Activation of the miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 Signaling Pathway Contributes to the Progress of Liver Fibrosis via Inducing Apoptosis in Hepatocytes but Not in HSCs.
ABSTRACT: Liver fibrosis results from a sustained wound healing response to chronic liver injury, and the activation of nonparenchymal hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the pivotal process. MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is the direct target gene of p53 and activates p53 through sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) simultaneously. The miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 signaling pathway thus forms a positive feedback loop wherein p53 induces miR-34a and miR-34a activates p53 by inhibiting SIRT1, playing an important role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. miR-34a expression has been found to be increased in animal models or in human patients with different liver diseases, including liver fibrosis. However, the exact role of this classical miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 signaling pathway in liver fibrosis remains unclear. In the present study, using a CCl4-induced rat liver fibrosis model, we found that the miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 signaling pathway was activated and could be inhibited by SIRT1 activator SRT1720. Further studies showed that the miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 signaling pathway was activated in hepatocytes but not in HSCs. The activation of this pathway in hepatocytes resulted in the apoptosis of hepatocytes and thus activated HSCs. Our data indicate that the miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 signaling pathway might be a promising therapeutic target for liver fibrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Excessive fructose consumption is a risk factor for liver fibrosis. Pterostilbene protects against liver fibrosis. Here, we investigated the potential role and the mechanisms underlying the hepatocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in fructose-induced liver fibrosis and protection by pterostilbene. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Characteristic features of liver fibrosis in 10% fructose-fed rats and EMT in 5 mM fructose-exposed BRL-3A cells with or without pterostilbene and the change of miR-34a/Sirt1/p53 and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)/Smads signalling were examined. MiR-34a inhibitor, miR-34a minic, or p53 siRNA were used to explore the role of miR-34a/Sirt1/p53 signalling in fructose-induced EMT and the action of pterostilbene. KEY RESULTS:Pterostilbene prevented fructose-induced liver injury with fibrosis in rats. Fructose caused hepatocyte undergoing EMT, gaining fibroblast-specific protein 1 and vimentin, and losing E-cadherin, effects attenuated by pterostilbene. Moreover, fructose induced miR-34a overexpression in hepatocytes with down-regulated Sirt1, increased p53 and ac-p53, and activated TGF-?1/Smads signalling, whereas these disturbances were suppressed by miR-34a inhibitor. Additionally, miR-34a inhibitor and p53 siRNA prevented TGF-?1-driven hepatocyte EMT under fructose exposure. Pterostilbene down-regulated miR-34a, up-regulated Sirt1, and suppressed p53 activation and TGF-?1/Smads signalling in fructose-stimulated animals and cells but showed no additional effects with miR-34a inhibitor on miR-34a/Sirt1/p53 signalling in fructose-exposed hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:These results strongly suggest that activation of miR-34a/Sirt1/p53 signalling is required for fructose-induced hepatocyte EMT mediated by TGF-?1/Smads signalling, contributing to liver fibrosis in rats. Pterostilbene exhibits a protective effect against liver fibrosis at least partly through inhibiting miR-34a/Sirt1/p53 signalling activation.
Project description:Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD-dependent deacetylase that is critically involved in diverse cellular processes including metabolic disease, cancer, and possibly aging. Despite extensive studies on SIRT1 function, how SIRT1 levels are regulated remains relatively unknown. Here, we report that the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) inhibits microRNA-34a (miR-34a) in the liver, which results in a positive regulation of SIRT1 levels. Activation of FXR by the synthetic agonist GW4064 decreases hepatic miR-34a levels in normal mice, and consistently, hepatic miR-34a levels are elevated in FXR-null mice. FXR induces expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcriptional corepressor, which in turn results in repression of p53, a key activator of the miR-34a gene, by inhibiting p53 occupancy at the promoter. MiR-34a decreased SIRT1 levels by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of SIRT1 mRNA, and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-34a substantially decreased SIRT1 protein levels in mouse liver. Remarkably, miR-34a levels were elevated, and SIRT1 protein levels were reduced in diet-induced obese mice, and FXR activation in these mice reversed the miR-34a and SIRT1 levels, indicating an intriguing link among FXR activation, decreased miR-34a, and subsequently, increased SIRT1 levels. Our study demonstrates an unexpected role of the FXR/SHP pathway in controlling SIRT1 levels via miR-34a inhibition and that elevated miR-34a levels in obese mice contribute to decreased SIRT1 levels. Manipulation of this regulatory network may be useful for treating diseases of aging, such as metabolic disease and cancer.
Project description:MicroRNA 34a (miR-34a) is a tumor suppressor gene, but how it regulates cell proliferation is not completely understood. We now show that the microRNA miR-34a regulates silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) expression. MiR-34a inhibits SIRT1 expression through a miR-34a-binding site within the 3' UTR of SIRT1. MiR-34 inhibition of SIRT1 leads to an increase in acetylated p53 and expression of p21 and PUMA, transcriptional targets of p53 that regulate the cell cycle and apoptosis, respectively. Furthermore, miR-34 suppression of SIRT1 ultimately leads to apoptosis in WT human colon cancer cells but not in human colon cancer cells lacking p53. Finally, miR-34a itself is a transcriptional target of p53, suggesting a positive feedback loop between p53 and miR-34a. Thus, miR-34a functions as a tumor suppressor, in part, through a SIRT1-p53 pathway.
Project description:Background:Activating AMPK? negatively regulates Egr1 to inhibit inflammatory cytokines in high glucose. miR-34a inhibition increases phosphorylated AMPK? through mediating SIRT1 to suppress the development of fatty liver. Aim of the Study:To clarify the function of Egr1 on the inflammation and fibrosis in high glucose-cultured MCs, as well as to explore the effects of metformin on miR-34a pathway and Egr1 expression. Methods:We transfected MCs with miR-34a inhibitor. And MCs were transfected with small interfering RNA for silencing Egr1 and SIRT1. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assay the transcription levels of Egr1 mRNA and miR-34a. Western blot was used to test the protein. And ELISA was used to measure inflammatory factors. Results:High glucose upregulates Egr1 to aggravate the inflammation and fibrosis in MCs. miR-34a suppresses the activation of SIRT1/AMPK? and results in promoting Egr1 in high glucose-cultured MCs. Metformin attenuates high glucose-stimulated inflammation and fibrosis in MCs by regulating miR-34a-mediated SIRT1/AMPK? activity and the downstream Egr1 protein. Conclusion:We enriched the effects of miR-34a pathway regulating Egr1 in high glucose-cultured MCs. It provides a foundation for future researches considering Egr1 as a therapeutic target and a new direction for the clinical application of metformin in early DKD.
Project description:MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is thought to be involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between altered expression of miR-34a and the pathophysiological features of NAFLD remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which miR-34a influences NAFLD through the PPAR?-related pathway. Real-time quantitative PCR, western blotting and other assays kit were used to investigate the expression and function of miR-34a in an NAFLD model. Cultured cells transfected with miR-34a inhibitor and C57BL/6 mice injected with the miR-34a inhibitor through vein tail were conducted for the effects of miR-34a on its target. MiR-34a levels were significantly upregulated in steatosis-induced hepatocytes and in liver tissues of high-fat diet-fed mice. The upregulation of miR-34a resulted in the downregulation of hepatic PPAR? and SIRT1 that are the direct targets of miR-34a. Silencing miR-34a led to an initially increased expression of PPAR?, SIRT1 and PPAR?'s downstream genes. Activation of the central metabolic sensor AMPK was also increased. The miR-34a inhibitor suppressed lipid accumulation and improved the degree of steatosis. Taken together, our data indicated that decreased expression of miR-34a potentially contributes to altered lipid metabolism in NAFLD. Downregulation of miR-34a may be a therapeutic strategy against NAFLD by regulating its target PPAR? and SIRT1.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated that miR-34a expression is significantly upregulated and associated with apoptosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Carnosic acid (CA) is a novel antioxidant and a potential inhibitor of apoptosis in organ injury, including liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the signaling mechanisms underlying miR-34a expression and the antiapoptotic effect of CA in NAFLD. CA treatment significantly reduced the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced elevations in aminotransferase activity as well as in serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels but increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Moreover, CA treatment ameliorated the increase in cleaved caspase-3 caused by HFD exposure and completely reversed the HFD-induced decreases in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large expression. CA also counteracted the HFD- or palmitic acid (PA)-induced increases in caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. Mechanistically, CA reversed the HFD- or PA-induced upregulation of miR-34a, which is the best-characterized regulator of SIRT1. Importantly, the decrease in miR-34a expression was closely associated with the activation of the SIRT1/p66shc pathway, which attenuates hepatocyte apoptosis in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury. A dual luciferase assay in L02 cells validated the modulation of SIRT1 by CA, which occurs at least partly via miR-34a. In addition, miR-34a overexpression was significantly counteracted by CA, which prevented the miR-34a-dependent repression of the SIRT1/p66shc pathway and apoptosis. Collectively, our results support a link between liver cell apoptosis and the miR-34a/SIRT1/p66shc pathway, which can be modulated by CA in NAFLD.
Project description:DNA-damaging agents have been used in cancer chemotherapy for a long history. Unfortunately, chemotherapeutic treatment strategies against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still ineffective. We screened a novel DNA-damaging compound, designated as 0404, by using time-dependent cellular response profiling (TCRP) based on unique DNA-damage characteristics. We used human HCC cell lines and HCC xenograft mouse model to analyze the anti-cancer effects of 0404. Transcriptome and miRNA arrays were used to verify the anti-cancer mechanism of 0404. It was confirmed that p53 signaling pathway was crucial in 0404 anti-cancer activity and the expression of miR-34a, a key tumor-suppressive miRNA, was up-regulated in 0404-treated HepG2 cells. MiR-34a expression was also down-regulated in HCCs compared with corresponding non-cancerous hepatic tissues. We further identified the mechanisms of 0404 in HepG2 cells. 0404 increased miR-34a expression and acylation p53 protein levels and decreased SIRT1 protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner. The sensitivity of HepG2 cells to 0404 was significantly decreased by transfection with miR-34a inhibitors and SIRT1 protein levels were up-regulated by miR-34a inhibition. Our findings show that 0404 is probably an attractive agent for treating HCC, especially in HCC with wide type (WT) p53, through forming a p53/miR-34a/SIRT1 signal feedback loop to promote cell apoptosis.
Project description:Chemotherapeutic drug resistance and relapse remains a major challenge for paediatric (medulloblastoma) and adult (glioblastoma) brain tumour treatment. Medulloblastoma tumours and cell lines with mutations in the p53 signalling pathway have been shown to be specifically insensitive to DNA damaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of triggering cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma cells by a direct activation of pro-death signalling downstream of p53 activation. Since non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have the ability to fine tune the expression of a variety of target genes, orchestrating multiple downstream effects, we hypothesised that triggering the expression of a p53 target miRNA could induce cell death in chemo-resistant cells. Treatment with etoposide, increased miR-34a levels in a p53-dependent fashion and the level of miR-34a transcription was correlated with the cell sensitivity to etoposide. miR-34a activity was validated by measuring the expression levels of one of its well described target: the NADH dependent sirtuin1 (SIRT1). Whilst drugs directly targeting SIRT1, were potent to trigger cell death at high concentrations only, introduction of synthetic miR-34a mimics was able to induce cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. Our results show that the need of a functional p53 signaling pathway can be bypassed by direct activation of miR-34a in brain tumour cells.
Project description:The incidence of liver fibrosis remains high due to the lack of effective therapies. Our previous work found that microRNA (miR)-34a expression was increased, while acy1-CoA synthetase long-chain family member1 (ACSL1) was decreased, in a dimethylnitrosamine (DNS)-induced hepatic fibrosis rat model. We hypothesized that miR-34a may play a role in the process of hepatic fibrosis by targeting ACSL1.From days 2 to 14, cultured primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) underwent cell morphology, immunocytochemical staining, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) for alpha smooth muscle actin (a-SMA), desmin, rno-miR-34a, and ACSL1 expression. Wild-type and mutant luciferase reporter plasmids were constructed according to the predicted miR-34a binding site on the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the ACSL1 mRNA and then transfected into HEK293 cells. rno-miR-34a was silenced in HSCs to confirm that rno-miR-34a negatively regulates ACSL1 expression. mRNA and protein expression of ?-SMA, type I collagen, and desmin were assayed in miR-34a-silenced HSCs.HSCs were deemed quiescent during the first 3 days and activated after 10 days. rno-miR-34a expression increased, and ACSL1 expression decreased, from day 2 to 7 to 14. rno-miR-34a was shown to specifically bind to the 3'-UTR of ACSL1. miR-34a-silenced HSCs showed higher ACSL1and lower ?-SMA, type I collagen, and desmin expression than that of matching negative controls and non-transfected cells.miR-34a appears to play an important role in the process of liver fibrosis by targeting ACSL1 and may show promise as a therapeutic molecular target for hepatic fibrosis.
Project description:Sirtuin1 (Sirt1; mammalian homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme Sir2) is a transcriptional and transactivational regulator of murine farnesoid X receptor (Fxr), which is the primary bile acid (BA) sensor, and critical regulator of BA metabolism in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Previous studies have suggested compromised Sirt1 expression in rodent models of cholestatic liver injury. We hypothesized that Sirt1 could be potentially targeted to alleviate cholestatic liver injury. In cultured primary human hepatocytes, SIRT1 messenger RNA was down-regulated after GCA treatment, potentially through induction of microRNA (miR)-34a, whereas tauroursodeoxycholic acid induced SIRT1 expression without affecting miR-34a expression. Sirt1 expression was also significantly down-regulated in three mouse models of liver injury (bile duct ligation, 1% cholic acid [CA] fed, and the Mdr2-/- mouse). Mice fed CA diet also demonstrated hepatic FXR hyperacetylation and induction of the Janus kinase/p53 pathway. Mice fed a CA diet and concurrently administered the Sirt1 activator, SRT1720 (50 mg/kg/day, orally), demonstrated 40% and 45% decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase and BA levels, respectively. SRT1720 increased hepatic BA hydrophilicity by increasing tri- and tetrahydroxylated and decreasing the dihydroxylated BA fraction. SRT1720 administration also inhibited hepatic BA synthesis, potentially through ileal fibroblast growth factor 15- and Fxr-mediated inhibition of cytochrome p450 (Cyp) 7a1 and Cyp27a1, along with increased hepatic BA hydroxylation in association with Cyp2b10 induction. SRT1720 administration significantly induced renal multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-?, and constitutive androstance receptor expression along with ?2-fold increase in urinary BA concentrations.SRT1720 administration alleviates cholestatic liver injury in mice by increasing hydrophilicity of hepatic BA composition and decreasing plasma BA concentration through increased BA excretion into urine. Thus, use of small-molecule activators of Sirt1 presents a novel therapeutic target for cholestatic liver injury. (Hepatology 2016;64:2151-2164).