Functional Crosstalk between the PP2A and SUMO Pathways Revealed by Analysis of STUbL Suppressor, razor 1-1.
ABSTRACT: Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) provide dynamic regulation of the cellular proteome, which is critical for both normal cell growth and for orchestrating rapid responses to environmental stresses, e.g. genotoxins. Key PTMs include ubiquitin, the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier SUMO, and phosphorylation. Recently, SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) were found to integrate signaling through the SUMO and ubiquitin pathways. In general, STUbLs are recruited to target proteins decorated with poly-SUMO chains to ubiquitinate them and drive either their extraction from protein complexes, and/or their degradation at the proteasome. In fission yeast, reducing or preventing the formation of SUMO chains can circumvent the essential and DNA damage response functions of STUbL. This result indicates that whilst some STUbL "targets" have been identified, the crucial function of STUbL is to antagonize SUMO chain formation. Herein, by screening for additional STUbL suppressors, we reveal crosstalk between the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A-Pab1B55 and the SUMO pathway. A hypomorphic Pab1B55 mutant not only suppresses STUbL dysfunction, but also mitigates the phenotypes associated with deletion of the SUMO protease Ulp2, or mutation of the STUbL cofactor Rad60. Together, our results reveal a novel role for PP2A-Pab1B55 in modulating SUMO pathway output, acting in parallel to known critical regulators of SUMOylation homeostasis. Given the broad evolutionary functional conservation of the PP2A and SUMO pathways, our results could be relevant to the ongoing attempts to therapeutically target these factors.
Project description:We identify the SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) family of proteins and propose that STUbLs selectively ubiquitinate sumoylated proteins and proteins that contain SUMO-like domains (SLDs). STUbL recruitment to sumoylated/SLD proteins is mediated by tandem SUMO interaction motifs (SIMs) within the STUbLs N-terminus. STUbL-mediated ubiquitination maintains sumoylation pathway homeostasis by promoting target protein desumoylation and/or degradation. Thus, STUbLs establish a novel mode of communication between the sumoylation and ubiquitination pathways. STUbLs are evolutionarily conserved and include: Schizosaccharomyces pombe Slx8-Rfp (founding member), Homo sapiens RNF4, Dictyostelium discoideum MIP1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slx5-Slx8. Cells lacking Slx8-Rfp accumulate sumoylated proteins, display genomic instability, and are hypersensitive to genotoxic stress. These phenotypes are suppressed by deletion of the major SUMO ligase Pli1, demonstrating the specificity of STUbLs as regulators of sumoylated proteins. Notably, human RNF4 expression restores SUMO pathway homeostasis in fission yeast lacking Slx8-Rfp, underscoring the evolutionary functional conservation of STUbLs. The DNA repair factor Rad60 and its human homolog NIP45, which contain SLDs, are candidate STUbL targets. Consistently, Rad60 and Slx8-Rfp mutants have similar DNA repair defects.
Project description:Post-translational modification by SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) plays important but still poorly understood regulatory roles in eukaryotic cells, including as a signal for ubiquitination by SUMO targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs). Here, we delineate the molecular mechanisms for SUMO-dependent control of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) silencing through the opposing actions of a STUbL (Slx5:Slx8) and a SUMO isopeptidase (Ulp2). We identify a conserved region in the Ulp2 C terminus that mediates its specificity for rDNA-associated proteins and show that this region binds directly to the rDNA-associated protein Csm1. Two crystal structures show that Csm1 interacts with Ulp2 and one of its substrates, the rDNA silencing protein Tof2, through adjacent conserved interfaces in its C-terminal domain. Disrupting Csm1's interaction with either Ulp2 or Tof2 dramatically reduces rDNA silencing and causes a marked drop in Tof2 abundance, suggesting that Ulp2 promotes rDNA silencing by opposing STUbL-mediated degradation of silencing proteins. Tof2 abundance is rescued by deletion of the STUbL SLX5 or disruption of its SUMO-interacting motifs, confirming that Tof2 is targeted for degradation in a SUMO- and STUbL-dependent manner. Overall, our results demonstrate how the opposing actions of a localized SUMO isopeptidase and a STUbL regulate rDNA silencing by controlling the abundance of a key rDNA silencing protein, Tof2.
Project description:SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) mediate the ubiquitylation of SUMOylated proteins to modulate their functions. In search of direct targets for the STUbL RNF4, we have developed TULIP (targets for ubiquitin ligases identified by proteomics) to covalently trap targets for ubiquitin E3 ligases. TULIP methodology could be widely employed to delineate E3 substrate wiring. Here we report that the single SUMO E2 Ubc9 and the SUMO E3 ligases PIAS1, PIAS2, PIAS3, ZNF451, and NSMCE2 are direct RNF4 targets. We confirm PIAS1 as a key RNF4 substrate. Furthermore, we establish the ubiquitin E3 ligase BARD1, a tumor suppressor and partner of BRCA1, as an indirect RNF4 target, regulated by PIAS1. Interestingly, accumulation of BARD1 at local sites of DNA damage increases upon knockdown of RNF4. Combined, we provide an insight into the role of the STUbL RNF4 to balance the role of SUMO signaling by directly targeting Ubc9 and SUMO E3 ligases.
Project description:In eukaryotes, the conjugation of proteins to the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates numerous cellular functions. A proportion of SUMO conjugates are targeted for degradation by SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) and it has been proposed that the ubiquitin-selective chaperone Cdc48/p97-Ufd1-Npl4 facilitates this process. However, the extent to which the two pathways overlap, and how substrates are selected, remains unknown. Here we address these questions in fission yeast through proteome-wide analyses of SUMO modification sites. We identify over a thousand sumoylated lysines in a total of 468 proteins and quantify changes occurring in the SUMO modification status when the STUbL or Ufd1 pathways are compromised by mutations. The data suggest the coordinated processing of several classes of SUMO conjugates, many dynamically associated with centromeres or telomeres. They provide new insights into subnuclear organization and chromosome biology, and, altogether, constitute an extensive resource for the molecular characterization of SUMO function and dynamics.
Project description:Through as yet undefined proteins and pathways, the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) suppresses genomic instability by ubiquitinating SUMO conjugated proteins and driving their proteasomal destruction. Here, we identify a critical function for fission yeast STUbL in suppressing spontaneous and chemically induced topoisomerase I (Top1)-mediated DNA damage. Strikingly, cells with reduced STUbL activity are dependent on tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1). This is notable, as cells lacking Tdp1 are largely aphenotypic in the vegetative cell cycle due to the existence of alternative pathways for the removal of covalent Top1-DNA adducts (Top1cc). We further identify Rad60, a SUMO mimetic and STUbL-interacting protein, and the SUMO E3 ligase Nse2 as critical Top1cc repair factors in cells lacking Tdp1. Detection of Top1ccs using chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR shows that they are elevated in cells lacking Tdp1 and STUbL, Rad60, or Nse2 SUMO ligase activity. These unrepaired Top1ccs are shown to cause DNA damage, hyper-recombination, and checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest. We further determine that Tdp1 and the nucleotide excision repair endonuclease Rad16-Swi10 initiate the major Top1cc repair pathways of fission yeast. Tdp1-based repair is the predominant activity outside S phase, likely acting on transcription-coupled Top1cc. Epistasis analyses suggest that STUbL, Rad60, and Nse2 facilitate the Rad16-Swi10 pathway, parallel to Tdp1. Collectively, these results reveal a unified role for STUbL, Rad60, and Nse2 in protecting genome stability against spontaneous Top1-mediated DNA damage.
Project description:Posttranslational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) plays essential roles in eukaryotic growth and development. Many covalently modified SUMO targets have been identified; however, the extent and significance of noncovalent interactions of SUMO with cellular proteins is poorly understood. Here, large-scale yeast two-hybrid screens repeatedly identified a surprisingly small number of proteins that interacted with three Arabidopsis SUMO isoforms. These SUMO-interacting proteins are nuclear and fall into two main categories: six histone or DNA methyltransferses or demethylases and six proteins that we show to be the evolutionary and functional homologs of SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs). The selectivity of the screen for several methylases and demethylases suggests that SUMO interaction with these proteins has a significant impact on chromatin methylation. Furthermore, the Arabidopsis STUbLs (AT-STUbLs) complemented to varying degrees the growth defects of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe STUbL mutant rfp1/rfp2, and three of them also complemented the genome integrity defects of this mutant, demonstrating that these proteins show STUbL activity. We show that one of the AT-STUbLs least related to the S. pombe protein, AT-STUbL4, has acquired a plant-specific function in the floral transition. It reduces protein levels of CYCLING DOF FACTOR 2, hence increasing transcript levels of CONSTANS and promoting flowering through the photoperiodic pathway.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slx5/8 complex is the founding member of a recently defined class of SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs). Slx5/8 has been implicated in genome stability and transcription, but the precise contribution is unclear. To characterise Slx5/8 function, we determined genome-wide changes in gene expression upon loss of either subunit. The majority of mRNA changes are part of a general stress response, also exhibited by mutants of other genome integrity pathways and therefore indicative of an indirect effect on transcription. Genome-wide binding analysis reveals a uniquely centromeric location for Slx5. Detailed phenotype analyses of slx5? and slx8? mutants show severe mitotic defects that include aneuploidy, spindle mispositioning, fish hooks and aberrant spindle kinetics. This is associated with accumulation of the PP2A regulatory subunit Rts1 at centromeres prior to entry into anaphase. Knockdown of the human STUbL orthologue RNF4 also results in chromosome segregation errors due to chromosome bridges. The study shows that STUbLs have a conserved role in maintenance of chromosome stability and links SUMO-dependent ubiquitination to a centromere-specific function during mitosis.
2013-01-01 | S-EPMC3681975 | BioStudies
Project description:Chromatin is a highly regulated environment, and protein association with chromatin is often controlled by post-translational modifications and the corresponding enzymatic machinery. Specifically, SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) have emerged as key players in nuclear quality control, genome maintenance and transcription. However, how STUbLs select specific substrates amongst myriads of SUMOylated proteins on chromatin remains unclear. Here, we reveal a remarkable co-localization of the budding yeast STUbL Slx5/Slx8 and ubiquitin at seven genomic loci that we term 'ubiquitin hotspots'. Ubiquitylation at these sites depends on Slx5/Slx8 and protein turnover on the Cdc48 segregase. We identify the transcription factor-like Ymr111c/Euc1 to associate with these sites and be a critical determinant of ubiquitylation. Euc1 specifically targets Slx5/Slx8 to ubiquitin hotspots via bipartite binding of Slx5 that involves the Slx5 SUMO-interacting motifs and an additional, novel substrate recognition domain. Interestingly, the Euc1-ubiquitin hotspot pathway acts redundantly with chromatin modifiers of the H2A.Z- and Rpd3L-pathways in specific stress responses. Thus, our data suggest that STUbL-dependent ubiquitin hotspots shape chromatin during stress adaptation.
Project description:Chromatin is a highly regulated environment, and protein association with chromatin is often controlled by post-translational modifications and the corresponding enzymatic machinery. Specifically, SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) have emerged as key players in nuclear quality control, genome maintenance, and transcription. However, how STUbLs select specific substrates among myriads of SUMOylated proteins on chromatin remains unclear. Here, we reveal a remarkable co-localization of the budding yeast STUbL Slx5/Slx8 and ubiquitin at seven genomic loci that we term "ubiquitin hotspots". Ubiquitylation at these sites depends on Slx5/Slx8 and protein turnover on the Cdc48 segregase. We identify the transcription factor-like Ymr111c/Euc1 to associate with these sites and to be a critical determinant of ubiquitylation. Euc1 specifically targets Slx5/Slx8 to ubiquitin hotspots via bipartite binding of Slx5 that involves the Slx5 SUMO-interacting motifs and an additional, novel substrate recognition domain. Interestingly, the Euc1-ubiquitin hotspot pathway acts redundantly with chromatin modifiers of the H2A.Z and Rpd3L pathways in specific stress responses. Thus, our data suggest that STUbL-dependent ubiquitin hotspots shape chromatin during stress adaptation.
Project description:Protein modifications by ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) play key roles in cellular signaling pathways. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) directly couple these modifications by selectively recognizing SUMOylated target proteins through SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs), promoting their K48-linked ubiquitylation and degradation. Only a single mammalian STUbL, RNF4, has been identified. We show that human RNF111/Arkadia is a new STUbL, which used three adjacent SIMs for specific recognition of poly-SUMO2/3 chains, and used Ubc13-Mms2 as a cognate E2 enzyme to promote nonproteolytic, K63-linked ubiquitylation of SUMOylated target proteins. We demonstrate that RNF111 promoted ubiquitylation of SUMOylated XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum C) protein, a central DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair (NER) extensively regulated by ultraviolet (UV)-induced SUMOylation and ubiquitylation. Moreover, we show that RNF111 facilitated NER by regulating the recruitment of XPC to UV-damaged DNA. Our findings establish RNF111 as a new STUbL that directly links nonproteolytic ubiquitylation and SUMOylation in the DNA damage response.