Ubiquitin ligase UBE3C promotes melanoma progression by increasing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, exhibiting extensive local invasion and early distant metastasis. Aberrant expression of ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C (UBE3C) plays a key role in tumor development and progression. In the present study, we analyzed UBE3C expression in samples of cancerous and normal skin tissue. Levels of UBE3C expression were much higher in primary and metastatic melanoma tissues than in normal skin, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma. Melanoma cells overexpressing UBE3C frequently exhibited a mesenchymal phenotype, including reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. Knockdown of UBE3C expression in melanoma cells significantly suppressed melanoma growth and progression. Furthermore, silencing UBE3C led to increased E-cadherin expression and decreased vimentin and Snail1 expression. Thus UBE3C promotes melanoma progression, possibly by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma cells. Inhibiting UBE3C activity may suppress melanoma invasion and metastasis and may represent a targeted therapeutic approach.
Project description:The ubiquitin-protein ligase E3C (UBE3C) belongs to the E3 ligase enzyme family and implicates in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thus regulates physiological and cancer-related processes. Here, we investigated the expression and roles of UBE3C in glioma. We demonstrated that UBE3C was overexpressed in glioma tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of UBE3C expression in glioma cells significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro. Mechanistically, we disclosed that UBE3C physically interacted with and ubiquitinated tumor suppressor gene annexin A7 (ANXA7), resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of ANXA7. Our results also revealed that increased UBE3C expression was accompanied by a reduction in ANXA7 protein expression in glioma tissues, but not ANXA7 mRNA. Importantly, the inhibition of ANXA7 expression in gliomas cells with UBE3C interference could rescue the cell invasion. Clinically, UBE3C overexpression significantly correlated with high-grade tumors (p?<?0.05), poor overall survival, and early tumor recurrence. Thus, our data reveal that high UBE3C expression contributes to glioma progression by ubiquitination and degradation of ANXA7, and thus presents a novel and promising target for glioma therapy.
Project description:Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Melanoma accounts for ~5% of skin cancers but causes the large majority of skin cancer?related deaths. Recent discoveries have shown that the mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is critical for melanoma development and progression. Many oncogenic pathways that cause melanoma tumorigenesis have been identified, most of which are due to RAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) pathway activation. However, the precise role of p38 remains unclear. Using specific short hairpin (sh) RNA to silence p38? and p38?, the present findings demonstrated that p38? was a crucial factor in regulating cell migration in the A375 melanoma cell line. Silencing p38? downregulated the expression of epithelial?mesenchymal transition markers, such as matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 2, MMP9, twist family bHLH transcription factor 1, snail family transcriptional repressor 1 and vimentin, while mesenchymal?epithelial transition markers, such as E?cadherin, were upregulated. Of note, the results also demonstrated that p38? silencing impaired vascular endothelial growth factor expression, which regulates tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, p38? knockdown inhibited cell proliferation in melanoma cells. In addition, silencing p38? induced senescence?like features, but not cell cycle arrest. Expression of the senescence markers p16, p21, p53 and ??galactosidase was upregulated, and an increase in the number of senescence?associated ??galactosidase?positive cells was observed in a p38? knockdown stable clone. However, no significant difference was found between control and p38? stable knockdown cells. Taken together, the present results suggested that p38? knockdown impaired migration and proliferation, and increased senescence, in A375 melanoma cells. However, p38? may not be involved in melanoma tumorigenesis. Therefore, targeting p38? may be a valuable approach towards inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis in patients with melanoma.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which involves the dramatic reorganization of the cytoskeleton, is a crucial initiating step in tumor invasion and metastasis. Protein 4.1B is a membrane-cytoskeleton cross-linker that plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis; however, the functional roles of 4.1B in melanoma remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of 4.1B on melanoma cells. Our results demonstrated that 4.1B expression was downregulated in murine B16 and B16-F10 melanoma cell lines. Ectopic 4.1B expression significantly inhibited the migration of melanoma cells and pulmonary metastasis. We further investigated the possible mechanism underlying the effect of 4.1B on EMT. The results showed that ectopic 4.1B expression altered the expression of representative EMT markers (E-cadherin, vimentin and N-cadherin), and inhibited the expression of three important transcription factors (Slug, Snail, and Twist) related to EMT in melanoma cells. Moreover, the expression of integrin α5, β3 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), which is known to regulate cell adhesion, migration and invasion, were suppressed. In conclusion, our data indicate that 4.1B is an important regulator during EMT progression in melanoma cells, which may present a potential target for the prevention and treatment of melanoma.
Project description:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the kidney and one of the most lethal genitourinary malignancies. Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has an extremely poor prognosis because of a high potential for tumor growth, vascular invasion, metastasis and recurrence. Unfortunately, the mechanism of RCC growth and metastasis is not well understood. In this report, we for the first time demonstrated ubiquitin protein ligase E3C (UBE3C) as a driving factor for RCC growth and metastasis. UBE3C expression was increased in ccRCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. ccRCC patients with high UBE3C protein expression in tumors were associated with significantly worse postoperative survival. Knockdown of UBE3C expression in ACHN cells inhibited cell proliferation, migrations and invasiveness in vitro while overexpression of UBE3C in 786-O cells exerted the opposite effects. UBE3C up-regulated ?-catenin protein levels and promoted ?-catenin nuclear accumulation, leading to the activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signal pathway in RCC cells. Collectively, these observations suggest that UBE3C plays an important role in RCC development and progression, and UBE3C may be a novel target for prevention and treatment of ccRCC.
Project description:PARP inhibition can induce anti-neoplastic effects when used as monotherapy or in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy in various tumor settings; however, the basis for the anti-metastasic activities resulting from PARP inhibition remains unknown. PARP inhibitors may also act as modulators of tumor angiogenesis. Proteomic analysis of endothelial cells revealed that vimentin, an intermediary filament involved in angiogenesis and a specific hallmark of EndoMT (endothelial to mesenchymal transition) transformation, was down-regulated following loss of PARP-1 function in endothelial cells. VE-cadherin, an endothelial marker of vascular normalization, was up-regulated in HUVEC treated with PARP inhibitors or following PARP-1 silencing; vimentin over-expression was sufficient to drive to an EndoMT phenotype. In melanoma cells, PARP inhibition reduced pro-metastatic markers, including vasculogenic mimicry. We also demonstrated that vimentin expression was sufficient to induce increased mesenchymal/pro-metastasic phenotypic changes in melanoma cells, including ILK/GSK3-?-dependent E-cadherin down-regulation, Snail1 activation and increased cell motility and migration. In a murine model of metastatic melanoma, PARP inhibition counteracted the ability of melanoma cells to metastasize to the lung. These results suggest that inhibition of PARP interferes with key metastasis-promoting processes, leading to suppression of invasion and colonization of distal organs by aggressive metastatic cells.
Project description:Sphere formation in conditioned serum-free culture medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor (tumorospheres) is considered useful for the enrichment of cancer stem-like cells, also known as tumor-initiating cells. We used a gene expression microarray to investigate the gene expression profile of melanoma cancer stem-like cells (MCSLCs). The results showed that MCSLCs highly expressed the following Notch signaling pathway molecules: Notch3 (NM_008716), Notch4 (NM_010929), Dtx4 (NM_172442), and JAG2 (NM_010588). Immunofluorescence staining showed tumorosphere cells highly expressed Notch4. Notch4(high) B16F10 cells were isolated by FACS, and Western blotting showed that high Notch4 expression is related to the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated proteins. Reduced invasive and migratory properties concomitant with the downregulation of the EMT markers Twist1, vimentin, and VE-cadherin and the overexpression of E-cadherin was observed in human melanoma A375 and MUM-2B cells. In these cells, Notch4 was also downregulated, both by Notch4 gene knockdown and by application of the ?-secretase inhibitor, DAPT. Mechanistically, the re-overexpression of Twist1 by the transfection of cells with a Twist1 expression plasmid led to an increase in VE-cadherin expression and a decrease in E-cadherin expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of 120 human melanoma tissues revealed a significant correlation between the high expression of Notch4 and the metastasis of melanoma. Taken together, our findings indicate that Notch4+ MCSLCs trigger EMT and promote the metastasis of melanoma cells.
Project description:Melanoma is one of the most aggressive and treatment-resistant human cancers. The two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) is located on late endosomes, lysosomes and melanosomes. Here, we characterized how TPC2 knockout (KO) affected human melanoma cells derived from a metastatic site. TPC2 KO increased these cells' ability to invade the extracelullar matrix and was associated with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers ZEB-1, Vimentin and N-Cadherin, and the enhanced secretion of MMP9. TPC2 KO also activated genes regulated by YAP/TAZ, which are key regulators of tumourigenesis and metastasis. Expression levels of ORAI1, a component of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and PKC-?II, part of the HIPPO pathway that negatively regulates YAP/TAZ activity, were reduced by TPC2 KO and RNA interference knockdown. We propose a cellular mechanism mediated by ORAI1/Ca2+/PKC-?II to explain these findings. Highlighting their potential clinical significance, patients with metastatic tumours showed a reduction in TPC2 expression. Our research indicates a novel role of TPC2 in melanoma. While TPC2 loss may not activate YAP/TAZ target genes in primary melanoma, in metastatic melanoma it could activate such genes and increase cancer aggressiveness. These findings aid the understanding of tumourigenesis mechanisms and could provide new diagnostic and treatment strategies for skin cancer and other metastatic cancers.
Project description:Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer accounting for 48,000 deaths worldwide each year and an average survival rate of about 6-10 months with conventional treatment. Tumor metastasis and chemoresistance of melanoma cells are reported as the main reasons for the insufficiency of currently available treatments for late stage melanoma. The cytoskeletal linker protein ?-catulin (CTNNAL1) has been shown to be important in inflammation, apoptosis and cytoskeletal reorganization. Recently, we found an elevated expression of ?-catulin in melanoma cells. Ectopic expression of ?-catulin promoted melanoma progression and occurred concomitantly with the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of mesenchymal genes such as N-cadherin, Snail/Slug and the matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. In the current study we showed that ?-catulin knockdown reduced NF-?B and AP-1 activity in malignant melanoma cells. Further, downregulation of ?-catulin diminished ERK phosphorylation in malignant melanoma cells and sensitized them to treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. In particular, cisplatin treatment led to decreased ERK-, JNK- and c-Jun phosphorylation in ?-catulin knockdown melanoma cells, which was accompanied by enhanced apoptosis compared to control cells. Altogether, these results suggest that targeted inhibition of ?-catulin may be used as a viable therapeutic strategy to chemosensitize melanoma cells to cisplatin by down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK pathways.
Project description:The synthetic triazolylpeptidyl penicillin derivative, named TAP7f, has been previously characterized as an effective antitumor agent in vitro and in vivo against B16-F0 melanoma cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic potential of this compound on highly metastatic murine B16-F10 and human A375 melanoma cells. We found that TAP7f inhibited cell adhesion, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we demonstrated that TAP7f downregulated integrin ?v?3 expression and Wnt/?-catenin pathway, a signaling cascade commonly related to tumor invasion and metastasis. Thus, TAP7f reduced both the enzymatic activity and the expression levels of matrix-metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in a time dependent manner. Moreover, TAP7f inhibited the expression of the transcription factor Snail and the mesenchymal markers vimentin, and N-cadherin, and up-regulated the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, suggesting that the penicillin derivative affects epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Results obtained in vitro were supported by those obtained in a B16-F10-bearing mice metastatic model, that showed a significant TAP7f inhibition of lung metastasis. These findings suggest the potential of TAP7f as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
Project description:Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer which has a propensity for metastasis. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a primordial role in the progression of metastatic disease. Metastatic melanoma is resistant to conventional therapies. Hence, researchers have been exploring alternative approaches, including the utility of bioactive phytochemicals to manage metastatic disease. In the present study, we investigated the potential of cirsiliol, a flavonoid isolated from Centaurea jacea L., in modulating the aggressive behavior of B16F10 metastatic melanoma cells, including EMT, and associated molecular mechanisms of action. Cirsiliol was found to be effective in restraining the colony formation and migration of fibronectin-induced B16F10 metastatic melanoma cells. Cirsiliol inhibited the activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Cirsiliol also suppressed the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (also known as Akt)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway which, in turn, caused upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin, Snail and Twist. Based on these results, cirsiliol may be considered a promising compound against EMT in the therapeutic management of malignant melanoma.