A Comprehensive Spectroscopic and Computational Investigation to Probe the Interaction of Antineoplastic Drug Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid with Serum Albumins.
ABSTRACT: Exogenous drugs that are used as antidote against chemotheray, inflammation or viral infection, gets absorbed and interacts reversibly to the major serum transport protein i.e. albumins, upon entering the circulatory system. To have a structural guideline in the rational drug designing and in the synthesis of drugs with greater efficacy, the binding mechanism of an antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory drug Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) with human and bovine serum albumins (HSA & BSA) were examined by spectroscopic and computational methods. NDGA binds to site II of HSA with binding constant (Kb) ~105 M-1 and free energy (?G) ~ -7.5 kcal.mol-1. It also binds at site II of BSA but with lesser binding affinity (Kb) ~105 M-1 and ?G ~ -6.5 kcal.mol-1. The negative value of ?G, ?H and ?S for both the albumins at three different temperatures confirmed that the complex formation process between albumins and NDGA is spontaneous and exothermic. Furthermore, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are the main forces involved in complex formation of NDGA with both the albumins as evaluated from fluorescence and molecular docking results. Binding of NDGA to both the albumins alter the conformation and causes minor change in the secondary structure of proteins as indicated by the CD spectra.
Project description:We located the binding sites of doxorubicin (DOX) and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin (FDOX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumins (HSA) at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various drug contents. FTIR, CD and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyse drug binding sites, the binding constant and the effect of drug complexation on BSA and HSA stability and conformations. Structural analysis showed that doxorubicin and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin bind strongly to BSA and HSA via hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts with overall binding constants of K(DOX-BSA) = 7.8 (± 0.7) × 10(3) M(-1), K(FDOX-BSA) = 4.8 (± 0.5)× 10(3) M(-1) and K(DOX-HSA) = 1.1 (± 0.3)× 10(4) M(-1), K(FDOX-HSA) = 8.3 (± 0.6)× 10(3) M(-1). The number of bound drug molecules per protein is 1.5 (DOX-BSA), 1.3 (FDOX-BSA) 1.5 (DOX-HSA), 0.9 (FDOX-HSA) in these drug-protein complexes. Docking studies showed the participation of several amino acids in drug-protein complexation, which stabilized by H-bonding systems. The order of drug-protein binding is DOX-HSA > FDOX-HSA > DOX-BSA > FDOX>BSA. Drug complexation alters protein conformation by a major reduction of ?-helix from 63% (free BSA) to 47-44% (drug-complex) and 57% (free HSA) to 51-40% (drug-complex) inducing a partial protein destabilization. Doxorubicin and its derivative can be transported by BSA and HSA in vitro.
Project description:Benzothiazole based cyanine dyes with bridged groups in the pentamethine chain were studied as potential far-red fluorescent probes for protein detection. Spectral-luminescent properties were characterized for unbound dyes and in the presence of serum albumins (bovine (BSA), human (HSA), equine (ESA)), and globular proteins (?-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin). We have observed that the addition of albumins leads to a significant increase in dyes fluorescence intensity. However, the fluorescent response of dyes in the presence of other globular proteins was notably lower. The value of fluorescence quantum yield for dye bearing a sulfonate group complexed with HSA amounted to 42% compared with 0.2% for the free dye. The detection limit of HSA by this dye was greater than 0.004 mg ml-1 which indicates the high sensitivity of dye to low HSA concentrations. Modelling of structure of the dyes complexes with albumin molecules was performed by molecular docking. According to these data, dyes could bind to up to five sites on the HSA molecule; the most preferable are the haemin-binding site in subdomain IB and the dye-binding site in the pocket between subdomains IA, IIA and IIIA. This work confirms that pentamethine cyanine dyes could be proposed as powerful far-red fluorescent probes applicable for highly sensitive detection of albumins.
Project description:Serum albumin (SA) is the most abundant protein in plasma and is the main transporter of molecules in the circulatory system of all vertebrates, with applications in medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and molecular biology. It is known that albumins from different organisms vary in sequence; thus, it is important to know the impact of the amino-acid sequence on the three-dimensional structure and ligand-binding properties. Here, crystal structures of ovine (OSA) and caprine (CSA) serum albumins, isolated from sheep and goat blood, are described, as well those of their complexes with 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid (DIS): OSA-DIS (2.20?Å resolution) and CSA-DIS (1.78?Å resolution). The ligand-free OSA structure was determined in the trigonal space group P3221 at 2.30?Å resolution, while that of CSA in the orthorhombic space group P212121 was determined at 1.94?Å resolution. Both albumins are also capable of crystallizing in the triclinic space group P1, giving isostructural crystals that diffract to around 2.5?Å resolution. A comparison of OSA and CSA with the closely related bovine serum albumin (BSA) shows both similarities and differences in the distribution of DIS binding sites. The investigated serum albumins from domesticated ruminants in their complexes with DIS are also compared with the analogous structures of equine and human serum albumins (ESA-DIS and HSA-DIS). Surprisingly, despite 98% sequence similarity, OSA binds only two molecules of DIS, whereas CSA binds six molecules of this ligand. Moreover, the binding of DIS to OSA and CSA introduced changes in the overall architecture of the proteins, causing not only different conformations of the amino-acid side chains in the binding pockets, but also a significant shift of the whole helices, changing the volume of the binding cavities.
Project description:Serum albumin (SA) is the most abundant plasma protein in mammals. SA is a multifunctional protein with extraordinary ligand binding capacity, making it a transporter molecule for a diverse range of metabolites, drugs, nutrients, metals and other molecules. Due to its ligand binding properties, albumins have wide clinical, pharmaceutical, and biochemical applications. Albumins are also allergenic, and exhibit a high degree of cross-reactivity due to significant sequence and structure similarity of SAs from different organisms. Here we present crystal structures of albumins from cattle (BSA), horse (ESA) and rabbit (RSA) sera. The structural data are correlated with the results of immunological studies of SAs. We also analyze the conservation or divergence of structures and sequences of SAs in the context of their potential allergenicity and cross-reactivity. In addition, we identified a previously uncharacterized ligand binding site in the structure of RSA, and calcium binding sites in the structure of BSA, which is the first serum albumin structure to contain metal ions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancer is a severe threat to the human society. In the scientific community worldwide cancer remains a big challenge as there are no remedies as of now. Cancer is quite complicated as it involves multiple signalling pathways and it may be caused by genetic disorders. Various natural products and synthetic molecules have been designed to prevent cell proliferation. Peptide-based anticancer drugs, however, are not explored properly. Though peptides have their inherent proteolytic instability, they could act as anticancer agents. RESULTS:In this present communication a suitably protected cystine based dipeptide and its deprotected form have been synthesized. Potent anticancer activities were confirmed by MTT assay (a laboratory test and a standard colorimetric assay, which measures changes in colour, for measuring cellular proliferation and phase contrast images. The IC50 value, a measure of the effectiveness of a compound in inhibiting biological or biochemical function, of these compounds ranges in the sub-micromolar level. The binding interactions with serum albumins (HSA and BSA) were performed with all these molecules and all of them show very strong binding at sub-micromolar concentration. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggested that the cystine-based dipeptides were potential anticancer agents. These peptides also showed very good binding with major carrier proteins of blood, the serum albumins. We are currently working on determining the detailed mechanism of anticancer activity of these molecules.
Project description:Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant serum protein, contributing to the maintenance of redox balance in the extracellular fluids. One single free cysteine residue at position 34 is believed to be a target of oxidation. However, the molecular details and functions of oxidized HSAs remain obscure. Here we analyzed serum samples from normal subjects and hyperlipidemia patients and observed an enhanced S-thiolation of HSA in the hyperlipidemia patients as compared to the control individuals. Both cysteine and homocysteine were identified as the low molecular weight thiols bound to the HSAs. Intriguingly, S-thiolations were observed not only at Cys34, but also at multiple cysteine residues in the disulfide bonds of HSA. When the serum albumins from genetically modified mice that exhibit high levels of total homocysteine in serum were analyzed, we observed an enhanced S-homocysteinylation at multiple cysteine residues. In addition, the cysteine residues in the disulfide bonds were also thiolated in recombinant HSA that had been treated with the disulfide molecules. These findings and the result that S-homocysteinylation mediated increased surface hydrophobicity and ligand binding activity of HSA offer new insights into structural and functional alternation of serum albumins via S-thiolation.
Project description:1. The fluorescent fatty acid probe 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA) binds with high affinity to bovine and human serum albumin (BSA and HSA) at three sites. 2. The Kd of the primary binding site could not be determined; however, the two secondary sites appeared to be equivalent, with an apparent Kd of 8 x 10(-7) M for both BSA and HSA. 3. The spectral characteristics of DAUDA when bound to the primary site of the two albumins were different, with HSA producing a greater fluorescence enhancement and emission maximum at a shorter wavelength (480 nm) than for BSA (495 nm). 4. Displacement studies indicated that the DAUDA-binding sites were not equivalent to the primary long-chain fatty acid-binding sites on albumin, but corresponded to the bilirubin sites. Fatty acyl-CoAs also bind to the bilirubin sites, as do medium-chain fatty acids. 5. The solubility, stability and spectral properties of DAUDA make it an excellent probe for investigating the bilirubin-binding sites of albumin, particularly HSA.
Project description:Zinc is an essential nutrient in the body; it is required for the catalytic activity of many hundreds of human enzymes and virtually all biological processes, therefore its homeostasis and trafficking is of crucial interest. Serum albumin is the major carrier of Zn2+ in the blood and is required for its systemic distribution. Here we present the first crystal structures of human serum albumin (HSA) and equine serum albumin (ESA) in complex with Zn2+. The structures allow unambiguous identification of the major zinc binding site on these two albumins, as well as several further, weaker zinc binding sites. The major site in both HSA and ESA has tetrahedral geometry and comprises three protein ligands from the sidechains of His67, His247 and Asp249 and a water molecule. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies of a HSA H67A mutant confirm this to be the highest affinity Zn2+ site. Furthermore, analysis of Zn2+ binding to HSA and ESA proved the presence of secondary sites with 20-50-fold weaker affinities, which may become of importance under particular physiological conditions. Both calorimetry and crystallography suggest that ESA possesses an additional site compared to HSA, involving Glu153, His157 and His288. The His157 residue is replaced by Phe in HSA, incapable of metal coordination. Collectively, these findings are critical to our understanding of the role serum albumin plays in circulatory Zn2+ handling and cellular delivery.
Project description:A comparative study of the interaction of an antibiotic Tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) with two albumins, Human serum albumin (HSA) and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) along with Escherichia Coli Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) has been presented exploiting the enhanced emission and anisotropy of the bound drug. The association constant at 298 K is found to be two orders of magnitude lower in BSA/HSA compared to that in AP with number of binding site being one in each case. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and molecular docking studies have been employed for the systems containing HSA and BSA to find out the particular tryptophan (Trp) residue and the other residues in the proteins involved in the binding process. Rotational correlation time (?c) of the bound TC obtained from time resolved anisotropy of TC in all the protein-TC complexes has been compared to understand the binding mechanism. Low temperature (77 K) phosphorescence (LTP) spectra of Trp residues in the free proteins (HSA/BSA) and in the complexes of HSA/BSA have been used to specify the role of Trp residues in FRET and in the binding process. The results have been compared with those obtained for the complex of AP with TC. The photophysical behaviour (viz., emission maximum, quantum yield, lifetime and ?c) of TC in various protic and aprotic polar solvents has been determined to address the nature of the microenvironment of TC in the protein-drug complexes.
Project description:Alternariol (AOH) is a mycotoxin produced by Alternaria species. In vitro studies suggest the genotoxic, mutagenic, and endocrine disruptor effects of AOH, and an increased incidence of esophageal cancer has been reported related to higher AOH exposure. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in the circulation, it is able to affect toxicokinetic properties of numerous xenobiotics. HSA forms stable complexes with several mycotoxins, however, the interaction of AOH with albumin has not been examined. In this study, the complex formation of AOH with HSA was tested, employing fluorescence spectroscopy, ultrafiltration, and molecular modeling. Each spectroscopic measurement shows the formation of stable AOH-HSA complexes (K = 4 × 105 L/mol). Investigations with site markers (in spectroscopic and ultrafiltration models) as well as modeling studies suggest that AOH occupies Sudlow's site I as a high-affinity binding site in HSA. The binding affinity of AOH towards bovine, porcine, and rat albumins was also tested, suggesting that AOH binds to rat albumin with considerably higher affinity than other albumins tested. Our results demonstrate the strong interaction of AOH with serum albumins, suggesting the potential in vivo importance of these interactions.