Evaluation of treadmill exercise effect on muscular lipid profiles of diabetic fatty rats by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: We compare comprehensive quantitative profiling of lipids at the molecular level from skeletal muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and soleus) of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean control rats during treadmill exercise by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Because type II diabetes is caused by decreased insulin sensitivity due to excess lipids accumulated in skeletal muscle tissue, lipidomic analysis of muscle tissues under treadmill exercise can help unveil the mechanism of lipid-associated insulin resistance. In total, 314 lipid species, including phospholipids, sphingolipids, ceramides, diacylglycerols (DAGs), and triacylglycerols (TAGs), were analyzed to examine diabetes-related lipid species and responses to treadmill exercise. Most lysophospholipid levels increased with diabetes. While DAG levels (10 from the gastrocnemius and 13 from the soleus) were >3-fold higher in diabetic rats, levels of most of these decreased after exercise in soleus but not in gastrocnemius. Levels of 5 highly abundant TAGs (52:1 and 54:3 in the gastrocnemius and 48:2, 50:2, and 52:4 in the soleus) displaying 2-fold increases in diabetic rats decreased after exercise in the soleus but not in the gastrocnemius in most cases. Thus, aerobic exercise has a stronger influence on lipid levels in the soleus than in the gastrocnemius in type 2 diabetic rats.
Project description:Endurance exercise training has been shown to decrease whole-body and skeletal muscle insulin resistance and increase glucose tolerance in conditions of both pre-diabetes and overt type 2 diabetes. However, the adaptive responses in skeletal muscle at the molecular and genetic level for these beneficial effects of exercise training have not been clearly established in an animal model of pre-diabetes. The present study identifies alterations in skeletal muscle gene expression that occur with exercise training in pre-diabetic, insulin-resistant obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats and insulin-sensitive lean Zucker (Fa/-) rats. Treadmill running for up to 4 weeks caused significant enhancements of glucose tolerance as assessed by the integrated area under the curve for glucose (AUCg) during an oral glucose tolerance test in both lean and obese animals. Using microarray analysis, a set of only 12 genes was identified as both significantly altered (>1.5-fold change relative to sedentary controls; p<0.05) and significantly correlated (p<0.05) with the AUCg. Two of these genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g coactivator 1a (PGC-1a) and the z-isoform of protein kinase C (PKC-z), have known involvement in the regulation of skeletal muscle glucose transport. We confirmed that protein expression levels of PGC-1a and PKC-z were positively correlated with the mRNA expression levels for these two genes. Overall, this study has identified a limited number of genes in soleus muscle of lean and obese Zucker rats that are associated with decreased insulin resistance and increase glucose tolerance following endurance exercise training. These findings could guide the development of pharmaceutical M-^Sexercise mimeticsM-^T in the treatment of insulin-resistant, pre-diabetic or overtly type 2 diabetic individuals.
Project description:Intracellular lipid pools are highly dynamic and tissue-specific. Physical exercise is a strong physiologic modulator of lipid metabolism, but most studies focus on changes induced by long-term training. To assess the acute effects of endurance exercise, mice were subjected to one hour of treadmill running, and (13)C16-palmitate was applied to trace fatty acid incorporation in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle and liver. The amounts of carnitine, FFA, lysophospholipids and diacylglycerol and the post-exercise increase in acetylcarnitine were pronouncedly higher in soleus than in gastrocnemius. In the liver, exercise increased the content of lysophospholipids, plasmalogens and carnitine as well as transcript levels of the carnitine transporter. (13)C16-palmitate was detectable in several lipid and acylcarnitine species, with pronounced levels of tracer-derived palmitoylcarnitine in both muscles and a strikingly high incorporation into triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine in the liver. These data illustrate the high lipid storing activity of the liver immediately after exercise whereas in muscle, fatty acids are directed towards oxidation. The observed muscle-specific differences accentuate the need for single-muscle analyses as well as careful consideration of the particular muscle employed when studying lipid metabolism in mice. In addition, our results reveal that lysophospholipids and plasmalogens, potential lipid signalling molecules, are acutely regulated by physical exercise.
Project description:Endurance exercise training has been shown to decrease whole-body and skeletal muscle insulin resistance and increase glucose tolerance in conditions of both pre-diabetes and overt type 2 diabetes. However, the adaptive responses in skeletal muscle at the molecular and genetic level for these beneficial effects of exercise training have not been clearly established in an animal model of pre-diabetes. The present study identifies alterations in skeletal muscle gene expression that occur with exercise training in pre-diabetic, insulin-resistant obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats and insulin-sensitive lean Zucker (Fa/-) rats. Treadmill running for up to 4 weeks caused significant enhancements of glucose tolerance as assessed by the integrated area under the curve for glucose (AUCg) during an oral glucose tolerance test in both lean and obese animals. Using microarray analysis, a set of only 12 genes was identified as both significantly altered (>1.5-fold change relative to sedentary controls; p<0.05) and significantly correlated (p<0.05) with the AUCg. Two of these genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g coactivator 1a (PGC-1a) and the z-isoform of protein kinase C (PKC-z), have known involvement in the regulation of skeletal muscle glucose transport. We confirmed that protein expression levels of PGC-1a and PKC-z were positively correlated with the mRNA expression levels for these two genes. Overall, this study has identified a limited number of genes in soleus muscle of lean and obese Zucker rats that are associated with decreased insulin resistance and increase glucose tolerance following endurance exercise training. These findings could guide the development of pharmaceutical exercise mimetics in the treatment of insulin-resistant, pre-diabetic or overtly type 2 diabetic individuals.
Project description:Diabetic myopathy refers to the manifestations in the skeletal muscle as a result of altered glucose homeostasis which reflects as fibrosis. Since physical exercise has been indicated a protective strategy for improving glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle, we tested a hypothesis under which the endurance exercise training could reverse the produced skeletal muscle fibrosis by diabetes. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups including healthy control (HC), healthy trained (HT), diabetic control (DC), and diabetic trained (DT) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 45?mg/kg). Rats in the HT and DT groups carried out an exercise program on a motorized treadmill for five days a week over six weeks. Skeletal muscle levels of NRG1and ErbB2 were measured by the Western blot method. Exercise training decreased blood glucose levels in the DT group. Induction of diabetes increased skeletal muscle fibrosis in both the fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow soleus muscles, while endurance training modified it in diabetic trained rats. Moreover, muscle NRG1and ErbB2 levels were increased in diabetic rats, while training modified muscle NRG1and ErbB2 levels in diabetic trained rats. Our study provides novel evidence that endurance training could modify skeletal muscle fibrosis through NRG1/ErbB2 modification in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the impact of alpha-lipoic acid on superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity as well as on the expression of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in key organs of obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. METHODS:Superoxide anion production was measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence. Kinin B1 and B2 receptors expression was measured at protein and mRNA levels by western blot and qRT-PCR in key organs of Zucker Diabetic Fatty and Zucker lean control rats treated for a period of 6 weeks with a standard diet or a diet containing the antioxidant ?-lipoic acid (1 g/kg). RESULTS:Superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity were significantly enhanced in aorta and adipose tissue of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Kinin B1 and B2 receptors expression levels were also significantly increased in the liver and the gastrocnemius muscle of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Expression of both receptors was not altered in the pancreas of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and was undetectable in white retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Alpha-lipoic acid prevented the rise in NADPH oxidase activity in aorta and epididymal adipose tissue of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and the upregulation of kinin B1 receptor in liver and gastrocnemius muscle and that of kinin B2 receptor in the liver. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment was found to prevent the final body weight increase without affecting significantly hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance index in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. CONCLUSION:Findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is implicated in the induction of kinin B1 receptor in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. The ability of ?-lipoic acid to blunt the body weight gain appears to be mediated in part by preventing NADPH oxidase activity rise in adipose tissue and reversing the hepatic upregulation of kinin B1 receptor in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.
Project description:Kinesin-1 and Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43) localization in muscle fiber are crucial for proper skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate this assumption, we investigated the beneficial effects of endurance training on GAP-43 and Kinesin Family Member 5B (KIF5B) expression in gastrocnemius muscle of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: healthy control (C), healthy trained (T), diabetic control (DC) and diabetic trained (DT). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (45 mg/kg). The rats in DT and T groups were subjected to treadmill running for 5 days a week over 6 weeks. The results indicated that the GAP-43 and KIF5B protein levels in the DC group were significantly lower than those in the C group. Additionally, chronic treadmill running in diabetic rats was accompanied by significant increase of GAP-43 and KIF5B protein expression, compared to DC group. Furthermore, the endurance training in healthy rats was associated with a significant increase of GAP-43 and KIF5B protein levels. In addition, we found positive correlation between GAP-43 and KIF5B protein levels and myonuclear number per fiber and average gastrocnemius cross-sectional area (CSA). GAP43 and KIF5B protein levels were decreased in skeletal muscles of diabetic rats, and exercise training had beneficial effects and could restore their abnormal expression. Moreover, there is a strong relationship between muscle hypertrophy and GAP-43 and KIF5B protein levels.
Project description:Adverse effects of statins include skeletal muscle toxicity; Type II glycolytic fibers are more senstive to statin damage; exercise exacerbates statin muscle degeneration. We used a well-characterized rat model of statin-induced muscle degeneration, at which 1.0 mg/kg/day (high dose) cerivastatin produces mild to moderate histological degeneration. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression underlying cerivastatin effects on rat gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, as well as the effect of cerivastatin combined with treadmill exercise. We identified distinct classes of up- and down-regulated genes during this process. Experiment Overall Design: We treated female SD rats with vehicle or 3 doses of cerivastatin (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, plus or minus 5 days/week of exercise on treadmills (20 min/day at 20 m/min). Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle samples were harvested for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. A total of 12 samples were analyzed with 3-4 biological replicates per sample. Our goals were to determine 1) the effect of cerivastatin; 2) the effect of exercise combined with cerivastatin; 3) an explanation for the muscle fiber type sensitivity to statins. Since all doses of cerivastatin had no effect on soleus muscle (PubMed ID: 16141437), we analysed samples from soleus from control and high dose groups only.
Project description:Epidemiological studies reveal a strong link between low aerobic capacity and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Two-way artificial selection of rats based on low and high intrinsic exercise capacity has produced two strains that also differ in risk for metabolic syndrome (Koch LG, Britton SL. Artificial selection for intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity in rats. Physiol Genomics 5:45-52, 2001). Here we investigated skeletal muscle characteristics and genotype-phenotype relationships behind high and low inherited aerobic exercise capacity and the link between oxygen metabolism and metabolic disease risk factors in rats derived from generation 18. This population (n=24) of high capacity runners (HCR) and low capacity runners (LCR) differed by 615% in maximal treadmill running capacity. LCR were significantly significantly heavier and had increased blood glucose, serum insulin and triglyceride concentration. HCR had higher resting metabolic rate than LCR. Capillaries/mm2 and capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly greater in HCR rats in soleus and gastrocnemius and capillary-to-fiber ratio in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Subsarcolemmal mitochondrial area was 96% (p<0.01) and intermyofibrillar area was 32% (p<0.05) larger in HCR soleus. Microarray results showed that 126 genes were significantly up-regulated and 113 genes were down-regulated in HCR (p<0.05). Functional clustering and unbiased correlation analysis of muscle microarray data revealed that genes up-regulated in HCR were related to mitochondria, carboxylic acid and lipid metabolism, and oxidoreductase activity. In conclusion, our data show that aerobic capacity is strongly linked to the architecture of energy transfer and corroborate the importance of oxygen metabolism as the determinant of metabolic health and complex metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Total RNA obtained from gastrocnemius muscle was compared between rat strains of low and high inherited aerobic exercise capacity.
Project description:<i>Introduction and objectives</i>: Obesity represents a major global public health problem. Its etiology is multifactorial and includes poor dietary habits, such as hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diets (HFDs), physical inactivity, and genetic factors. Regular exercise is, per se, a tool for the treatment and prevention of obesity, and recent studies suggest that the beneficial effects of exercise can be potentiated by the fasting state, thus potentially promoting additional effects. Despite the significant number of studies showing results that corroborate such hypothesis, very few have evaluated the effects of fasted-state exercise in overweight/obese populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the subacute effects (12 h after conclusion) of a single moderate-intensity exercise bout, performed in either a fed or an 8 h fasted state, on serum profile, substrate-content and heat shock pathway-related muscle protein immunocontent in obese male rats. <i>Methods</i>: Male Wistar rats received a modified high-fat diet for 12 weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance. The animals were allocated to four groups: fed rest (FER), fed exercise (FEE), fasted rest (FAR) and fasted exercise (FAE). The exercise protocol was a 30 min session on a treadmill, with an intensity of 60% of VO<sub>2</sub>max. The duration of the fasting period was 8 h prior to the exercise session. After a 12 h recovery, the animals were killed and metabolic parameters of blood, liver, heart, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were evaluated, as well as SIRT1 and HSP70 immunocontent in the muscles. <i>Results</i>: HFD induced obesity and insulin resistance. Soleus glycogen concentration decreased in the fasted groups and hepatic glycogen decreased in the fed exercise group. The combination of exercise and fasting promoted a decreased concentration of serum total cholesterol and triglycerides. In the heart, combination fasting plus exercise was able to decrease triglycerides to control levels. In the soleus muscle, both fasting and fasting plus exercise were able to decrease triglyceride concentrations. In addition, heat shock protein 70 and sirtuin 1 immunocontent increased after exercise in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. <i>Conclusions</i>: An acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise, when realized in fasting, may induce, in obese rats with metabolic dysfunctions, beneficial adaptations to their health, such as better biochemical and molecular adaptations that last for at least 12 h. Considering the fact that overweight/obese populations present an increased risk of cardiovascular events/diseases, significant reductions in such plasma markers of lipid metabolism are an important achievement for these populations.
Project description:Statins are used to prevent and treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but they also induce myopathy and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether exercise training prevents glucose intolerance, muscle impairment, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscles of Wistar rats treated with atorvastatin (5 mg kg-1 day-1) for 12 weeks. The rats were assigned to the following three groups: the control (CON), atorvastatin-treated (ATO), and ATO plus aerobic exercise training groups (ATO+EXE). The ATO+EXE group exhibited higher glucose tolerance and forelimb strength and lower creatine kinase levels than the other groups. Mitochondrial respiratory and Ca2+ retention capacity was significantly lower in the ATO group than in the other groups, but exercise training protected against atorvastatin-induced impairment in both the soleus and white gastrocnemius muscles. The mitochondrial H2O2 emission rate was relatively higher in the ATO group and lower in the ATO+EXE group, in both the soleus and white gastrocnemius muscles, than in the CON group. In the soleus muscle, the Bcl-2, SOD1, SOD2, Akt, and AMPK phosphorylation levels were significantly higher in the ATO+EXE group than in the ATO group. In the white gastrocnemius muscle, the SOD2, Akt, and AMPK phosphorylation levels were significantly higher in the ATO+EXE group than in the ATO group. Therefore, exercise training might regulate atorvastatin-induced muscle damage, muscle fatigue, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscles.