Utilization of Community Health Centers in Medicaid Expansion and Nonexpansion States, 2013-2014.
ABSTRACT: Using electronic health record data, we examined longitudinal changes in community health center (CHC) visit rates from 2013 through 2014 in Medicaid expansion versus nonexpansion states. Visits from 219 CHCs in 5 expansion states and 4 nonexpansion states were included. Rates were computed using generalized estimating equation Poisson models. Rates increased in expansion state CHCs for new patient, preventive, and limited-service visits (14%, 41%, and 23%, respectively, P < .01 for all), whereas these rates remained unchanged in nonexpansion states. One year after ACA Medicaid expansions, CHCs in expansion states saw an influx of new patients and provided increased preventive services.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study assessed the impact of Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion on health insurance rates and receipt of cardiovascular-related preventive screenings (body mass index, glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], low-density lipoproteins, and blood pressure) for cancer survivors seen in community health centers (CHCs). METHODS:This study identified cancer survivors aged 19 to 64 years with at least 3 CHC visits in 13 states from the Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network (ADVANCE). Via inverse probability of treatment weighting multilevel multinomial modeling, insurance rates before and after the ACA were estimated by whether a patient lived in a state that expanded Medicaid, and changes between a pre-ACA time period and 2 post-ACA time periods were assessed. RESULTS:The weighted estimated sample size included 409 cancer survivors in nonexpansion states and 2650 in expansion states. In expansion states, the proportion of uninsured cancer survivors decreased significantly from 20.3% in 2012-2013 to 4.5%in 2016-2017, and the proportion of those with Medicaid coverage increased significantly from 38.8% to 55.6%. In nonexpansion states, there was a small decrease in uninsurance rates (from 33.6% in 2012-2013 to 22.5% in 2016-2017). Cardiovascular-related preventive screening rates increased over time in both expansion and nonexpansion states: HbA1c rates nearly doubled from the pre-ACA period (2012-2013) to the post-ACA period (2016-2017) in expansion states (from 7.2% to 12.8%) and nonexpansion states (from 9.3% to 16.8%). CONCLUSIONS:This study found a substantial decline in uninsured visits among cancer survivors in Medicaid expansion states. Yet, 1 in 5 cancer survivors living in a state that did not expand Medicaid remained uninsured. Several ACA provisions likely worked together to increase cardiovascular-related preventive screening rates for cancer survivors seen in CHCs.
Project description:PURPOSE:Health insurance coverage affects a patient's ability to access optimal care, the percentage of insured patients on a clinic's panel has an impact on the clinic's ability to provide needed health care services, and there are racial and ethnic disparities in coverage in the United States. Thus, we aimed to assess changes in insurance coverage at community health center (CHC) visits after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion by race and ethnicity. METHODS:We undertook a retrospective, observational study of visit payment type for CHC patients aged 19 to 64 years. We used electronic health record data from 10 states that expanded Medicaid and 6 states that did not, 359 CHCs, and 870,319 patients with more than 4 million visits. Our analyses included difference-in-difference (DD) and difference-in-difference-in-difference (DDD) estimates via generalized estimating equation models. The primary outcome was health insurance type at each visit (Medicaid-insured, uninsured, or privately insured). RESULTS:After the ACA was implemented, uninsured visit rates decreased for all racial and ethnic groups. Hispanic patients experienced the greatest increases in Medicaid-insured visit rates after ACA implementation in expansion states (rate ratio [RR] = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.56-2.02) and the largest gains in privately insured visit rates in nonexpansion states (RR = 3.63; 95% CI, 2.73-4.83). In expansion states, non-Hispanic white patients had twice the magnitude of decrease in uninsured visits compared with Hispanic patients (DD = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.53-2.70), and this relative change was more than 2 times greater in expansion states compared with nonexpansion states (DDD = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.52-2.78). CONCLUSION:The lower rates of uninsured visits for all racial and ethnic groups after ACA implementation suggest progress in expanding coverage to CHC patients; this progress, however, was not uniform when comparing expansion with nonexpansion states and among all racial and ethnic minority subgroups. These findings suggest the need for continued and more equitable insurance expansion efforts to eliminate health insurance disparities.
Project description:Medicaid expansion had great potential to affect community health centers (CHCs), particularly in rural areas, because their patients are predominantly low income and disproportionately uninsured. Using data for 2011-15 on all CHCs, we found that after two years Medicaid expansion was associated with an 11.44-percentage-point decline in the share of CHC patients who were uninsured and a 13.15-percentage-point increase in the share with Medicaid. Changes in quality and volume were consistently observed in rural CHCs in expansion states, which had relative improvements in asthma treatment, body mass index screening and follow-up, and hypertension control, along with substantial increases in volumes for eighteen of twenty-one types of visits-particularly those for mammograms, abnormal breast findings, alcohol-related disorder, and other substance abuse disorder. Similar relative gains were not observed in urban CHCs in expansion states. Repealing or phasing out Medicaid expansion could reverse observed gains in quality and service use and could be particularly detrimental to low-income rural populations.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the effect of the 2014 Medicaid expansion on Medicaid managed care plan quality. DATA SOURCES:Three composite measures of plan-level quality constructed from the Health Care Effectiveness Data and Information Set. STUDY SETTING:One hundred and sixty-three plans in 27 Medicaid expansion states and 100 plans in 14 nonexpansion states. STUDY DESIGN:Quasi-experimental difference-in-differences (DID) analysis, comparing quality before (2011-13) and after (2014-15) Medicaid expansion in states that elected to expand Medicaid eligibility and those that did not. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Mean plan enrollment increased from 130,533 to 274,259 in expansion states and from 105,449 to 148,194 in nonexpansion states. The proportion of enrollees receiving recommended preventive care increased from 62.6 to 65.2 percent in expansion states and from 59.3 to 62.5 percent in nonexpansion states (adjusted DID: -0.7 percentage points [95% CI -2.2, 0.7]). The proportion of enrollees receiving recommended chronic disease care management increased from 65.4 to 66.0 percent in expansion states and from 62.5 to 63.1 percent in nonexpansion states (adjusted DID: 1.1 percentage points [95% CI -0.5, 2.6]). We observed similar patterns for the receipt of recommended maternity care. CONCLUSIONS:Medicaid expansion increased enrollment in managed care plans, but it did not result in erosion of quality.
Project description:There is debate about whether community health centers (CHCs) will experience increased demand from patients gaining coverage through Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions. To better understand the effect of new Medicaid coverage on CHC use over time, we studied Oregon's 2008 randomized Medicaid expansion (the "Oregon Experiment").We probabilistically matched demographic data from adults (aged 19-64 years) participating in the Oregon Experiment to electronic health record data from 108 Oregon CHCs within the OCHIN community health information network (originally the Oregon Community Health Information Network) (N = 34,849). We performed intent-to-treat analyses using zero-inflated Poisson regression models to compare 36-month (2008-2011) usage rates among those selected to apply for Medicaid vs not selected, and instrumental variable analyses to estimate the effect of gaining Medicaid coverage on use. Use outcomes included primary care visits, behavioral/mental health visits, laboratory tests, referrals, immunizations, and imaging.The intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically significant differences in rates of behavioral/mental health visits, referrals, and imaging between patients randomly selected to apply for Medicaid vs those not selected. In instrumental variable analyses, gaining Medicaid coverage significantly increased the rate of primary care visits, laboratory tests, referrals, and imaging; rate ratios ranged from 1.27 (95% CI, 1.05-1.55) for laboratory tests to 1.58 (95% CI, 1.10-2.28) for referrals.Our results suggest that use of many different types of CHC services will increase as patients gain Medicaid through Affordable Care Act expansions. To maximize access to critical health services, it will be important to ensure that the health care system can support increasing demands by providing more resources to CHCs and other primary care settings.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Community health centers (CHCs) care for vulnerable patients who use tobacco at higher than national rates. States that expanded Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provided insurance coverage to tobacco users not previously Medicaid-eligible, thereby potentially increasing their odds of receiving cessation assistance. We examined if tobacco users in Medicaid expansion states had increased quit rates, cessation medications ordered, and greater health care utilization compared to patients in non-expansion states. METHODS:Using electronic health record (EHR) data from 219 CHCs in 10 states that expanded Medicaid as of January 1, 2014, we identified patients aged 19-64 with tobacco use status documented in the EHR within 6 months prior to ACA Medicaid expansion and ?1 visit with tobacco use status assessed within 24 months post-expansion (January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015). We propensity score matched these patients to tobacco users from 108 CHCs in six non-expansion states (n = 27 670 matched pairs; 55 340 patients). Using a retrospective observational cohort study design, we compared odds of having a quit status, cessation medication ordered, and ?6 visits within the post-expansion period among patients in expansion versus non-expansion states. RESULTS:Patients in expansion states had increased adjusted odds of quitting (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-1.43), having a medication ordered (aOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.44-1.62), and having ?6 follow-up visits (aOR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.28-1.41) compared to patients from non-expansion states. CONCLUSIONS:Increased access to insurance via the ACA Medicaid expansion likely led to increased quit rates within this vulnerable population. IMPLICATIONS:CHCs care for vulnerable patients at higher risk of tobacco use than the general population. Medicaid expansion via the ACA provided insurance coverage to a large number of tobacco users not previously Medicaid-eligible. We found that expanded insurance coverage was associated with increased cessation assistance and higher odds of tobacco cessation. Continued provision of insurance coverage could lead to increased quit rates among high-risk populations, resulting in improvements in population health outcomes and reduced total health care costs.
Project description:Importance:Medicaid expansion under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act led to one of the largest gains in health insurance coverage for nonelderly adults in the United States. However, its association with cardiovascular mortality is unclear. Objective:To investigate the association of Medicaid expansion with cardiovascular mortality rates in middle-aged adults. Design, Setting, and Participants:This study used a longitudinal, observational design, using a difference-in-differences approach with county-level data from counties in 48 states (excluding Massachusetts and Wisconsin) and Washington, DC, from 2010 to 2016. Adults aged 45 to 64 years were included. Data were analyzed from November 2018 to January 2019. Exposures:Residence in a Medicaid expansion state. Main Outcomes and Measures:Difference-in-differences of annual, age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates from before Medicaid expansion to after expansion. Results:As of 2016, 29 states and Washington, DC, had expanded Medicaid eligibility, while 19 states had not. Compared with counties in Medicaid nonexpansion states, counties in expansion states had a greater decrease in the percentage of uninsured residents at all income levels (mean [SD], 7.3% [3.2%] vs 5.6% [2.7%]; P?<?.001) and in low income strata (19.8% [5.5%] vs 13.5% [3.9%]; P?<?.001) between 2010 and 2016. Counties in expansion states had a smaller change in cardiovascular mortality rates after expansion (146.5 [95% CI, 132.4-160.7] to 146.4 [95% CI, 131.9-161.0] deaths per 100?000 residents per year) than counties in nonexpansion states did (176.3 [95% CI, 154.2-198.5] to 180.9 [95% CI, 158.0-203.8] deaths per 100?000 residents per year). After accounting for demographic, clinical, and economic differences, counties in expansion states had 4.3 (95% CI, 1.8-6.9) fewer deaths per 100?000 residents per year from cardiovascular causes after Medicaid expansion than if they had followed the same trends as counties in nonexpansion states. Conclusions and Relevance:Counties in states that expanded Medicaid had a significantly smaller increase in cardiovascular mortality rates among middle-aged adults after expansion compared with counties in states that did not expand Medicaid. These findings suggest that recent Medicaid expansion was associated with lower cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged adults and may be of consideration as further expansion of Medicaid is debated.
Project description:Importance:Cardiovascular disease is the leading primary diagnosis among all hospital discharges, and insurance status is associated with patient outcomes. The association of state-level policy decisions regarding the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion with rates of uninsured hospitalizations for major cardiovascular events and in-hospital mortality has not been investigated to date. Objective:To investigate whether the rates of uninsured hospitalizations for major cardiovascular events and in-hospital mortality varied by state-level policy on ACA Medicaid expansion. Design, Setting, and Participants:For this cohort study, difference-in-differences analysis of data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases of 30 US states on 524?848 non-Medicare hospitalizations in 2014 and a mean of 516?811 non-Medicare hospitalizations per year from 2009 to 2013 was performed for major cardiovascular events (defined as a composite of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2014. Analyses were completed September 1, 2017. Exposure:State Medicaid expansion as of January 1, 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures:Comparison of mean payer mix proportions (uninsured, Medicaid, and privately insured) and in-hospital mortality between expansion and nonexpansion states for the years preceding the ACA Medicaid expansion (2009-2013) and the year after the ACA Medicaid expansion (2014). Results:Of the 801?819 hospitalizations in the 17 expansion states in 2014, 428?503 (53.4%) patients were men, 514?036 (64.1%) were white, and 365?797 (45.6%) were aged 65 to 84 years. Of 719?459 hospitalizations in the 13 nonexpansion states in 2014, 383?311 (53.3%) patients were men, 492?136 (68.4%) were white, and 335?781 (46.7%) were aged 65 to 84 years. There were 281?184 non-Medicare hospitalizations for major cardiovascular events in the 17 expansion states and 243?664 non-Medicare hospitalizations in the 13 nonexpansion states in 2014. In multivariable regression analyses, the expansion states had a significant 5.8-percentage point decrease in the proportion of uninsured hospitalizations after Medicaid expansion relative to the nonexpansion states (adjusted difference-in-differences estimate, -0.058; 95% CI, -0.075 to -0.042; P?<?.001). The expansion states also had a significant 8.4-percentage point increase in the Medicaid share after Medicaid expansion relative to the nonexpansion states (adjusted difference-in-differences estimate, 0.084; 95% CI, 0.065 to 0.102; P?<?.001). In-hospital mortality did not change significantly after Medicaid expansion in either the expansion states (before ACA, 3.8% vs after ACA, 3.7%) or the nonexpansion states (4.0% vs 4.0%). Conclusions and Relevance:States that expanded Medicaid during the ACA implementation had a significantly greater reduction in the proportion of uninsured hospitalizations for major cardiovascular events compared with the nonexpansion states. This study suggests that expansion status was not associated with in-hospital mortality rates in the first year after ACA implementation.
Project description:Importance:Lack of insurance is associated with worse care and outcomes among adults hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It is unclear whether states' decision to expand Medicaid eligibility under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2014 were associated with improved quality of care and outcomes among low-income patients hospitalized with AMI. Objective:To investigate whether rates of uninsurance, quality of care, and outcomes changed among patients hospitalized for AMI 3 years after states elected to expand Medicaid compared with nonexpansion states. Design, Setting, and Participants:Retrospective cohort study completed at hospitals participating in National Cardiovascular Data Registry Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry. Participants were patients younger than 65 years hospitalized for AMI from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016. Exposures:State Medicaid expansion in 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures:Rates of uninsured and Medicaid-insured hospitalizations for AMI in states that expanded Medicaid vs those that did not. Comparison of in-hospital care quality, procedure use, and mortality between expansion and nonexpansion states for the years prior to and after Medicaid expansion. Hierarchical logistic regressions models were used to assess the association between Medicaid expansion and outcomes. Results:The initial cohort included 325?343 patients. Uninsured AMI hospitalizations declined in expansion states (18.0% [4395 of 24?358 hospitalizations] to 8.4% [2638 of 31?382 hospitalizations]) and more modestly in nonexpansion states (25.6% [7963 of 31?137 hospitalizations] to 21.1% [8668 of 41?120 hospitalizations]) from 2012 to 2016 (P?<?.001 difference in trend expansion vs nonexpansion). Medicaid coverage increased from 7.5% (1818 of 24?358 hospitalizations) to 14.4% (4502 of 31?382 hospitalizations) in expansion states and 6.2% (1924 of 31?137 hospitalizations) to 6.6% (2717 of 41?120 hospitalizations) in nonexpansion states (P?<?.001). The low-income cohort included 55?737 patients across 765 sites. In expansion states, low-income adults' odds of receipt of defect-free care increased (76.3% to 75.9%, adjusted odds ratio 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.21) but to a lesser degree than in nonexpansion states (72.8% to 74.5%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.30-1.47; P for interaction?<?.001). There was no change in use of most procedures (ie, percutaneous coronary intervention for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) in expansion compared with nonexpansion states. Improvement in in-hospital mortality was similar between expansion and nonexpansion states (3.2% to 2.8%, adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.77-1.12 vs 3.3% to 3.0%, adjusted odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P for interaction?=?.48). Conclusions and Relevance:Medicaid expansion was associated with a significant reduction in rates of uninsurance among patients hospitalized with AMI. Quality of care and outcomes did not improve among low-income adults in expansion compared with nonexpansion states. Hospital care for AMI may be less sensitive to insurance than has been recognized in the past.
Project description:Among nonelderly adults with diabetes, we compared hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions from 2013 (pre-Medicaid expansion) and 2014 (post-Medicaid expansion) for 13 expansion and 4 nonexpansion states using State Inpatient Databases. Medicaid expansion was associated with decreases in proportions of hospitalizations for chronic conditions (difference between 2014 and 2013 -0.17 percentage points in expansion and 0.37 in nonexpansion states, P = .04), specifically diabetes short-term complications (difference between 2014 and 2013 -0.05 percentage points in expansion and 0.21 in nonexpansion states, P = .04). Increased access to care through Medicaid expansion may improve disease management in nonelderly adults with diabetes.