed extensive areas of necrosis, and stained positively for c-Myc as well as cleaved caspase-8. Therefore, AAV2 induced death of MDA-MB-435 xenografts was modulated through activation of caspase-regulated death pathways in relation to signals for cell cycle controls. Our findings provide foundational studies for development of novel AAV2 based therapeutics for treating aggressive, triple-negative breast cancer types.